Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that any person or group of persons is engaged in a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of any of the rights granted by this subchapter, or that any group of persons has been denied any of the rights granted by this subchapter and such denial raises an issue of general public importance, the Attorney General may commence a civil action in any appropriate United States district court.
(b) On referral of discriminatory housing practice or conciliation agreement for enforcement
(A)The Attorney General may commence a civil action in any appropriate United States district court for appropriate relief with respect to a discriminatory housing practice referred to the Attorney General by the Secretary under section
3610(g) of this title.
(B)A civil action under this paragraph may be commenced not later than the expiration of 18 months after the date of the occurrence or the termination of the alleged discriminatory housing practice.
(A)The Attorney General may commence a civil action in any appropriate United States district court for appropriate relief with respect to breach of a conciliation agreement referred to the Attorney General by the Secretary under section
3610(c) of this title.
(B)A civil action may be commenced under this paragraph not later than the expiration of 90 days after the referral of the alleged breach under section
3610(c) of this title.
(c) Enforcement of subpoenas
The Attorney General, on behalf of the Secretary, or other party at whose request a subpoena is issued, under this subchapter, may enforce such subpoena in appropriate proceedings in the United States district court for the district in which the person to whom the subpoena was addressed resides, was served, or transacts business.
(d) Relief which may be granted in civil actions under subsections (a) and (b)
(1)In a civil action under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the court—
(A)may award such preventive relief, including a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order against the person responsible for a violation of this subchapter as is necessary to assure the full enjoyment of the rights granted by this subchapter;
(B)may award such other relief as the court deems appropriate, including monetary damages to persons aggrieved; and
(C)may, to vindicate the public interest, assess a civil penalty against the respondent—
(i)in an amount not exceeding $50,000, for a first violation; and
(ii)in an amount not exceeding $100,000, for any subsequent violation.
(2)In a civil action under this section, the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney’s fee and costs. The United States shall be liable for such fees and costs to the extent provided by section
2412 of title
(e) Intervention in civil actions
Upon timely application, any person may intervene in a civil action commenced by the Attorney General under subsection (a) or (b) of this section which involves an alleged discriminatory housing practice with respect to which such person is an aggrieved person or a conciliation agreement to which such person is a party. The court may grant such appropriate relief to any such intervening party as is authorized to be granted to a plaintiff in a civil action under section
3613 of this title.
Section effective on 180th day beginning after Sept. 13, 1988, see section 13(a) ofPub. L. 100–430, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section
3601 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.