The Secretary shall establish within the Office of the Director of NIH a Pediatric Research Initiative (referred to in this section as the “Initiative”) to conduct and support research that is directly related to diseases, disorders, and other conditions in children. The Initiative shall be headed by the Director of NIH.
The purpose of the Initiative is to provide funds to enable the Director of NIH—
(1)to increase support for pediatric biomedical research within the National Institutes of Health to realize the expanding opportunities for advancement in scientific investigations and care for children;
(2)to enhance collaborative efforts among the Institutes to conduct and support multidisciplinary research in the areas that the Director deems most promising; and
(3)in coordination with the Food and Drug Administration, to increase the development of adequate pediatric clinical trials and pediatric use information to promote the safer and more effective use of prescription drugs in the pediatric population.
In carrying out subsection (b) of this section, the Director of NIH shall—
(1)consult with the Director of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the other national research institutes, in considering their requests for new or expanded pediatric research efforts, and consult with the Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration and other advisors as the Director determines to be appropriate;
(2)have broad discretion in the allocation of any Initiative assistance among the Institutes, among types of grants, and between basic and clinical research so long as the assistance is directly related to the illnesses and conditions of children; and
(3)be responsible for the oversight of any newly appropriated Initiative funds and annually report to Congress and the public on the extent of the total funds obligated to conduct or support pediatric research across the National Institutes of Health, including the specific support and research awards allocated through the Initiative.
(d) National Pediatric Research Network
In carrying out the Initiative, the Director of NIH, in consultation with the Director of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and in collaboration with other appropriate national research institutes and national centers that carry out activities involving pediatric research, may provide for the establishment of a National Pediatric Research Network in order to more effectively support pediatric research and optimize the use of Federal resources. Such National Pediatric Research Network may be comprised of, as appropriate—
(A)the pediatric research consortia receiving awards under paragraph (2); or
(B)other consortia, centers, or networks focused on pediatric research that are recognized by the Director of NIH and established pursuant to the authorities vested in the National Institutes of Health by other sections of this chapter.
(2) Pediatric research consortia
(A) In general
The Director of NIH may award funding, including through grants, contracts, or other mechanisms, to public or private nonprofit entities for providing support for pediatric research consortia, including with respect to—
(i)basic, clinical, behavioral, or translational research to meet unmet needs for pediatric research; and
(ii)training researchers in pediatric research techniques in order to address unmet pediatric research needs.
The Director of NIH shall, as appropriate, ensure that—
(i)each consortium receiving an award under subparagraph (A) conducts or supports at least one category of research described in subparagraph (A)(i) and collectively such consortia conduct or support such categories of research; and
(ii)one or more such consortia provide training described in subparagraph (A)(ii).
(C) Organization of consortium
Each consortium receiving an award under subparagraph (A) shall—
(i)be formed from a collaboration of cooperating institutions;
(ii)be coordinated by a lead institution or institutions;
(iii)agree to disseminate scientific findings, including from clinical trials, rapidly and efficiently, as appropriate, to—
(iv)meet such requirements as may be prescribed by the Director of NIH.
(D) Supplement, not supplant
Any support received by a consortium under subparagraph (A) shall be used to supplement, and not supplant, other public or private support for activities authorized to be supported under this paragraph.
(E) Duration of support
Support of a consortium under subparagraph (A) may be for a period of not to exceed 5 years. Such period may be extended at the discretion of the Director of NIH.
(3) Coordination of consortia activities
The Director of NIH shall, as appropriate—
(A)provide for the coordination of activities (including the exchange of information and regular communication) among the consortia established pursuant to paragraph (2); and
(B)require the periodic preparation and submission to the Director of reports on the activities of each such consortium.
(4) Assistance with registries
Each consortium receiving an award under paragraph (2)(A) may provide assistance, as appropriate, to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for activities related to patient registries and other surveillance systems upon request by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
(e) Research on pediatric rare diseases or conditions
In making awards under subsection (d)(2) for pediatric research consortia, the Director of NIH shall ensure that an appropriate number of such awards are awarded to such consortia that agree to—
(1)consider pediatric rare diseases or conditions, or those related to birth defects; and
(2)conduct or coordinate one or more multisite clinical trials of therapies for, or approaches to, the prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of one or more pediatric rare diseases or conditions.
(f) Transfer of funds
The Director of NIH may transfer amounts appropriated under this section to any of the Institutes for a fiscal year to carry out the purposes of the Initiative under this section.
 So in original. The word “and” probably should appear at end of subcl. (III).
Another section 409D of act July 1, 1944, was renumbered section
409H and is classified to section
284l of this title.
2013—Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 113–55added subsecs. (d) and (e) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (f).
2007—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–154substituted “Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development” for “National Institute of Child Health and Human Development”.
Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 109–482redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (d). Text read as follows: “For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2001, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2002 through 2005.”
Effective Date of 2007 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 109–482applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 ofPub. L. 109–482, set out as a note under section
281 of this title.
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