42 U.S. Code § 300aa–31 - Citizen’s actions

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(a) General rule
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any person may commence in a district court of the United States a civil action on such person’s own behalf against the Secretary where there is alleged a failure of the Secretary to perform any act or duty under this part.
(b) Notice
No action may be commenced under subsection (a) of this section before the date which is 60 days after the person bringing the action has given written notice of intent to commence such action to the Secretary.
(c) Costs of litigation
The court, in issuing any final order in any action under this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any plaintiff who substantially prevails on one or more significant issues in the action.


(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XXI, § 2131, as added Pub. L. 99–660, title III, § 311(a),Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3778; amended Pub. L. 100–203, title IV, § 4305,Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–224.)

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–203, which directed that subsec. (c) be amended by substituting “to any plaintiff who substantially prevails on one or more significant issues in the action” for “to any party, whenever the court determines that such award is appropriate”, was executed by making the substitution for “to any party, whenever the court determines such award is appropriate”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Effective Date

Subpart effective Dec. 22, 1987, see section 323 ofPub. L. 99–660, set out as a note under section 300aa–1 of this title.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large


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