42 U.S. Code § 17231 - Energy storage competitiveness
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(a) Short title
This section may be cited as the “United States Energy Storage Competitiveness Act of 2007”.
In this section:
The term “Council” means the Energy Storage Advisory Council established under subsection (e).
(2) Compressed air energy storage
The term “compressed air energy storage” means, in the case of an electricity grid application, the storage of energy through the compression of air.
(3) Electric drive vehicle
The term “electric drive vehicle” means—
(A) a vehicle that uses an electric motor for all or part of the motive power of the vehicle, including battery electric, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, fuel cell, and plug-in fuel cell vehicles and rail transportation vehicles; or
The term “islanding” means a distributed generator or energy storage device continuing to power a location in the absence of electric power from the primary source.
The term “flywheel” means, in the case of an electricity grid application, a device used to store rotational kinetic energy.
The term “microgrid” means an integrated energy system consisting of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources (including generators and energy storage devices), which as an integrated system can operate in parallel with the utility grid or in an intentional islanding mode.
(7) Self-healing grid
The term “self-healing grid” means a grid that is capable of automatically anticipating and responding to power system disturbances (including the isolation of failed sections and components), while optimizing the performance and service of the grid to customers.
(8) Spinning reserve services
The term “spinning reserve services” means a quantity of electric generating capacity in excess of the quantity needed to meet peak electric demand.
The Secretary shall carry out a research, development, and demonstration program to support the ability of the United States to remain globally competitive in energy storage systems for electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution.
In carrying out the activities of this section, the Secretary shall coordinate relevant efforts with appropriate Federal agencies, including the Department of Transportation.
(e) Energy Storage Advisory Council
Not later than 90 days after December 19, 2007, the Secretary shall establish an Energy Storage Advisory Council.
(A) In general
Subject to subparagraph (B), the Council shall consist of not less than 15 individuals appointed by the Secretary, based on recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences.
(B) Energy storage industry
The Council shall consist primarily of representatives of the energy storage industry of the United States.
No later than 1 year after December 19, 2007, and every 5 years thereafter, the Council, in conjunction with the Secretary, shall develop a 5-year plan for integrating basic and applied research so that the United States retains a globally competitive domestic energy storage industry for electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution.
(f) Basic research program
(1) Basic research
The Secretary shall conduct a basic research program on energy storage systems to support electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution, including—
(2) Nanoscience centers
The Secretary, in cooperation with the Council, shall coordinate the activities of the nanoscience centers of the Department to help the energy storage research centers of the Department maintain a globally competitive posture in energy storage systems for electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution.
(g) Applied research program
(1) In general
The Secretary shall conduct an applied research program on energy storage systems to support electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution technologies, including—
(h) Energy storage research centers
(1) In general
The Secretary shall establish, through competitive bids, not more than 4 energy storage research centers to translate basic research into applied technologies to advance the capability of the United States to maintain a globally competitive posture in energy storage systems for electric drive vehicles, stationary applications, and electricity transmission and distribution.
(2) Program management
The centers shall be managed by the Under Secretary for Science of the Department.
(3) Participation agreements
As a condition of participating in a center, a participant shall enter into a participation agreement with the center that requires that activities conducted by the participant for the center promote the goal of enabling the United States to compete successfully in global energy storage markets.
A center shall conduct activities that promote the achievement of the goals of the plans of the Council under subsection (e)(4).
(5) National laboratories
Section 13293 of this title may apply to any project carried out through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under this subsection.
(7) Intellectual property
In accordance with section 202(a)(ii) oftitle 35, section 2182 of this title, and section 5908 of this title, the Secretary may require, for any new invention developed under this subsection, that—
(A) if an industrial participant is active in a  energy storage research center established under this subsection relating to the advancement of energy storage technologies carried out, in whole or in part, with Federal funding, the industrial participant be granted the first option to negotiate with the invention owner, at least in the field of energy storage technologies, nonexclusive licenses, and royalties on terms that are reasonable, as determined by the Secretary;
(B) if 1 or more industry participants are active in a center, during a 2-year period beginning on the date on which an invention is made—
(i) the patent holder shall not negotiate any license or royalty agreement with any entity that is not an industrial participant under this subsection; and
(i) Energy storage systems demonstrations
(1) In general
The Secretary shall carry out a program of new demonstrations of advanced energy storage systems.
The demonstrations shall—
In carrying out the demonstrations, the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, include the participation of a range of stakeholders, including—
Each of the demonstrations shall include 1 or more of the following:
(A) Energy storage to improve the feasibility of microgrids or islanding, or transmission and distribution capability, to improve reliability in rural areas.
(C) Use of energy storage to improve security to emergency response infrastructure and ensure availability of emergency backup power for consumers.
(E) Use of energy storage to provide ancillary services, such as spinning reserve services, for grid management.
(F) Advancement of power conversion systems to make the systems smarter, more efficient, able to communicate with other inverters, and able to control voltage.
(G) Use of energy storage to optimize transmission and distribution operation and power quality, which could address overloaded lines and maintenance of transformers and substations.
(j) Vehicle energy storage demonstration
(1) In general
The Secretary shall carry out a program of electric drive vehicle energy storage technology demonstrations.
The technology demonstrations shall be conducted through consortia, which may include—
The program shall demonstrate 1 or more of the following:
(A) Novel, high capacity, high efficiency energy storage, charging, and control systems, along with the collection of data on performance characteristics, such as battery life, energy storage capacity, and power delivery capacity.
(C) Integration of those systems on a prototype vehicular platform, including with drivetrain systems for passenger, commercial, and nonroad electric drive vehicles.
(E) Integration of advanced vehicle technologies with electricity distribution system and smart metering technology.
(k) Secondary applications and disposal of electric drive vehicle batteries
The Secretary shall carry out a program of research, development, and demonstration of—
(1) secondary applications of energy storage devices following service in electric drive vehicles; and
(l) Cost sharing
The Secretary shall carry out the programs established under this section in accordance with section 16352 of this title.
(m) Merit review of proposals
The Secretary shall carry out the programs established under subsections (i), (j), and (k) in accordance with section 16353 of this title.
(n) Coordination and nonduplication
To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall coordinate activities under this section with other programs and laboratories of the Department and other Federal research programs.
(o) Review by National Academy of Sciences
On the business day that is 5 years after December 19, 2007, the Secretary shall offer to enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to assess the performance of the Department in carrying out this section.
(p) Authorization of appropriations
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out—
(1) the basic research program under subsection (f) $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2018;
(2) the applied research program under subsection (g) $80,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2018; and; 
(3) the energy storage research center program under subsection (h) $100,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2018;
(4) the energy storage systems demonstration program under subsection (i) $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2018;
(5) the vehicle energy storage demonstration program under subsection (j) $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2018; and
 So in original. Probably should be “an”.
 So in original.