42 U.S. Code § 300gg - Fair health insurance premiums

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(a)  1 Prohibiting discriminatory premium rates
(1) In general
With respect to the premium rate charged by a health insurance issuer for health insurance coverage offered in the individual or small group market—
(A) such rate shall vary with respect to the particular plan or coverage involved only by—
(i) whether such plan or coverage covers an individual or family;
(ii) rating area, as established in accordance with paragraph (2);
(iii) age, except that such rate shall not vary by more than 3 to 1 for adults (consistent with section 300gg–6 (c) of this title); and
(iv) tobacco use, except that such rate shall not vary by more than 1.5 to 1; and
(B) such rate shall not vary with respect to the particular plan or coverage involved by any other factor not described in subparagraph (A).
(2) Rating area
(A) In general
Each State shall establish 1 or more rating areas within that State for purposes of applying the requirements of this subchapter.
(B) Secretarial review
The Secretary shall review the rating areas established by each State under subparagraph (A) to ensure the adequacy of such areas for purposes of carrying out the requirements of this subchapter. If the Secretary determines a State’s rating areas are not adequate, or that a State does not establish such areas, the Secretary may establish rating areas for that State.
(3) Permissible age bands
The Secretary, in consultation with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, shall define the permissible age bands for rating purposes under paragraph (1)(A)(iii).
(4) Application of variations based on age or tobacco use
With respect to family coverage under a group health plan or health insurance coverage, the rating variations permitted under clauses (iii) and (iv) of paragraph (1)(A) shall be applied based on the portion of the premium that is attributable to each family member covered under the plan or coverage.
(5) Special rule for large group market
If a State permits health insurance issuers that offer coverage in the large group market in the State to offer such coverage through the State Exchange (as provided for under section 18032 (f)(2)(B) of this title), the provisions of this subsection shall apply to all coverage offered in such market (other than self-insured group health plans offered in such market) in the State.


[1]  So in original. No subsec. (b) has been enacted.

Source

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XXVII, § 2701, as added and amended Pub. L. 111–148, title I, § 1201(4), title X, § 10103(a),Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 155, 892.)
Enactment of Section

For delayed effective date of section, see Effective Date note below.
Prior Provisions

A prior section 300gg, act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XXVII, § 2701, as added Pub. L. 104–191, title I, § 102(a),Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1955; amended Pub. L. 111–3, title III, § 311(b)(2),Feb. 4, 2009, 123 Stat. 70; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, § 1899D(c),Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 426; Pub. L. 111–344, title I, § 114(c),Dec. 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 3615; Pub. L. 112–40, title II, § 242(a)(3),Oct. 21, 2011, 125 Stat. 419, was renumbered section 2704 of act July 1, 1944, effective for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2014, with certain exceptions, and amended, by Pub. L. 111–148, title I, §§ 1201(2), 1563 (c)(1), formerly § 1562(c)(1), title X, § 10107(b)(1),Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 154, 264, 911, and was transferred to section 300gg–3 of this title. Prior to amendment and transfer by Pub. L. 111–148, text of section 300gg read as follows:
“(a) Limitation on Preexisting Condition Exclusion Period; Crediting for Periods of Previous Coverage.—Subject to subsection (d) of this section, a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, may, with respect to a participant or beneficiary, impose a preexisting condition exclusion only if—
“(1) such exclusion relates to a condition (whether physical or mental), regardless of the cause of the condition, for which medical advice, diagnosis, care, or treatment was recommended or received within the 6-month period ending on the enrollment date;
“(2) such exclusion extends for a period of not more than 12 months (or 18 months in the case of a late enrollee) after the enrollment date; and
“(3) the period of any such preexisting condition exclusion is reduced by the aggregate of the periods of creditable coverage (if any, as defined in subsection (c)(1) of this section) applicable to the participant or beneficiary as of the enrollment date.
“(b) Definitions.—For purposes of this part—
“(1) Preexisting condition exclusion.—
“(A) In general.—The term ‘preexisting condition exclusion’ means, with respect to coverage, a limitation or exclusion of benefits relating to a condition based on the fact that the condition was present before the date of enrollment for such coverage, whether or not any medical advice, diagnosis, care, or treatment was recommended or received before such date.
“(B) Treatment of genetic information.—Genetic information shall not be treated as a condition described in subsection (a)(1) of this section in the absence of a diagnosis of the condition related to such information.
“(2) Enrollment date.—The term ‘enrollment date’ means, with respect to an individual covered under a group health plan or health insurance coverage, the date of enrollment of the individual in the plan or coverage or, if earlier, the first day of the waiting period for such enrollment.
“(3) Late enrollee.—The term ‘late enrollee’ means, with respect to coverage under a group health plan, a participant or beneficiary who enrolls under the plan other than during—
“(A) the first period in which the individual is eligible to enroll under the plan, or
“(B) a special enrollment period under subsection (f) of this section.
“(4) Waiting period.—The term ‘waiting period’ means, with respect to a group health plan and an individual who is a potential participant or beneficiary in the plan, the period that must pass with respect to the individual before the individual is eligible to be covered for benefits under the terms of the plan.
“(c) Rules Relating to Crediting Previous Coverage.—
“(1) Creditable coverage defined.—For purposes of this subchapter, the term ‘creditable coverage’ means, with respect to an individual, coverage of the individual under any of the following:
“(A) A group health plan.
“(B) Health insurance coverage.
“(C) Part A or part B of title XVIII of the Social Security Act.
“(D) Title XIX of the Social Security Act, other than coverage consisting solely of benefits under section 1928.
“(E) Chapter 55 of title 10.
“(F) A medical care program of the Indian Health Service or of a tribal organization.
“(G) A State health benefits risk pool.
“(H) A health plan offered under chapter 89 of title 5.
“(I) A public health plan (as defined in regulations).
“(J) A health benefit plan under section 2504 (e) of title 22.
Such term does not include coverage consisting solely of coverage of excepted benefits (as defined in section 300gg–91 (c) of this title).
“(2) Not counting periods before significant breaks in coverage.—
“(A) In general.—A period of creditable coverage shall not be counted, with respect to enrollment of an individual under a group health plan, if, after such period and before the enrollment date, there was a 63-day period during all of which the individual was not covered under any creditable coverage.
“(B) Waiting period not treated as a break in coverage.—For purposes of subparagraph (A) and subsection (d)(4) of this section, any period that an individual is in a waiting period for any coverage under a group health plan (or for group health insurance coverage) or is in an affiliation period (as defined in subsection (g)(2) of this section) shall not be taken into account in determining the continuous period under subparagraph (A).
“(C) TAA-eligible individuals.—In the case of plan years beginning before January 1, 2014—
“(i) TAA pre-certification period rule.—In the case of a TAA-eligible individual, the period beginning on the date the individual has a TAA-related loss of coverage and ending on the date that is 7 days after the date of the issuance by the Secretary (or by any person or entity designated by the Secretary) of a qualified health insurance costs credit eligibility certificate for such individual for purposes of section 7527 of title 26 shall not be taken into account in determining the continuous period under subparagraph (A).
“(ii) Definitions.—The terms ‘TAA-eligible individual’ and ‘TAA-related loss of coverage’ have the meanings given such terms in section 300bb–5 (b)(4) of this title.
“(3) Method of crediting coverage.—
“(A) Standard method.—Except as otherwise provided under subparagraph (B), for purposes of applying subsection (a)(3) of this section, a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, shall count a period of creditable coverage without regard to the specific benefits covered during the period.
“(B) Election of alternative method.—A group health plan, or a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance, may elect to apply subsection (a)(3) of this section based on coverage of benefits within each of several classes or categories of benefits specified in regulations rather than as provided under subparagraph (A). Such election shall be made on a uniform basis for all participants and beneficiaries. Under such election a group health plan or issuer shall count a period of creditable coverage with respect to any class or category of benefits if any level of benefits is covered within such class or category.
“(C) Plan notice.—In the case of an election with respect to a group health plan under subparagraph (B) (whether or not health insurance coverage is provided in connection with such plan), the plan shall—
“(i) prominently state in any disclosure statements concerning the plan, and state to each enrollee at the time of enrollment under the plan, that the plan has made such election, and
“(ii) include in such statements a description of the effect of this election.
“(D) Issuer notice.—In the case of an election under subparagraph (B) with respect to health insurance coverage offered by an issuer in the small or large group market, the issuer—
“(i) shall prominently state in any disclosure statements concerning the coverage, and to each employer at the time of the offer or sale of the coverage, that the issuer has made such election, and
“(ii) shall include in such statements a description of the effect of such election.
“(4) Establishment of period.—Periods of creditable coverage with respect to an individual shall be established through presentation of certifications described in subsection (e) of this section or in such other manner as may be specified in regulations.
“(d) Exceptions.—
“(1) Exclusion not applicable to certain newborns.—Subject to paragraph (4), a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, may not impose any preexisting condition exclusion in the case of an individual who, as of the last day of the 30-day period beginning with the date of birth, is covered under creditable coverage.
“(2) Exclusion not applicable to certain adopted children.—Subject to paragraph (4), a group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, may not impose any preexisting condition exclusion in the case of a child who is adopted or placed for adoption before attaining 18 years of age and who, as of the last day of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the adoption or placement for adoption, is covered under creditable coverage. The previous sentence shall not apply to coverage before the date of such adoption or placement for adoption.
“(3) Exclusion not applicable to pregnancy.—A group health plan, and health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, may not impose any preexisting condition exclusion relating to pregnancy as a preexisting condition.
“(4) Loss if break in coverage.—Paragraphs (1) and (2) shall no longer apply to an individual after the end of the first 63-day period during all of which the individual was not covered under any creditable coverage.
“(e) Certifications and Disclosure of Coverage.—
“(1) Requirement for certification of period of creditable coverage.—
“(A) In general.—A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, shall provide the certification described in subparagraph (B)—
“(i) at the time an individual ceases to be covered under the plan or otherwise becomes covered under a COBRA continuation provision,
“(ii) in the case of an individual becoming covered under such a provision, at the time the individual ceases to be covered under such provision, and
“(iii) on the request on behalf of an individual made not later than 24 months after the date of cessation of the coverage described in clause (i) or (ii), whichever is later.
  The certification under clause (i) may be provided, to the extent practicable, at a time consistent with notices required under any applicable COBRA continuation provision.
“(B) Certification.—The certification described in this subparagraph is a written certification of—
“(i) the period of creditable coverage of the individual under such plan and the coverage (if any) under such COBRA continuation provision, and
“(ii) the waiting period (if any) (and affiliation period, if applicable) imposed with respect to the individual for any coverage under such plan.
“(C) Issuer compliance.—To the extent that medical care under a group health plan consists of group health insurance coverage, the plan is deemed to have satisfied the certification requirement under this paragraph if the health insurance issuer offering the coverage provides for such certification in accordance with this paragraph.
“(2) Disclosure of information on previous benefits.—In the case of an election described in subsection (c)(3)(B) of this section by a group health plan or health insurance issuer, if the plan or issuer enrolls an individual for coverage under the plan and the individual provides a certification of coverage of the individual under paragraph (1)—
“(A) upon request of such plan or issuer, the entity which issued the certification provided by the individual shall promptly disclose to such requesting plan or issuer information on coverage of classes and categories of health benefits available under such entity’s plan or coverage, and
“(B) such entity may charge the requesting plan or issuer for the reasonable cost of disclosing such information.
“(3) Regulations.—The Secretary shall establish rules to prevent an entity’s failure to provide information under paragraph (1) or (2) with respect to previous coverage of an individual from adversely affecting any subsequent coverage of the individual under another group health plan or health insurance coverage.
“(f) Special Enrollment Periods.—
“(1) Individuals losing other coverage.—A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, shall permit an employee who is eligible, but not enrolled, for coverage under the terms of the plan (or a dependent of such an employee if the dependent is eligible, but not enrolled, for coverage under such terms) to enroll for coverage under the terms of the plan if each of the following conditions is met:
“(A) The employee or dependent was covered under a group health plan or had health insurance coverage at the time coverage was previously offered to the employee or dependent.
“(B) The employee stated in writing at such time that coverage under a group health plan or health insurance coverage was the reason for declining enrollment, but only if the plan sponsor or issuer (if applicable) required such a statement at such time and provided the employee with notice of such requirement (and the consequences of such requirement) at such time.
“(C) The employee’s or dependent’s coverage described in subparagraph (A)—
“(i) was under a COBRA continuation provision and the coverage under such provision was exhausted; or
“(ii) was not under such a provision and either the coverage was terminated as a result of loss of eligibility for the coverage (including as a result of legal separation, divorce, death, termination of employment, or reduction in the number of hours of employment) or employer contributions toward such coverage were terminated.
“(D) Under the terms of the plan, the employee requests such enrollment not later than 30 days after the date of exhaustion of coverage described in subparagraph (C)(i) or termination of coverage or employer contribution described in subparagraph (C)(ii).
“(2) For dependent beneficiaries.—
“(A) In general.—If—
“(i) a group health plan makes coverage available with respect to a dependent of an individual,
“(ii) the individual is a participant under the plan (or has met any waiting period applicable to becoming a participant under the plan and is eligible to be enrolled under the plan but for a failure to enroll during a previous enrollment period), and
“(iii) a person becomes such a dependent of the individual through marriage, birth, or adoption or placement for adoption,
  the group health plan shall provide for a dependent special enrollment period described in subparagraph (B) during which the person (or, if not otherwise enrolled, the individual) may be enrolled under the plan as a dependent of the individual, and in the case of the birth or adoption of a child, the spouse of the individual may be enrolled as a dependent of the individual if such spouse is otherwise eligible for coverage.
“(B) Dependent special enrollment period.—A dependent special enrollment period under this subparagraph shall be a period of not less than 30 days and shall begin on the later of—
“(i) the date dependent coverage is made available, or
“(ii) the date of the marriage, birth, or adoption or placement for adoption (as the case may be) described in subparagraph (A)(iii).
“(C) No waiting period.—If an individual seeks to enroll a dependent during the first 30 days of such a dependent special enrollment period, the coverage of the dependent shall become effective—
“(i) in the case of marriage, not later than the first day of the first month beginning after the date the completed request for enrollment is received;
“(ii) in the case of a dependent’s birth, as of the date of such birth; or
“(iii) in the case of a dependent’s adoption or placement for adoption, the date of such adoption or placement for adoption.
“(3) Special rules for application in case of Medicaid and CHIP.—
“(A) In general.—A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan, shall permit an employee who is eligible, but not enrolled, for coverage under the terms of the plan (or a dependent of such an employee if the dependent is eligible, but not enrolled, for coverage under such terms) to enroll for coverage under the terms of the plan if either of the following conditions is met:
“(i) Termination of Medicaid or CHIP coverage.—The employee or dependent is covered under a Medicaid plan under title XIX of the Social Security Act or under a State child health plan under title XXI of such Act and coverage of the employee or dependent under such a plan is terminated as a result of loss of eligibility for such coverage and the employee requests coverage under the group health plan (or health insurance coverage) not later than 60 days after the date of termination of such coverage.
“(ii) Eligibility for employment assistance under Medicaid or CHIP.—The employee or dependent becomes eligible for assistance, with respect to coverage under the group health plan or health insurance coverage, under such Medicaid plan or State child health plan (including under any waiver or demonstration project conducted under or in relation to such a plan), if the employee requests coverage under the group health plan or health insurance coverage not later than 60 days after the date the employee or dependent is determined to be eligible for such assistance.
“(B) Coordination with Medicaid and CHIP.—
“(i) Outreach to employees regarding availability of Medicaid and CHIP coverage.—
     “(I) In general.—Each employer that maintains a group health plan in a State that provides medical assistance under a State Medicaid plan under title XIX of the Social Security Act, or child health assistance under a State child health plan under title XXI of such Act, in the form of premium assistance for the purchase of coverage under a group health plan, shall provide to each employee a written notice informing the employee of potential opportunities then currently available in the State in which the employee resides for premium assistance under such plans for health coverage of the employee or the employee’s dependents. For purposes of compliance with this subclause, the employer may use any State-specific model notice developed in accordance with section 1181 (f)(3)(B)(i)(II) of title 29.      “(II) Option to provide concurrent with provision of plan materials to employee.—An employer may provide the model notice applicable to the State in which an employee resides concurrent with the furnishing of materials notifying the employee of health plan eligibility, concurrent with materials provided to the employee in connection with an open season or election process conducted under the plan, or concurrent with the furnishing of the summary plan description as provided in section 1024 (b) of title 29.
“(ii) Disclosure about group health plan benefits to States for Medicaid and CHIP eligible individuals.—In the case of an enrollee in a group health plan who is covered under a Medicaid plan of a State under title XIX of the Social Security Act or under a State child health plan under title XXI of such Act, the plan administrator of the group health plan shall disclose to the State, upon request, information about the benefits available under the group health plan in sufficient specificity, as determined under regulations of the Secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with the Secretary that require use of the model coverage coordination disclosure form developed under section 311(b)(1)(C) of the Children’s Health Insurance Reauthorization Act of 2009, so as to permit the State to make a determination (under paragraph (2)(B), (3), or (10) of section 2105(c) of the Social Security Act or otherwise) concerning the cost-effectiveness of the State providing medical or child health assistance through premium assistance for the purchase of coverage under such group health plan and in order for the State to provide supplemental benefits required under paragraph (10)(E) of such section or other authority.
“(g) Use of Affiliation Period by HMOs as Alternative to Preexisting Condition Exclusion.—
“(1) In general.—A health maintenance organization which offers health insurance coverage in connection with a group health plan and which does not impose any preexisting condition exclusion allowed under subsection (a) of this section with respect to any particular coverage option may impose an affiliation period for such coverage option, but only if—
“(A) such period is applied uniformly without regard to any health status-related factors; and
“(B) such period does not exceed 2 months (or 3 months in the case of a late enrollee).
“(2) Affiliation period.—
“(A) Defined.—For purposes of this subchapter, the term ‘affiliation period’ means a period which, under the terms of the health insurance coverage offered by the health maintenance organization, must expire before the health insurance coverage becomes effective. The organization is not required to provide health care services or benefits during such period and no premium shall be charged to the participant or beneficiary for any coverage during the period.
“(B) Beginning.—Such period shall begin on the enrollment date.
“(C) Runs concurrently with waiting periods.—An affiliation period under a plan shall run concurrently with any waiting period under the plan.
“(3) Alternative methods.—A health maintenance organization described in paragraph (1) may use alternative methods, from those described in such paragraph, to address adverse selection as approved by the State insurance commissioner or official or officials designated by the State to enforce the requirements of this part for the State involved with respect to such issuer.”
Another prior section 2701 of act July 1, 1944, was successively renumbered by subsequent acts and transferred, see section 238 of this title.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 111–148, § 10103(a), inserted “(other than self-insured group health plans offered in such market)” after “such market”.
Effective Date

Pub. L. 111–148, title I, § 1255, formerly § 1253, title X, § 10103(e), (f)(1),Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 162, 895, provided that: “This subtitle [subtitle C (§§ 1201–1255) of title I of Pub. L. 111–148, enacting subchapter II of chapter 157 of this title and sections 300gg to 300gg–2 and 300gg–4 to 300gg–7 of this title, and amending sections 300gg–1 and 300gg–4 of this title and transferring former section 300gg of this title to section 300gg–3 of this title] (and the amendments made by this subtitle) shall become effective for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2014, except that—
“(1) section 1251 [enacting section 18011 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 23, 2010]; and
“(2) the provisions of section 2704 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300gg–3] (as amended by section 1201), as they apply to enrollees who are under 19 years of age, shall become effective for plan years beginning on or after the date that is 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 23, 2010].. [sic]”
Pub. L. 104–191, title I, § 102(c),Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1976, provided that:
“(1) In general.—Except as provided in this subsection, part A of title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300gg et seq.] (as added by subsection (a)) shall apply with respect to group health plans, and health insurance coverage offered in connection with group health plans, for plan years beginning after June 30, 1997.
“(2) Determination of creditable coverage.—
“(A) Period of coverage.—
“(i) In general.—Subject to clause (ii), no period before July 1, 1996, shall be taken into account under part A of title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300gg et seq.] (as added by this section) in determining creditable coverage.
“(ii) Special rule for certain periods.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services, consistent with section 104 [42 U.S.C. 300gg–92 note], shall provide for a process whereby individuals who need to establish creditable coverage for periods before July 1, 1996, and who would have such coverage credited but for clause (i) may be given credit for creditable coverage for such periods through the presentation of documents or other means.
“(B) Certifications, etc.—
“(i) In general.—Subject to clauses (ii) and (iii), subsection (e) ofsection 2701 [now 2704] of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300gg–3 (e)] (as added by this section) shall apply to events occurring after June 30, 1996.
“(ii) No certification required to be provided before june 1, 1997.—In no case is a certification required to be provided under such subsection before June 1, 1997.
“(iii) Certification only on written request for events occurring before october 1, 1996.—In the case of an event occurring after June 30, 1996, and before October 1, 1996, a certification is not required to be provided under such subsection unless an individual (with respect to whom the certification is otherwise required to be made) requests such certification in writing.
“(C) Transitional rule.—In the case of an individual who seeks to establish creditable coverage for any period for which certification is not required because it relates to an event occurring before June 30, 1996—
“(i) the individual may present other credible evidence of such coverage in order to establish the period of creditable coverage; and
“(ii) a group health plan and a health insurance issuer shall not be subject to any penalty or enforcement action with respect to the plan’s or issuer’s crediting (or not crediting) such coverage if the plan or issuer has sought to comply in good faith with the applicable requirements under the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and sections 300gg–1, 300gg–11 to 300gg–13, 300gg–21 to 300gg–23, 300gg–91, and 300gg–92 of this title and amending sections 300e and 300bb–8 of this title].
“(3) Special rule for collective bargaining agreements.—Except as provided in paragraph (2)(B), in the case of a group health plan maintained pursuant to 1 or more collective bargaining agreements between employee representatives and one or more employers ratified before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 21, 1996], part A of title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300gg et seq.] (other than section 2701 (e) [now 2704(e)] thereof [42 U.S.C. 300gg–3 (e)]) shall not apply to plan years beginning before the later of—
“(A) the date on which the last of the collective bargaining agreements relating to the plan terminates (determined without regard to any extension thereof agreed to after the date of the enactment of this Act), or
“(B) July 1, 1997.
For purposes of subparagraph (A), any plan amendment made pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement relating to the plan which amends the plan solely to conform to any requirement of such part shall not be treated as a termination of such collective bargaining agreement.
“(4) Timely regulations.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services, consistent with section 104 [42 U.S.C. 300gg–92 note], shall first issue by not later than April 1, 1997, such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and sections 300gg–1, 300gg–11 to 300gg–13, 300gg–21 to 300gg–23, 300gg–91, and 300gg–92 of this title and amending sections 300e and 300bb–8 of this title] and section 111 [enacting sections 300gg–41 to 300gg–44 and 300gg–61 to 300gg–63 of this title].
“(5) Limitation on actions.—No enforcement action shall be taken, pursuant to the amendments made by this section, against a group health plan or health insurance issuer with respect to a violation of a requirement imposed by such amendments before January 1, 1998, or, if later, the date of issuance of regulations referred to in paragraph (4), if the plan or issuer has sought to comply in good faith with such requirements.”
Congressional Findings Relating to Exercise of Commerce Clause Authority; Severability

Pub. L. 104–191, title I, § 195,Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1991, provided that:
“(a) Findings Relating to Exercise of Commerce Clause Authority.—Congress finds the following in relation to the provisions of this title [enacting this subchapter and sections 1181 to 1183 and 1191 to 1191c of Title 29, Labor, amending sections 233, 300e, and 300bb–8 of this title and sections 1003, 1021, 1022, 1024, 1132, 1136, and 1144 of Title 29, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, section 300gg–92 of this title, and section 1181 of Title 29]:
“(1) Provisions in group health plans and health insurance coverage that impose certain preexisting condition exclusions impact the ability of employees to seek employment in interstate commerce, thereby impeding such commerce.
“(2) Health insurance coverage is commercial in nature and is in and affects interstate commerce.
“(3) It is a necessary and proper exercise of Congressional authority to impose requirements under this title on group health plans and health insurance coverage (including coverage offered to individuals previously covered under group health plans) in order to promote commerce among the States.
“(4) Congress, however, intends to defer to States, to the maximum extent practicable, in carrying out such requirements with respect to insurers and health maintenance organizations that are subject to State regulation, consistent with the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 [29 U.S.C. 1001 et seq.].
“(b) Severability.—If any provision of this title or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this title and the application of the provisions of such to any person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby.”
Health Coverage Availability Studies

Pub. L. 104–191, title I, § 191,Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1987, directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to provide for a study on the effectiveness of the provisions of title I of Pub. L. 104–191and the various State laws, in ensuring the availability of reasonably priced health coverage to employers and individuals and a study on access to, and choice of, health care providers and the cost and cost-effectiveness to health insurance issuers of providing access to out-of-network providers, and the potential impact of providing such access on the cost and quality of health insurance coverage, and to report to the appropriate committees of Congress on each of such studies not later than Jan. 1, 2000.

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45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 144 - REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE

45 CFR Part 148 - REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET

45 CFR Part 150 - CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS

 

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