(Pub. L. 94–163, title III, § 400AA, as added Pub. L. 100–494, § 4(a),Oct. 14, 1988, 102 Stat. 2442; amended Pub. L. 102–486, title III, §§ 302(a),
309,Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2868, 2874; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §§ 1051(a),
1052(e),Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716, 718; Pub. L. 105–388, § 5(a)(14),Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3479; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, § 1002(h),June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 109–58, title VII, § 701,Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 814.)
References in Text
Paragraphs (7) and (8) of section
, referred to in subsec. (g)(4)(A), (5)(A), were redesignated (8) and (9), respectively, and a new par. (7) was enacted by Pub. L. 110–140
, title I, § 103(a)(2), (3),Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1501
In subsec. (g)(4)(A), (5)(A), “section
” substituted for “section 513(h)(1)(C) of the Motor Vehicle Information Cost Savings Act” and “section
” substituted for “section 513(h)(1)(D) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act”, respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 103–272
, § 6(b),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378
, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.
2005—Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 109–58
amended subpar. (E) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (E) read as follows: “Dual fueled vehicles acquired pursuant to this section shall be operated on alternative fuels unless the Secretary determines that operation on such alternative fuels is not feasible.”
1999—Subsec. (a)(3)(F), (G). Pub. L. 106–36
substituted “multilateral trade agreements (as defined in section
)” for “General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade”.
1998—Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 105–388
redesignated subsec. (i) as (h).
1995—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–66
, § 1052(e), struck out before period at end “, and annually thereafter”.
Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 104–66
, § 1051(a), redesignated par. (5) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which directed Secretary to conduct study of heavy duty vehicles acquired under Department of Energy program and report results to Congress and par. (4) which directed Secretary to conduct study of advisability of heavy duty vehicle disposal and report results to Congress.
1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(1), substituted “vehicles” for “passenger automobiles and light duty trucks” before “acquired annually for use” and “alternative fueled vehicles. In no event shall the number of such vehicles acquired be less than the number required under section
of this title.” for “alcohol powered vehicles, dual energy vehicles, natural gas powered vehicles, or natural gas dual energy vehicles.”
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(2), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable and consistent with this part, ensure that the number of dual energy vehicles acquired under this subsection is at least as great as the number of alcohol powered vehicles acquired under this subsection, and that the number of natural gas dual energy vehicles acquired under this subsection is at least as great as the number of natural gas powered vehicles acquired under this subsection. To the extent practicable, both vehicles capable of operating on alcohol and vehicles capable of operating on natural gas shall be acquired in carrying out this subsection, and such vehicles shall be supplied by original equipment manufacturers.”
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(3), added par. (4).
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 309, substituted “a representative sample of alternative fueled vehicles in Federal fleets” for “the vehicles acquired under subsection (a) of this section”.
Subsec. (b)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(4), added pars. (3) to (5).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(5), in introductory provisions substituted “alternative fuels, such fuels” for “alcohol or natural gas, alcohol or natural gas” and in par. (1) substituted “alternative fuel” for “alcohol or natural gas”.
Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(6), substituted “To the extent that appropriations are available for such purposes, the Secretary” for “The Secretary”.
Subsec. (g)(2) to (6). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(7), added pars. (2) to (6) and struck out former pars. (2) to (6) which read as follows:
“(2) the term ‘alcohol’ means a mixture containing 85 percent or more by volume methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, in any combination;
“(3) the term ‘alcohol powered vehicle’ means a vehicle designed to operate exclusively on alcohol;
“(4) the term ‘dual energy vehicle’ means a vehicle which is capable of operating on alcohol and on gasoline or diesel fuel;
“(5) the term ‘natural gas dual energy vehicle’ means a vehicle which is capable of operating on natural gas and on gasoline or diesel fuel; and
“(6) the term ‘natural gas powered vehicle’ means a vehicle designed to operate exclusively on natural gas.”
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 102–486
, § 302(a)(8), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “For the purposes of this section, there are authorized to be appropriated for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1990, $5,000,000, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991, $3,000,000, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1992, $2,000,000, and for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993, $2,000,000.”
Change of Name
Committee on Governmental Affairs of Senate changed to Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of Senate, effective Jan. 4, 2005, by Senate Resolution No. 445, One Hundred Eighth Congress, Oct. 9, 2004.
Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) ofPub. L. 104–14
, set out as a note preceding section
, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.
Section 4(b) ofPub. L. 100–494
, which provided that this section and the amendments made by this section (enacting this part) were to cease to be effective after Sept. 30, 1997, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–486
, title III, § 302(b),Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2871
Section 2 ofPub. L. 100–494
provided that: “The Congress finds and declares that—
“(1) the achievement of long-term energy security for the United States is essential to the health of the national economy, the well-being of our citizens, and the maintenance of national security;
“(2) the displacement of energy derived from imported oil with alternative fuels will help to achieve energy security and improve air quality;
“(3) transportation uses account for more than 60 percent of the oil consumption of the Nation;
“(4) the Nation’s security, economic, and environmental interests require that the Federal Government should assist clean-burning, nonpetroleum transportation fuels to reach a threshold level of commercial application and consumer acceptability at which they can successfully compete with petroleum-based fuels;
“(5) methanol, ethanol, and natural gas are proven transportation fuels that burn more cleanly and efficiently than gasoline and diesel fuel;
“(6) the production and use as transportation fuels of ethanol, methanol made from natural gas or biomass, and compressed natural gas have been estimated in some studies to release less carbon dioxide than comparable quantities of petroleum-based fuel;
“(7) the amount of carbon dioxide released with methanol from a coal-to-methanol industry using currently available technologies has been estimated in some studies to be significantly greater than the amount released with a comparable quantity of petroleum-based fuel;
“(8) there exists evidence that manmade pollution—the release of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and other trace gases into the atmosphere—may be producing a long term and substantial increase in the average temperature on Earth, a phenomenon known as global warming through the greenhouse effect; and
“(9) ongoing pollution and deforestation may be contributing now to an irreversible process producing unacceptable global climate changes; necessary actions must be identified and implemented in time to protect the climate, including the development of technologies to control increased carbon dioxide emissions that result with methanol from a coal-to-methanol industry.”
Section 3 ofPub. L. 100–494
provided that: “The purpose of this Act [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section
of this title] is to encourage—
“(1) the development and widespread use of methanol, ethanol, and natural gas as transportation fuels by consumers; and
“(2) the production of methanol, ethanol, and natural gas powered motor vehicles.”
Use of Nonstandard Fuels
Section 5 ofPub. L. 100–494
provided that: “No guaranty or warranty with respect to any passenger automobile or light-duty truck acquired by the United States after October 1, 1989, shall be voided or reduced in effect by reason of the operation of such vehicle with any fuel for which a currently effective waiver, which includes a limitation regarding Reid vapor pressure with respect to such fuel, has been issued by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under section 211(f) of the Clean Air Act (42