42 U.S. Code § 16911 - Relevant definitions, including Amie Zyla expansion of sex offender definition and expanded inclusion of child predators

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In this subchapter the following definitions apply:
(1) Sex offender
The term “sex offender” means an individual who was convicted of a sex offense.
(2) Tier I sex offender
The term “tier I sex offender” means a sex offender other than a tier II or tier III sex offender.
(3) Tier II sex offender
The term “tier II sex offender” means a sex offender other than a tier III sex offender whose offense is punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year and—
(A) is comparable to or more severe than the following offenses, when committed against a minor, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such an offense against a minor:
(i) sex trafficking (as described in section 1591 of title 18);
(ii) coercion and enticement (as described in section 2422 (b) of title 18);
(iii) transportation with intent to engage in criminal sexual activity (as described in section 2423 (a) [1] of title 18;
(iv) abusive sexual contact (as described in section 2244 of title 18);
(B) involves—
(i) use of a minor in a sexual performance;
(ii) solicitation of a minor to practice prostitution; or
(iii) production or distribution of child pornography; or
(C) occurs after the offender becomes a tier I sex offender.
(4) Tier III sex offender
The term “tier III sex offender” means a sex offender whose offense is punishable by imprisonment for more than 1 year and—
(A) is comparable to or more severe than the following offenses, or an attempt or conspiracy to commit such an offense:
(i) aggravated sexual abuse or sexual abuse (as described in sections 2241 and 2242 of title 18); or
(ii) abusive sexual contact (as described in section 2244 of title 18) against a minor who has not attained the age of 13 years;
(B) involves kidnapping of a minor (unless committed by a parent or guardian); or
(C) occurs after the offender becomes a tier II sex offender.
(5) Amie Zyla expansion of sex offense definition
(A) Generally
Except as limited by subparagraph (B) or (C), the term “sex offense” means—
(i) a criminal offense that has an element involving a sexual act or sexual contact with another;
(ii) a criminal offense that is a specified offense against a minor;
(iii) a Federal offense (including an offense prosecuted under section 1152 or 1153 of title 18) under section 1591, or chapter 109section 1591, or chapter 109A, 110 (other than section 2257, 2257A, or 2258), or 117, of title 18;
(iv) a military offense specified by the Secretary of Defense under section 115(a)(8)(C)(i) ofPublic Law 105–119 (10 U.S.C. 951 note); or
(v) an attempt or conspiracy to commit an offense described in clauses (i) through (iv).
(B) Foreign convictions
A foreign conviction is not a sex offense for the purposes of this subchapter if it was not obtained with sufficient safeguards for fundamental fairness and due process for the accused under guidelines or regulations established under section 16912 of this title.
(C) Offenses involving consensual sexual conduct
An offense involving consensual sexual conduct is not a sex offense for the purposes of this subchapter if the victim was an adult, unless the adult was under the custodial authority of the offender at the time of the offense, or if the victim was at least 13 years old and the offender was not more than 4 years older than the victim.
(6) Criminal offense
The term “criminal offense” means a State, local, tribal, foreign, or military offense (to the extent specified by the Secretary of Defense under section 115(a)(8)(C)(i) ofPublic Law 105–119 (10 U.S.C. 951 note)) or other criminal offense.
(7) Expansion of definition of “specified offense against a minor” to include all offenses by child predators
The term “specified offense against a minor” means an offense against a minor that involves any of the following:
(A) An offense (unless committed by a parent or guardian) involving kidnapping.
(B) An offense (unless committed by a parent or guardian) involving false imprisonment.
(C) Solicitation to engage in sexual conduct.
(D) Use in a sexual performance.
(E) Solicitation to practice prostitution.
(F) Video voyeurism as described in section 1801 of title 18.
(G) Possession, production, or distribution of child pornography.
(H) Criminal sexual conduct involving a minor, or the use of the Internet to facilitate or attempt such conduct.
(I) Any conduct that by its nature is a sex offense against a minor.
(8) Convicted as including certain juvenile adjudications
The term “convicted” or a variant thereof, used with respect to a sex offense, includes adjudicated delinquent as a juvenile for that offense, but only if the offender is 14 years of age or older at the time of the offense and the offense adjudicated was comparable to or more severe than aggravated sexual abuse (as described in section 2241 of title 18), or was an attempt or conspiracy to commit such an offense.
(9) Sex offender registry
The term “sex offender registry” means a registry of sex offenders, and a notification program, maintained by a jurisdiction.
(10) Jurisdiction
The term “jurisdiction” means any of the following:
(A) A State.
(B) The District of Columbia.
(C) The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
(D) Guam.
(E) American Samoa.
(F) The Northern Mariana Islands.
(G) The United States Virgin Islands.
(H) To the extent provided and subject to the requirements of section 16927 of this title, a federally recognized Indian tribe.
(11) Student
The term “student” means an individual who enrolls in or attends an educational institution, including (whether public or private) a secondary school, trade or professional school, and institution of higher education.
(12) Employee
The term “employee” includes an individual who is self-employed or works for any other entity, whether compensated or not.
(13) Resides
The term “resides” means, with respect to an individual, the location of the individual’s home or other place where the individual habitually lives.
(14) Minor
The term “minor” means an individual who has not attained the age of 18 years.


[1]  So in original. The second closing parenthesis probably should follow “18”.

Source

(Pub. L. 109–248, title I, § 111,July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 591.)
References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this title”, meaning title I of Pub. L. 109–248, July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 590, known as the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 16901 of this title and Tables.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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