42 U.S. Code § 5403 - Construction and safety standards

(a) Establishment
(1) Authority
The Secretary shall establish, by order, appropriate Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards, each of which—
(A) shall—
(i) be reasonable and practical;
(ii) meet high standards of protection consistent with the purposes of this chapter; and
(iii) be performance-based and objectively stated, unless clearly inappropriate; and
(B) except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, shall be established in accordance with the consensus standards development process.
(2) Consensus standards and regulatory development process
(A) Initial agreement
Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2000, the Secretary shall enter into a contract with an administering organization. The contractual agreement shall—
(i) terminate on the date on which a contract is entered into under subparagraph (B); and
(ii) require the administering organization to—
(I) recommend the initial members of the consensus committee under paragraph (3);
(II) administer the consensus standards development process until the termination of that agreement; and
(III) administer the consensus development and interpretation process for procedural and enforcement regulations and regulations specifying the permissible scope and conduct of monitoring until the termination of that agreement.
(B) Competitively procured contract
Upon the expiration of the 4-year period beginning on the date on which all members of the consensus committee are appointed under paragraph (3), the Secretary shall, using competitive procedures (as such term is defined in section 132 of title 41), enter into a competitively awarded contract with an administering organization. The administering organization shall administer the consensus process for the development and interpretation of the Federal standards, the procedural and enforcement regulations, and regulations specifying the permissible scope and conduct of monitoring, in accordance with this chapter.
(C) Performance review
The Secretary—
(i) shall periodically review the performance of the administering organization; and
(ii) may replace the administering organization with another qualified technical or building code organization, pursuant to competitive procedures, if the Secretary determines in writing that the administering organization is not fulfilling the terms of the agreement or contract to which the administering organization is subject or upon the expiration of the agreement or contract.
(3) Consensus committee
(A) Purpose
There is established a committee to be known as the “consensus committee”, which shall, in accordance with this chapter—
(i) provide periodic recommendations to the Secretary to adopt, revise, and interpret the Federal manufactured housing construction and safety standards in accordance with this subsection;
(ii) provide periodic recommendations to the Secretary to adopt, revise, and interpret the procedural and enforcement regulations, including regulations specifying the permissible scope and conduct of monitoring in accordance with subsection (b) of this section;
(iii) be organized and carry out its business in a manner that guarantees a fair opportunity for the expression and consideration of various positions and for public participation; and
(iv) be deemed to be an advisory committee not composed of Federal employees.
(B) Membership
The consensus committee shall be composed of—
(i) twenty-one voting members appointed by the Secretary, after consideration of the recommendations of the administering organization, from among individuals who are qualified by background and experience to participate in the work of the consensus committee; and
(ii) one nonvoting member appointed by the Secretary to represent the Secretary on the consensus committee.
(C) Disapproval
The Secretary shall state, in writing, the reasons for failing to appoint any individual recommended under paragraph (2)(A)(ii)(I).
(D) Selection procedures and requirements
Each member of the consensus committee shall be appointed in accordance with selection procedures, which shall be based on the procedures for consensus committees promulgated by the American National Standards Institute (or successor organization), except that the American National Standards Institute interest categories shall be modified for purposes of this paragraph to ensure equal representation on the consensus committee of the following interest categories:
(i) Producers Seven producers or retailers of manufactured housing.
(ii) Users Seven persons representing consumer interests, such as consumer organizations, recognized consumer leaders, and owners who are residents of manufactured homes.
(iii) General interest and public officials Seven general interest and public official members.
(E) Balancing of interests
(i) In general In order to achieve a proper balance of interests on the consensus committee, the Secretary, in appointing the members of the consensus committee—
(I) shall ensure that all directly and materially affected interests have the opportunity for fair and equitable participation without dominance by any single interest; and
(II) may reject the appointment of any one or more individuals in order to ensure that there is not dominance by any single interest.
(ii) Dominance defined In this subparagraph, the term “dominance” means a position or exercise of dominant authority, leadership, or influence by reason of superior leverage, strength, or representation.
(F) Additional qualifications
(i) Financial independence No individual appointed under subparagraph (D)(ii) shall have, and three of the individuals appointed under subparagraph (D)(iii) shall not have—
(I) a significant financial interest in any segment of the manufactured housing industry; or
(II) a significant relationship to any person engaged in the manufactured housing industry.
(ii) Post-employment ban Each individual described in clause (i) shall be subject to a ban disallowing compensation from the manufactured housing industry during the period of, and during the 1-year following, the membership of the individual on the consensus committee.
(G) Meetings
(i) Notice; open to public The consensus committee shall provide advance notice of each meeting of the consensus committee to the Secretary and cause to be published in the Federal Register advance notice of each such meeting. All meetings of the consensus committee shall be open to the public.
(ii) Reimbursement Members of the consensus committee in attendance at meetings of the consensus committee shall be reimbursed for their actual expenses as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons employed intermittently in Government service.
(H) Administration
The consensus committee and the administering organization shall—
(i) operate in conformance with the procedures established by the American National Standards Institute for the development and coordination of American National Standards; and
(ii) apply to the American National Standards Institute and take such other actions as may be necessary to obtain accreditation from the American National Standards Institute.
(I) Staff and technical support
The administering organization shall, upon the request of the consensus committee—
(i) provide reasonable staff resources to the consensus committee; and
(ii) furnish technical support in a timely manner to any of the interest categories described in subparagraph (D) represented on the consensus committee, if—
(I) the support is necessary to ensure the informed participation of the consensus committee members; and
(II) the costs of providing the support are reasonable.
(J) Date of initial appointments
The initial appointments of all the members of the consensus committee shall be completed not later than 90 days after the date on which a contractual agreement under paragraph (2)(A) is entered into with the administering organization.
(4) Revisions of standards
(A) In general
Beginning on the date on which all members of the consensus committee are appointed under paragraph (3), the consensus committee shall, not less than once during each 2-year period—
(i) consider revisions to the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards; and
(ii) submit proposed revised standards, if approved in a vote of the consensus committee by two-thirds of the members, to the Secretary in the form of a proposed rule, including an economic analysis.
(B) Publication of proposed revised standards
(i) Publication by the Secretary The consensus committee shall provide a proposed revised standard under subparagraph (A)(ii) to the Secretary who shall, not later than 30 days after receipt, cause such proposed revised standard to be published in the Federal Register for notice and comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5. Unless clause (ii) applies, the Secretary shall provide an opportunity for public comment on such proposed revised standard in accordance with such section 553 and any such comments shall be submitted directly to the consensus committee, without delay.
(ii) Publication of rejected proposed revised standards If the Secretary rejects the proposed revised standard, the Secretary shall cause to be published in the Federal Register the rejected proposed revised standard, the reasons for rejection, and any recommended modifications set forth.
(C) Presentation of public comments; publication of recommended revisions
(i) Presentation Any public comments, views, and objections to a proposed revised standard published under subparagraph (B) shall be presented by the Secretary to the consensus committee upon their receipt and in the manner received, in accordance with procedures established by the American National Standards Institute.
(ii) Publication by the Secretary The consensus committee shall provide to the Secretary any revision proposed by the consensus committee, which the Secretary shall, not later than 30 calendar days after receipt, cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of the recommended revisions of the consensus committee to the standards, a notice of the submission of the recommended revisions to the Secretary, and a description of the circumstances under which the proposed revised standards could become effective.
(iii) Publication of rejected proposed revised standards If the Secretary rejects the proposed revised standard, the Secretary shall cause to be published in the Federal Register the rejected proposed revised standard, the reasons for rejection, and any recommended modifications set forth.
(5) Review by the Secretary
(A) In general
The Secretary shall either adopt, modify, or reject a standard, as submitted by the consensus committee under paragraph (4)(A).
(B) Timing
Not later than 12 months after the date on which a standard is submitted to the Secretary by the consensus committee, the Secretary shall take action regarding such standard under subparagraph (C).
(C) Procedures
If the Secretary—
(i) adopts a standard recommended by the consensus committee, the Secretary shall—
(I) issue a final order without further rulemaking; and
(II) cause the final order to be published in the Federal Register;
(ii) determines that any standard should be rejected, the Secretary shall—
(I) reject the standard; and
(II) cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice to that effect, together with the reason or reasons for rejecting the proposed standard; or
(iii) determines that a standard recommended by the consensus committee should be modified, the Secretary shall—
(I) cause to be published in the Federal Register the proposed modified standard, together with an explanation of the reason or reasons for the determination of the Secretary; and
(II) provide an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.
(D) Final order
Any final standard under this paragraph shall become effective pursuant to subsection (c) of this section.
(6) Failure to act
If the Secretary fails to take final action under paragraph (5) and to cause notice of the action to be published in the Federal Register before the expiration of the 12-month period beginning on the date on which the proposed revised standard is submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (4)(A)—
(A) the Secretary shall appear in person before the appropriate housing and appropriations subcommittees and committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate (referred to in this paragraph as the “committees”) on a date or dates to be specified by the committees, but in no event later than 30 days after the expiration of that 12-month period, and shall state before the committees the reasons for failing to take final action as required under paragraph (5); and
(B) if the Secretary does not appear in person as required under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall thereafter, and until such time as the Secretary does appear as required under subparagraph (A), be prohibited from expending any funds collected under authority of this title in an amount greater than that collected and expended in the fiscal year immediately preceding December 27, 2000, indexed for inflation as determined by the Congressional Budget Office.
(b) Other orders
(1) Regulations
The Secretary may issue procedural and enforcement regulations and revisions to existing regulations as necessary to implement the provisions of this chapter. The consensus committee may submit to the Secretary proposed procedural and enforcement regulations and recommendations for the revision of such regulations.
(2) Interpretative bulletins
The Secretary may issue interpretative bulletins to clarify the meaning of any Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard or procedural and enforcement regulation. The consensus committee may submit to the Secretary proposed interpretative bulletins to clarify the meaning of any Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard or procedural and enforcement regulation.
(3) Review by consensus committee
Before issuing a procedural or enforcement regulation or an interpretative bulletin—
(A) the Secretary shall—
(i) submit the proposed procedural or enforcement regulation or interpretative bulletin to the consensus committee; and
(ii) provide the consensus committee with a period of 120 days to submit written comments to the Secretary on the proposed procedural or enforcement regulation or the interpretative bulletin; and
(B) if the Secretary rejects any significant comment provided by the consensus committee under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall provide a written explanation of the reasons for the rejection to the consensus committee; and
(C) following compliance with subparagraphs (A) and (B), the Secretary shall—
(i) cause the proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin and the consensus committee’s written comments, along with the Secretary’s response thereto, to be published in the Federal Register; and
(ii) provide an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5.
(4) Required action
Not later than 120 days after the date on which the Secretary receives a proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin submitted by the consensus committee, the Secretary shall—
(A) approve the proposal and cause the proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin to be published for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5; or
(B) reject the proposed regulation or interpretative bulletin and—
(i) provide to the consensus committee a written explanation of the reasons for rejection; and
(ii) cause to be published in the Federal Register the rejected proposed regulation or interpretive bulletin, the reasons for rejection, and any recommended modifications set forth.
(5) Authority to act and emergency
If the Secretary determines, in writing, that such action is necessary to address an issue on which the Secretary determines that the consensus committee has not made a timely recommendation following a request by the Secretary, or in order to respond to an emergency that jeopardizes the public health or safety, the Secretary may issue an order that is not developed under the procedures set forth in subsection (a) of this section or in this subsection, if the Secretary—
(A) provides to the consensus committee a written description and sets forth the reasons why action is necessary and all supporting documentation; and
(B) issues the order after notice and an opportunity for public comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5, and causes the order to be published in the Federal Register.
(6) Changes
Any statement of policies, practices, or procedures relating to construction and safety standards, regulations, inspections, monitoring, or other enforcement activities that constitutes a statement of general or particular applicability to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy by the Secretary is subject to subsection (a) of this section or this subsection. Any change adopted in violation of subsection (a) of this section or this subsection is void.
(7) Transition
Until the date on which the consensus committee is appointed pursuant to subsection (a)(3) of this section, the Secretary may issue proposed orders, pursuant to notice and comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5 that are not developed under the procedures set forth in this section for new and revised standards.
(c) Effective date of orders establishing standards
Each order establishing a Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard shall specify the date such standard is to take effect, which shall not be sooner than one hundred and eighty days or later than one year after the date such order is issued, unless the Secretary finds, for good cause shown, that an earlier or later effective date is in the public interest, and publishes his reasons for such finding.
(d) Supremacy of Federal standards
Whenever a Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard established under this chapter is in effect, no State or political subdivision of a State shall have any authority either to establish, or to continue in effect, with respect to any manufactured home covered, any standard regarding the construction or safety applicable to the same aspect of performance of such manufactured home which is not identical to the Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard. Federal preemption under this subsection shall be broadly and liberally construed to ensure that disparate State or local requirements or standards do not affect the uniformity and comprehensiveness of the standards promulgated under this section nor the Federal superintendence of the manufactured housing industry as established by this chapter. Subject to section 5404 of this title, there is reserved to each State the right to establish standards for the stabilizing and support systems of manufactured homes sited within that State, and for the foundations on which manufactured homes sited within that State are installed, and the right to enforce compliance with such standards, except that such standards shall be consistent with the purposes of this chapter and shall be consistent with the design of the manufacturer.
(e) Considerations in establishing and interpreting standards and regulations
The consensus committee, in recommending standards, regulations, and interpretations, and the Secretary, in establishing standards or regulations or issuing interpretations under this section, shall—
(1) consider relevant available manufactured home construction and safety data, including the results of the research, development, testing, and evaluation activities conducted pursuant to this chapter, and those activities conducted by private organizations and other governmental agencies to determine how to best protect the public;
(2) consult with such State or interstate agencies (including legislative committees) as he deems appropriate;
(3) consider whether any such proposed standard is reasonable for the particular type of manufactured home or for the geographic region for which it is prescribed;
(4) consider the probable effect of such standard on the cost of the manufactured home to the public; and
(5) consider the extent to which any such standard will contribute to carrying out the purposes of this chapter.
(f) Coverage; exclusion
The Secretary shall exclude from the coverage of this chapter any structure which the manufacturer certifies, in a form prescribed by the Secretary, to be:
(1) designed only for erection or installation on a site-built permanent foundation;
(2) not designed to be moved once so erected or installed;
(3) designed and manufactured to comply with a nationally recognized model building code or an equivalent local code, or with a State or local modular building code recognized as generally equivalent to building codes for site-built housing, or with minimum property standards adopted by the Secretary pursuant to title II of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1707 et seq.]; and
(4) to the manufacturer’s knowledge is not intended to be used other than on a site-built permanent foundation.
(g) Manufactured housing construction and safety standards
(1) The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards established by the Secretary under this section shall include preemptive energy conservation standards in accordance with this subsection.
(2) The energy conservation standards established under this subsection shall be cost-effective energy conservation performance standards designed to ensure the lowest total of construction and operating costs.
(3) The energy conservation standards established under this subsection shall take into consideration the design and factory construction techniques of manufactured homes and shall provide for alternative practices that result in net estimated energy consumption equal to or less than the specified standards.
(h) New performance standards for hardboard siding
The Secretary shall develop a new standard for hardboard panel siding on manufactured housing taking into account durability, longevity, consumer’s costs for maintenance and any other relevant information pursuant to subsection (e) of this section. The Secretary shall consult with the National Manufactured Home Advisory Council and the National Commission on Manufactured Housing in establishing the new standard. The new performance standard developed shall ensure the durability of hardboard sidings for at least a normal life of a mortgage with minimum maintenance required. Not later than 180 days from October 28, 1992, the Secretary shall update the standards for hardboard siding.

Source

(Pub. L. 93–383, title VI, § 604,Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 701; Pub. L. 95–128, title IX, § 902(a),Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1149; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, § 308(c)(4),Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, § 204(l),Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2233; Pub. L. 100–242, title V, § 568,Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1948; Pub. L. 102–550, title IX, § 907,Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3873; Pub. L. 106–569, title VI, § 604,Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2999.)
References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended. Title II of the National Housing Act is classified principally to subchapter II (§ 1707 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.
Codification

In subsec. (a)(2)(B), “section 132 of title 41” substituted for “section 4 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act” on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, § 6(c),Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.
Amendments

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a) which read as follows: “The Secretary, after consultation with the Consumer Product Safety Commission, shall establish by order appropriate Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards. Each such Federal manufactured home standard shall be reasonable and shall meet the highest standards of protection, taking into account existing State and local laws relating to manufactured home safety and construction.”
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which read as follows: “All orders issued under this section shall be issued after notice and an opportunity for interested persons to participate are provided in accordance with the provisions of section 553 of title 5.”
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(2), inserted at end “Federal preemption under this subsection shall be broadly and liberally construed to ensure that disparate State or local requirements or standards do not affect the uniformity and comprehensiveness of the standards promulgated under this section nor the Federal superintendence of the manufactured housing industry as established by this chapter. Subject to section 5404 of this title, there is reserved to each State the right to establish standards for the stabilizing and support systems of manufactured homes sited within that State, and for the foundations on which manufactured homes sited within that State are installed, and the right to enforce compliance with such standards, except that such standards shall be consistent with the purposes of this chapter and shall be consistent with the design of the manufacturer.”
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(3), (4), redesignatedsubsec. (f) as (e), inserted heading, substituted “The consensus committee, in recommending standards, regulations, and interpretations, and the Secretary, in establishing standards or regulations or issuing interpretations under this section, shall—” for “In establishing standards under this section, the Secretary shall—” in introductory provisions, and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: “The Secretary may by order amend or revoke any Federal manufactured home construction or safety standard established under this section. Such order shall specify the date on which such amendment or revocation is to take effect, which shall not be sooner than one hundred and eighty days or later than one year from the date the order is issued, unless the Secretary finds, for good cause shown, that an earlier or later date is in the public interest, and publishes his reasons for such finding.”
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(7), redesignatedsubsec. (h) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(5), (7), redesignatedsubsec. (i) as (g) and struck out former subsec. (g) which read as follows: “The Secretary shall issue an order establishing initial Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards not later than one year after August 22, 1974.”
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(7), redesignatedsubsec. (j) as (h). Former subsec. (h) redesignated (f).
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(7), redesignatedsubsec. (i) as (g).
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 106–569, § 604(6), (7), substituted “subsection (e) of this section” for “subsection (f) of this section” and redesignated subsec. (j) as (h).
1992—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–550added subsec. (j).
1988—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–242added subsec. (i).
1984—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–479substituted “that” for “than” before “an earlier or later date”.
1980—Subsecs. (a), (c) to (g). Pub. L. 96–399substituted “manufactured home” for “mobile home” wherever appearing.
1977—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–128added subsec. (h).
Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–569effective Dec. 27, 2000, except that amendment has no effect on any order or interpretative bulletin issued under this chapter and published as a proposed rule pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 553 on or before Dec. 27, 2000, see section 612 ofPub. L. 106–569, set out as a note under section 5401 of this title.
Exception to Federal Preemption for Thermal Insulation and Energy Efficiency Standards

Pub. L. 102–486, title I, § 104(c),Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2792, provided that: “If the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development has not issued, within 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992], final regulations pursuant to section 604 of the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5403) that establish thermal insulation and energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing that take effect before January 1, 1995, then States may establish thermal insulation and energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing if such standards are at least as stringent as thermal performance standards for manufactured housing contained in the Second Public Review Draft of BSR/ASHRAE 90.2P entitled ‘Energy Efficient Design of Low-Rise Residential Buildings’ and all public reviews of Independent Substantive Changes to such document that have been approved on or before the date of the enactment of this Act.”

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24 CFR - Housing and Urban Development

24 CFR Part 3280 - MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS

24 CFR Part 3285 - MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS

 

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