(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, § 351A, as added Pub. L. 107–188, title II, § 201(a),June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 637; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, § 1709(a),Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2318.)
References in Text
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsec.(g)(2)(B)(i), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040
, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§ 301 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section
The Act commonly known as the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(B)(iii), is the eighth paragraph under the heading “Bureau of Animal Industry” of act Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 145, 37 Stat. 832
, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 5 (§ 151 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(B)(iv), is act June 25, 1947, ch. 125, as amended generally by Pub. L. 92–516
, Oct. 21, 1972, 86 Stat. 973
, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 136 et seq.) of chapter
, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
Section 6 of the Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (i)(2), is section 6 ofPub. L. 95–452
, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
2002—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–296
substituted “collaboration with the Secretary of Homeland Security and” for “consultation with”.
Effective Date of 2002 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296
effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 ofPub. L. 107–296
, set out as an Effective Date note under section
, Domestic Security.
Pub. L. 107–188
, title II, § 203(b),June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 647
, provided that: “Subsection (h) ofsection
351A of the Public Health Service Act [42
], as added by section 201 of this Act, is deemed to have taken effect on the effective date of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–132
, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1214
Pub. L. 107–188
, title II, § 203(a),June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 647
, provided that: “Regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 511 of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–132
U.S.C. 262 note
] are deemed to have been promulgated under section 351A of the Public Health Service Act [42
], as added by section 201 of this Act. Such regulations, including the list under [former] subsection (d)(1) of such section
511, that were in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002] remain in effect until modified by the Secretary in accordance with such section
351A and with section 202 of this Act [set out as a note below].”
National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity
Pub. L. 109–417
, title II, § 205,Dec. 19, 2006, 120 Stat. 2851
, provided that: “The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity shall, when requested by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, provide to relevant Federal departments and agencies, advice, guidance, or recommendations concerning—
“(1) a core curriculum and training requirements for workers in maximum containment biological laboratories; and
“(2) periodic evaluations of maximum containment biological laboratory capacity nationwide and assessments of the future need for increased laboratory capacity.”
Report to Congress
Pub. L. 107–188
, title II, § 201(b),June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 646
, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services to report to Congress not later than one year after June 12, 2002, on the implementation, compliance, and future plans under this section.
Implementation by Department of Health and Human Services
Pub. L. 107–188
, title II, § 202,June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 646
, provided that:
“(a) Date Certain for Notice of Possession.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002], all persons (unless exempt under subsection (g) ofsection
351A of the Public Health Service Act [42
], as added by section 201 of this Act) in possession of biological agents or toxins listed under such section 351A of the Public Health Service Act [42
] shall notify the Secretary of Health and Human Services of such possession. Not later than 30 days after such date of enactment, the Secretary shall provide written guidance on how such notice is to be provided to the Secretary.
“(b) Date Certain for Promulgation; Effective Date Regarding Criminal and Civil Penalties.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 12, 2002], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall promulgate an interim final rule for carrying out section 351A of the Public Health Service Act [42
], subject to subsection (c). Such interim final rule shall take effect 60 days after the date on which such rule is promulgated, including for purposes of—
, United States Code (relating to criminal penalties), as added by section 231(a)(5) of this Act; and
“(2) section 351A(i) of the Public Health Service Act [42
] (relating to civil penalties).
“(c) Transitional Provision Regarding Current Research and Education.—The interim final rule under subsection (b) shall include time frames for the applicability of the rule that minimize disruption of research or educational projects that involve biological agents and toxins listed pursuant to section 351A(a)(1) of the Public Health Service Act [42
] and that were underway as of the effective date of such rule.”
Ex. Ord. No. 13546. Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States
Ex. Ord. No. 13546, July 2, 2010, 75
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the United States that:
(a) A robust and productive scientific enterprise that utilizes biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) is essential to national security;
(b) BSAT shall be secured in a manner appropriate to their risk of misuse, theft, loss, and accidental release; and
(c) Security measures shall be taken in a coordinated manner that balances their efficacy with the need to minimize the adverse impact on the legitimate use of BSAT.
Sec. 2. Definitions. (a) “Select Agent Program” (SAP) means the regulatory oversight and administrative activities conducted by the Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture and the Attorney General to implement the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 and the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002.
(b) “Select Agent Regulations” (SAR) means the Federal regulations found in Part 73 of Title
of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 331 of Title
of the Code of Federal Regulations, and Part 121 of Title
of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(c) “Biological Select Agents and Toxins” means biological agents and toxins with the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety, animal and plant health, or animal and plant products and whose possession, use, and transfer are regulated by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Agriculture under the SAR.
Sec. 3. Findings. (a) The use of BSAT presents the risk that BSAT might be lost, stolen, or diverted for malicious purpose. The SAP exists to provide effective regulatory oversight of the possession, use, and transfer of BSAT that reduces the risk of their misuse or mishandling. The absence of clearly defined, risk-based security measures in the SAR/SAP has raised concern about the need for optimized security and for risk management.
(b) In addition, variations in, and limited coordination of, individual executive departments’ and agencies’ oversight, security practices, and inspections have raised concerns that the cost and complexity of compliance for those who are registered to work with BSAT could discourage research or other legitimate activities.
(c) Understanding that research and laboratory work on BSAT is essential to both public health and national security, it is in the interest of the United States to address these issues.
Sec. 4. Risk-based Tiering of the Select Agent List. To help ensure that BSAT are secured according to level of risk, the Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture shall, through their ongoing review of the biological Select Agents and Toxins List (“Select Agent List”) contained in regulations, and no later than 18 months from the date of this order:
(a) designate a subset of the Select Agent List (Tier 1) that presents the greatest risk of deliberate misuse with most significant potential for mass casualties or devastating effects to the economy, critical infrastructure, or public confidence;
(b) explore options for graded protection of Tier 1 agents and toxins as described in subsection (a) of this section to permit tailored risk management practices based upon relevant contextual factors; and
(c) consider reducing the overall number of agents and toxins on the Select Agent List.
Sec. 5. Revision of Regulations, Rules, and Guidance to Accommodate a Tiered Select Agent List. Consistent with section 4 of this order, I request that:
(a) The Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture, no later than 15 months from the date of this order, propose amendments to their respective parts of the SAR that would establish security standards specific to Tier 1 agents and toxins.
(b) The Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture each, no later than 27 months from the date of this order, promulgate final rules and guidance that clearly articulate security actions for registrants who possess, use, or transfer Tier 1 agents and toxins.
Sec. 6. Coordination of Federal Oversight for BSAT Security. To ensure that the policies and practices used to secure BSAT are harmonized and that the related oversight activities of the Federal Government are coordinated, the heads of executive departments and agencies identified in section 7(a)(ii) of this order shall:
(a) no later than 6 months from the date of this order, develop and implement a plan for the coordination of BSAT security oversight that:
(i) articulates a mechanism for coordinated and reciprocal inspection of and harmonized administrative practices for facilities registered with the SAP;
(ii) ensures consistent and timely identification and resolution of BSAT security and compliance issues;
(iii) facilitates information sharing among departments and agencies regarding ongoing oversight and inspection activities; and
(iv) provides for comprehensive and effective Federal oversight of BSAT security; and
(b) no later than 6 months from the issuance of final rules and guidance as described in section 5 of this order, and annually thereafter, review for inconsistent requirements and revise or rescind, as appropriate, any regulations, directives, guidance, or policies regarding BSAT security within their department or agency that exceed those in the updated SAR and guidance as described in section 5 of this order.
Sec. 7. Implementation. (a) Establishment, Operation, and Functions of the Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel.
(i) There is hereby established, within the Department of Health and Human Services for administrative purposes only, the Federal Experts Security Advisory Panel (Panel), which shall make technical and substantive recommendations on BSAT security concerning the SAP.
(ii) The Panel shall consist of representatives from the following, who may consult with additional experts from their department or agency as required:
1. the Department of State;
2. the Department of Defense;
3. the Department of Justice;
4. the Department of Agriculture (Co-Chair);
5. the Department of Commerce;
6. the Department of Health and Human Services (Co-Chair);
7. the Department of Transportation;
8. the Department of Labor;
9. the Department of Energy;
10. the Department of Veterans Affairs;
11. the Department of Homeland Security;
12. the Environmental Protection Agency;
13. the Office of the Director of National Intelligence;
14. the Office of Science and Technology Policy;
15. the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and
16. any other department or agency designated by the Co-Chairs.
(iii) To assist the Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture and the Attorney General in implementing the policies set forth in sections 1, 4, 5, and 6 of this order, the Panel shall, no later than 4 months from the date of this order, provide consensus recommendations concerning the SAP on:
1. the designation of Tier 1 agents and toxins;
2. reduction in the number of agents on the Select Agent List;
3. the establishment of appropriate practices to ensure reliability of personnel with access to Tier 1 agents and toxins at registered facilities;
4. the establishment of appropriate practices for physical security and cyber security for facilities that possess Tier 1 agents. The Department of Homeland Security shall Chair a Working Group of the Panel that develops recommended laboratory critical infrastructure security standards in these areas; and
5. other emerging policy issues relevant to the security of BSAT.
Thereafter, the Panel shall continue to provide technical advice concerning the SAP on request.
(iv) If the Panel is unable to reach consensus on recommendations for an issue within its charge, the matter shall be resolved through the interagency policy committee process led by the National Security Staff.
(v) The Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture and the Attorney General shall report to the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism on the consideration and implementation of Panel recommendations concerning the SAP, including a rationale for failure to implement any recommendations.
(vi) The Panel shall be chartered for a period of 4 years subject to renewal through the interagency policy committee process led by the National Security Staff.
(b) To further assist the Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture and the Attorney General in implementing the policy set forth in sections 1, 4, 5, and 6 of this order, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity shall provide technical advice and serve as a conduit for public consultation, as needed, on topics of relevance to the SAP.
Sec. 8. Sharing of Select Agent Program Information. (a) Consistent with applicable laws and regulations, the Secretaries of Health and Human Services and Agriculture and the Attorney General shall, no later than 6 months from the date of this order, develop a process and the criteria for making SAP information available to executive departments and agencies when such information is necessary for furthering a public health, safety, security, law enforcement, or national security mission.
(b) SAP information shall continue to be safeguarded properly and handled securely to minimize the risk of disclosing sensitive, personal, and other information protected by the Privacy Act, 5
Sec. 9. General Provisions. (a) The National Security Staff shall, on a biennial basis, review the implementation and effectiveness of this order and refer to the interagency policy committee process any issues that require further deliberation or adjudication.
(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the authority granted by law to a department or agency, or the head thereof, or functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(c) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(d) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.