42 U.S. Code § 601 - Purpose

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(a) In general
The purpose of this part is to increase the flexibility of States in operating a program designed to—
(1) provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives;
(2) end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage;
(3) prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals for preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; and
(4) encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.
(b) No individual entitlement
This part shall not be interpreted to entitle any individual or family to assistance under any State program funded under this part.

Source

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 401, as added Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 103(a)(1),Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2112; amended Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5514(c),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620.)
Prior Provisions

A prior section 601, acts Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 401,49 Stat. 627; 1946 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 4, eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7873, 60 Stat. 1095; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §§ 5, 8, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 836, title III, § 312(a),70 Stat. 848; July 25, 1962, Pub. L. 87–543, title I, § 104(a)(4), (c)(2), 76 Stat. 185, 186; Jan. 2, 1968, Pub. L. 90–248, title II, § 241(b)(1), 81 Stat. 916, related to authorization of appropriations for Aid to Families With Dependent Children program prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–193, § 103(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5514(c),Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620.
Amendments

1997—Pub. L. 105–33made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 104–193, § 103(a)(1), which enacted this section.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–33effective as if included in the provision of Pub. L. 104–193amended at the time the provision became law, see section 5518(d) ofPub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 862a of Title 21, Food and Drugs.
Effective Date

Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 116,Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2181, as amended by Pub. L. 104–327, § 1(a), (c),Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 4002, 4003; Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §§ 5516(b), 5517,Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620, 621, provided that:
“(a) Effective Dates.—
“(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this title [see Tables for classification], this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on July 1, 1997.
“(2) Delayed effective date for certain provisions.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this section (but subject to subsection (b)(1)(A)(ii)), paragraphs (2), (3), (4), (5), (8), and (10) of section 409 (a) andsection 411(a) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 609 (a), 611 (a)] (as added by the amendments made by section 103(a) of this Act) shall not take effect with respect to a State until, and shall apply only with respect to conduct that occurs on or after, the later of—
“(A) July 1, 1997; or
“(B) the date that is 6 months after the date the Secretary of Health and Human Services receives from the State a plan described in section 402(a) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 602 (a)] (as added by such amendment).
“(3) Grants to outlying areas.—The amendments made by section 103 (b) [amending section 1308 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1996.
“(4) Elimination of child care programs.—The amendments made by section 103 (c) [amending sections 602 and 603 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1996.
“(5) Definitions applicable to new child care entitlement.—Sections 403(a)(1)(C), 403(a)(1)(D), and 419(4) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 603 (a)(1)(C), (D), 619 (4)], as added by the amendments made by section 103(a) of this Act, shall take effect on October 1, 1996.
“(6) Research, evaluations, and national studies.—Section 413 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 613], as added by the amendment made by section 103(a) of this Act, shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1996].
“(b) Transition Rules.—Effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1996]:
“(1) State option to accelerate effective date; limitation on fiscal years 1996 and 1997 payments.—
“(A) In general.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services receives from a State a plan described in section 402(a) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 602 (a)] (as added by the amendment made by section 103(a)(1) of this Act), then—
“(i) on and after the date of such receipt—
     “(I) except as provided in clause (ii), this title and the amendments made by this title (other than by section 103(c) of this Act [amending sections 602 and 603 of this title]) shall apply with respect to the State; and      “(II) the State shall be considered an eligible State for purposes of part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] (as in effect pursuant to the amendments made by such section 103 (a)); and
“(ii) during the period that begins on the date of such receipt and ends on the later of June 30, 1997, or the day before the date described in subsection (a)(2)(B) of this section, there shall remain in effect with respect to the State—
     “(I) section 403(h) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 603 (h)] (as in effect on September 30, 1995); and      “(II) all State reporting requirements under parts A and F of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq., 681 et seq.] (as in effect on September 30, 1995), modified by the Secretary as appropriate, taking into account the State program under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (as in effect pursuant to the amendments made by such section 103 (a)).
“(B) Limitations on federal obligations.—
“(i) Under afdc program.—The total obligations of the Federal Government to a State under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (as in effect on September 30, 1995) with respect to expenditures in fiscal year 1997 shall not exceed an amount equal to the State family assistance grant.
“(ii) Under temporary family assistance program.—Notwithstanding section 403(a)(1) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 603 (a)(1)] (as in effect pursuant to the amendments made by section 103(a) of this Act), the total obligations of the Federal Government to a State under such section 403 (a)(1)
     “(I) for fiscal year 1996, shall be an amount equal to— “(aa) the State family assistance grant; multiplied by “(bb) 1/366 of the number of days during the period that begins on the date the Secretary of Health and Human Services first receives from the State a plan described in section 402(a) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 602 (a)] (as added by the amendment made by section 103(a)(1) of this Act) and ends on September 30, 1996; and      “(II) for fiscal year 1997, shall be an amount equal to the lesser of— “(aa) the amount (if any) by which the sum of the State family assistance grant and the amount, if any, that the State would have been eligible to be paid under the Contingency Fund for State Welfare Programs established under section 403(b) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 603 (b)] (as amended by section 103(a)(1) of this Act), during the period beginning on October 1, 1996, and ending on the date the Secretary of Health and Human Services first receives from the State a plan described in section 402(a) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 602 (a)] (as so amended) if, with respect to such State, the effective date of this Act [title] under subsection (a)(1) were August 22, 1996, exceeds the total obligations of the Federal Government to the State under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] (as in effect on September 30, 1995) with respect to expenditures in fiscal year 1997; or “(bb) the sum of the State family assistance grant, multiplied by 1/365 of the number of days during the period that begins on October 1, 1996, or the date the Secretary of Health and Human Services first receives from the State a plan described in section 402(a) of the Social Security Act (as added by the amendment made by section 103(a)(1) of this Act), whichever is later, and ends on September 30, 1997, and the amount, if any, that the State would have been eligible to be paid under the Contingency Fund for State Welfare Programs established under section 403(b) of the Social Security Act (as amended by section 103(a)(1) of this Act), during the period beginning on October 1, 1996, and ending on the date the Secretary of Health and Human Services first receives from the State a plan described in section 402(a) of the Social Security Act (as so amended) if, with respect to such State, the effective date of this Act [title] under subsection (a)(1) were August 22, 1996.
“(iii) Child care obligations excluded in determining federal afdc obligations.—As used in this subparagraph, the term ‘obligations of the Federal Government to the State under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act’ does not include any obligation of the Federal Government with respect to child care expenditures by the State.
“(C) Submission of state plan for fiscal year 1996 or 1997 deemed acceptance of grant limitations and formula and termination of afdc entitlement.—The submission of a plan by a State pursuant to subparagraph (A) is deemed to constitute—
“(i) the State’s acceptance of the grant reductions under subparagraph (B) (including the formula for computing the amount of the reduction); and
“(ii) the termination of any entitlement of any individual or family to benefits or services under the State AFDC program.
“(D) Definitions.—As used in this paragraph:
“(i) State afdc program.—The term ‘State AFDC program’ means the State program under parts A and F of title IV of the Social Security Act (as in effect on September 30, 1995).
“(ii) State.—The term ‘State’ means the 50 States and the District of Columbia.
“(iii) State family assistance grant.—The term ‘State family assistance grant’ means the State family assistance grant (as defined in section 403(a)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 603 (a)(1)(B)], as added by the amendment made by section 103(a)(1) of this Act).
“(2) Claims, actions, and proceedings.—The amendments made by this title [see Tables for classification] shall not apply with respect to—
“(A) powers, duties, functions, rights, claims, penalties, or obligations applicable to aid, assistance, or services provided before the effective date of this title under the provisions amended; and
“(B) administrative actions and proceedings commenced before such date, or authorized before such date to be commenced, under such provisions.
“(3) Closing out account for those programs terminated or substantially modified by this title.—In closing out accounts, Federal and State officials may use scientifically acceptable statistical sampling techniques. Claims made with respect to State expenditures under a State plan approved under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] (as in effect on September 30, 1995) with respect to assistance or services provided on or before September 30, 1995, shall be treated as claims with respect to expenditures during fiscal year 1995 for purposes of reimbursement even if payment was made by a State on or after October 1, 1995. Each State shall complete the filing of all claims under the State plan (as so in effect) within 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1996]. The head of each Federal department shall—
“(A) use the single audit procedure to review and resolve any claims in connection with the close out of programs under such State plans; and
“(B) reimburse States for any payments made for assistance or services provided during a prior fiscal year from funds for fiscal year 1995, rather than from funds authorized by this title.
“(4) Continuance in office of assistant secretary for family support.—The individual who, on the day before the effective date of this title, is serving as Assistant Secretary for Family Support within the Department of Health and Human Services shall, until a successor is appointed to such position—
“(A) continue to serve in such position; and
“(B) except as otherwise provided by law—
“(i) continue to perform the functions of the Assistant Secretary for Family Support under section 417 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 617] (as in effect before such effective date); and
“(ii) have the powers and duties of the Assistant Secretary for Family Support under section 416 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 616] (as in effect pursuant to the amendment made by section 103(a)(1) of this Act).
“(c) Termination of Entitlement Under AFDC Program.—Effective October 1, 1996, no individual or family shall be entitled to any benefits or services under any State plan approved under part A or F of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq. or 681 et seq.] (as in effect on September 30, 1995).”
Congressional Findings

Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 101,Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2110, provided that: “The Congress makes the following findings:
“(1) Marriage is the foundation of a successful society.
“(2) Marriage is an essential institution of a successful society which promotes the interests of children.
“(3) Promotion of responsible fatherhood and motherhood is integral to successful child rearing and the well-being of children.
“(4) In 1992, only 54 percent of single-parent families with children had a child support order established and, of that 54 percent, only about one-half received the full amount due. Of the cases enforced through the public child support enforcement system, only 18 percent of the caseload has a collection.
“(5) The number of individuals receiving aid to families with dependent children (in this section referred to as ‘AFDC’) has more than tripled since 1965. More than two-thirds of these recipients are children. Eighty-nine percent of children receiving AFDC benefits now live in homes in which no father is present.
“(A)(i) The average monthly number of children receiving AFDC benefits—
“(I) was 3,300,000 in 1965;
“(II) was 6,200,000 in 1970;
“(III) was 7,400,000 in 1980; and
“(IV) was 9,300,000 in 1992.
“(ii) While the number of children receiving AFDC benefits increased nearly threefold between 1965 and 1992, the total number of children in the United States aged 0 to 18 has declined by 5.5 percent.
“(B) The Department of Health and Human Services has estimated that 12,000,000 children will receive AFDC benefits within 10 years.
“(C) The increase in the number of children receiving public assistance is closely related to the increase in births to unmarried women. Between 1970 and 1991, the percentage of live births to unmarried women increased nearly threefold, from 10.7 percent to 29.5 percent.
“(6) The increase of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and births is well documented as follows:
“(A) It is estimated that the rate of nonmarital teen pregnancy rose 23 percent from 54 pregnancies per 1,000 unmarried teenagers in 1976 to 66.7 pregnancies in 1991. The overall rate of nonmarital pregnancy rose 14 percent from 90.8 pregnancies per 1,000 unmarried women in 1980 to 103 in both 1991 and 1992. In contrast, the overall pregnancy rate for married couples decreased 7.3 percent between 1980 and 1991, from 126.9 pregnancies per 1,000 married women in 1980 to 117.6 pregnancies in 1991.
“(B) The total of all out-of-wedlock births between 1970 and 1991 has risen from 10.7 percent to 29.5 percent and if the current trend continues, 50 percent of all births by the year 2015 will be out-of-wedlock.
“(7) An effective strategy to combat teenage pregnancy must address the issue of male responsibility, including statutory rape culpability and prevention. The increase of teenage pregnancies among the youngest girls is particularly severe and is linked to predatory sexual practices by men who are significantly older.
“(A) It is estimated that in the late 1980’s, the rate for girls age 14 and under giving birth increased 26 percent.
“(B) Data indicates that at least half of the children born to teenage mothers are fathered by adult men. Available data suggests that almost 70 percent of births to teenage girls are fathered by men over age 20.
“(C) Surveys of teen mothers have revealed that a majority of such mothers have histories of sexual and physical abuse, primarily with older adult men.
“(8) The negative consequences of an out-of-wedlock birth on the mother, the child, the family, and society are well documented as follows:
“(A) Young women 17 and under who give birth outside of marriage are more likely to go on public assistance and to spend more years on welfare once enrolled. These combined effects of ‘younger and longer’ increase total AFDC costs per household by 25 percent to 30 percent for 17-year-olds.
“(B) Children born out-of-wedlock have a substantially higher risk of being born at a very low or moderately low birth weight.
“(C) Children born out-of-wedlock are more likely to experience low verbal cognitive attainment, as well as more child abuse, and neglect.
“(D) Children born out-of-wedlock were more likely to have lower cognitive scores, lower educational aspirations, and a greater likelihood of becoming teenage parents themselves.
“(E) Being born out-of-wedlock significantly reduces the chances of the child growing up to have an intact marriage.
“(F) Children born out-of-wedlock are 3 times more likely to be on welfare when they grow up.
“(9) Currently 35 percent of children in single-parent homes were born out-of-wedlock, nearly the same percentage as that of children in single-parent homes whose parents are divorced (37 percent). While many parents find themselves, through divorce or tragic circumstances beyond their control, facing the difficult task of raising children alone, nevertheless, the negative consequences of raising children in single-parent homes are well documented as follows:
“(A) Only 9 percent of married-couple families with children under 18 years of age have income below the national poverty level. In contrast, 46 percent of female-headed households with children under 18 years of age are below the national poverty level.
“(B) Among single-parent families, nearly 1/2 of the mothers who never married received AFDC while only 1/5 of divorced mothers received AFDC.
“(C) Children born into families receiving welfare assistance are 3 times more likely to be on welfare when they reach adulthood than children not born into families receiving welfare.
“(D) Mothers under 20 years of age are at the greatest risk of bearing low birth weight babies.
“(E) The younger the single-parent mother, the less likely she is to finish high school.
“(F) Young women who have children before finishing high school are more likely to receive welfare assistance for a longer period of time.
“(G) Between 1985 and 1990, the public cost of births to teenage mothers under the aid to families with dependent children program, the food stamp program, and the medicaid program has been estimated at $120,000,000,000.
“(H) The absence of a father in the life of a child has a negative effect on school performance and peer adjustment.
“(I) Children of teenage single parents have lower cognitive scores, lower educational aspirations, and a greater likelihood of becoming teenage parents themselves.
“(J) Children of single-parent homes are 3 times more likely to fail and repeat a year in grade school than are children from intact 2-parent families.
“(K) Children from single-parent homes are almost 4 times more likely to be expelled or suspended from school.
“(L) Neighborhoods with larger percentages of youth aged 12 through 20 and areas with higher percentages of single-parent households have higher rates of violent crime.
“(M) Of those youth held for criminal offenses within the State juvenile justice system, only 29.8 percent lived primarily in a home with both parents. In contrast to these incarcerated youth, 73.9 percent of the 62,800,000 children in the Nation’s resident population were living with both parents.
“(10) Therefore, in light of this demonstration of the crisis in our Nation, it is the sense of the Congress that prevention of out-of-wedlock pregnancy and reduction in out-of-wedlock birth are very important Government interests and the policy contained in part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] (as amended by section 103(a) of this Act) is intended to address the crisis.”
[References to the food stamp program established under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 considered to refer to the supplemental nutrition assistance program established under that Act, see section 4002(c) ofPub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 2012 of Title 7, Agriculture.]
Appropriation by State Legislatures

Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, § 901,Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2347, provided that:
“(a) In General.—Any funds received by a State under the provisions of law specified in subsection (b) shall be subject to appropriation by the State legislature, consistent with the terms and conditions required under such provisions of law.
“(b) Provisions of Law.—The provisions of law specified in this subsection are the following:
“(1) Part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] (relating to block grants for temporary assistance for needy families).
“(2) The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.] (relating to block grants for child care).”

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45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 260 - GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) PROVISIONS

45 CFR Part 260 - GENERAL TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES (TANF) PROVISIONS

45 CFR Part 261 - ENSURING THAT RECIPIENTS WORK

45 CFR Part 286 - TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS

 

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