42 U.S. Code § 675 - Definitions

As used in this part or part B of this subchapter:
(1) The term “case plan” means a written document which includes at least the following:
(A) A description of the type of home or institution in which a child is to be placed, including a discussion of the safety and appropriateness of the placement and how the agency which is responsible for the child plans to carry out the voluntary placement agreement entered into or judicial determination made with respect to the child in accordance with section 672 (a)(1)  [1] of this title.
(B) A plan for assuring that the child receives safe and proper care and that services are provided to the parents, child, and foster parents in order to improve the conditions in the parents’ home, facilitate return of the child to his own safe home or the permanent placement of the child, and address the needs of the child while in foster care, including a discussion of the appropriateness of the services that have been provided to the child under the plan.
(C) The health and education records of the child, including the most recent information available regarding—
(i) the names and addresses of the child’s health and educational providers;
(ii) the child’s grade level performance;
(iii) the child’s school record;
(iv) a record of the child’s immunizations;
(v) the child’s known medical problems;
(vi) the child’s medications; and
(vii) any other relevant health and education information concerning the child determined to be appropriate by the State agency.
(D) Where appropriate, for a child age 16 or over, a written description of the programs and services which will help such child prepare for the transition from foster care to independent living.
(E) In the case of a child with respect to whom the permanency plan is adoption or placement in another permanent home, documentation of the steps the agency is taking to find an adoptive family or other permanent living arrangement for the child, to place the child with an adoptive family, a fit and willing relative, a legal guardian, or in another planned permanent living arrangement, and to finalize the adoption or legal guardianship. At a minimum, such documentation shall include child specific recruitment efforts such as the use of State, regional, and national adoption exchanges including electronic exchange systems to facilitate orderly and timely in-State and interstate placements.
(F) In the case of a child with respect to whom the permanency plan is placement with a relative and receipt of kinship guardianship assistance payments under section 673 (d) of this title, a description of—
(i) the steps that the agency has taken to determine that it is not appropriate for the child to be returned home or adopted;
(ii) the reasons for any separation of siblings during placement;
(iii) the reasons why a permanent placement with a fit and willing relative through a kinship guardianship assistance arrangement is in the child’s best interests;
(iv) the ways in which the child meets the eligibility requirements for a kinship guardianship assistance payment;
(v) the efforts the agency has made to discuss adoption by the child’s relative foster parent as a more permanent alternative to legal guardianship and, in the case of a relative foster parent who has chosen not to pursue adoption, documentation of the reasons therefor; and
(vi) the efforts made by the State agency to discuss with the child’s parent or parents the kinship guardianship assistance arrangement, or the reasons why the efforts were not made.
(G) A plan for ensuring the educational stability of the child while in foster care, including—
(i) assurances that each placement of the child in foster care takes into account the appropriateness of the current educational setting and the proximity to the school in which the child is enrolled at the time of placement; and
(ii)
(I) an assurance that the State agency has coordinated with appropriate local educational agencies (as defined under section 7801 of title 20) to ensure that the child remains in the school in which the child is enrolled at the time of each placement; or
(II) if remaining in such school is not in the best interests of the child, assurances by the State agency and the local educational agencies to provide immediate and appropriate enrollment in a new school, with all of the educational records of the child provided to the school.
(2) The term “parents” means biological or adoptive parents or legal guardians, as determined by applicable State law.
(3) The term “adoption assistance agreement” means a written agreement, binding on the parties to the agreement, between the State agency, other relevant agencies, and the prospective adoptive parents of a minor child which at a minimum
(A) specifies the nature and amount of any payments, services, and assistance to be provided under such agreement, and
(B) stipulates that the agreement shall remain in effect regardless of the State of which the adoptive parents are residents at any given time. The agreement shall contain provisions for the protection (under an interstate compact approved by the Secretary or otherwise) of the interests of the child in cases where the adoptive parents and child move to another State while the agreement is effective.
(4)
(A) The term “foster care maintenance payments” means payments to cover the cost of (and the cost of providing) food, clothing, shelter, daily supervision, school supplies, a child’s personal incidentals, liability insurance with respect to a child, reasonable travel to the child’s home for visitation, and reasonable travel for the child to remain in the school in which the child is enrolled at the time of placement. In the case of institutional care, such term shall include the reasonable costs of administration and operation of such institution as are necessarily required to provide the items described in the preceding sentence.
(B) In cases where—
(i) a child placed in a foster family home or child-care institution is the parent of a son or daughter who is in the same home or institution, and
(ii) payments described in subparagraph (A) are being made under this part with respect to such child,
the foster care maintenance payments made with respect to such child as otherwise determined under subparagraph (A) shall also include such amounts as may be necessary to cover the cost of the items described in that subparagraph with respect to such son or daughter.
(5) The term “case review system” means a procedure for assuring that—
(A) each child has a case plan designed to achieve placement in a safe setting that is the least restrictive (most family like) and most appropriate setting available and in close proximity to the parents’ home, consistent with the best interest and special needs of the child, which—
(i) if the child has been placed in a foster family home or child-care institution a substantial distance from the home of the parents of the child, or in a State different from the State in which such home is located, sets forth the reasons why such placement is in the best interests of the child, and
(ii) if the child has been placed in foster care outside the State in which the home of the parents of the child is located, requires that, periodically, but not less frequently than every 6 months, a caseworker on the staff of the State agency of the State in which the home of the parents of the child is located, of the State in which the child has been placed, or of a private agency under contract with either such State, visit such child in such home or institution and submit a report on such visit to the State agency of the State in which the home of the parents of the child is located,
(B) the status of each child is reviewed periodically but no less frequently than once every six months by either a court or by administrative review (as defined in paragraph (6)) in order to determine the safety of the child, the continuing necessity for and appropriateness of the placement, the extent of compliance with the case plan, and the extent of progress which has been made toward alleviating or mitigating the causes necessitating placement in foster care, and to project a likely date by which the child may be returned to and safely maintained in the home or placed for adoption or legal guardianship,
(C) with respect to each such child,
(i) procedural safeguards will be applied, among other things, to assure each child in foster care under the supervision of the State of a permanency hearing to be held, in a family or juvenile court or another court (including a tribal court) of competent jurisdiction, or by an administrative body appointed or approved by the court, no later than 12 months after the date the child is considered to have entered foster care (as determined under subparagraph (F)) (and not less frequently than every 12 months thereafter during the continuation of foster care), which hearing shall determine the permanency plan for the child that includes whether, and if applicable when, the child will be returned to the parent, placed for adoption and the State will file a petition for termination of parental rights, or referred for legal guardianship, or (in cases where the State agency has documented to the State court a compelling reason for determining that it would not be in the best interests of the child to return home, be referred for termination of parental rights, or be placed for adoption, with a fit and willing relative, or with a legal guardian) placed in another planned permanent living arrangement, in the case of a child who will not be returned to the parent, the hearing shall consider in-State and out-of-State placement options, and, in the case of a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii), the hearing shall determine whether the out-of-State placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child, and, in the case of a child who has attained age 16, the services needed to assist the child to make the transition from foster care to independent living;
(ii) procedural safeguards shall be applied with respect to parental rights pertaining to the removal of the child from the home of his parents, to a change in the child’s placement, and to any determination affecting visitation privileges of parents; and
(iii) procedural safeguards shall be applied to assure that in any permanency hearing held with respect to the child, including any hearing regarding the transition of the child from foster care to independent living, the court or administrative body conducting the hearing consults, in an age-appropriate manner, with the child regarding the proposed permanency or transition plan for the child;  [2]
(D) a child’s health and education record (as described in paragraph (1)(A)) is reviewed and updated, and a copy of the record is supplied to the foster parent or foster care provider with whom the child is placed, at the time of each placement of the child in foster care, and is supplied to the child at no cost at the time the child leaves foster care if the child is leaving foster care by reason of having attained the age of majority under State law;  [2]
(E) in the case of a child who has been in foster care under the responsibility of the State for 15 of the most recent 22 months, or, if a court of competent jurisdiction has determined a child to be an abandoned infant (as defined under State law) or has made a determination that the parent has committed murder of another child of the parent, committed voluntary manslaughter of another child of the parent, aided or abetted, attempted, conspired, or solicited to commit such a murder or such a voluntary manslaughter, or committed a felony assault that has resulted in serious bodily injury to the child or to another child of the parent, the State shall file a petition to terminate the parental rights of the child’s parents (or, if such a petition has been filed by another party, seek to be joined as a party to the petition), and, concurrently, to identify, recruit, process, and approve a qualified family for an adoption, unless—
(i) at the option of the State, the child is being cared for by a relative;
(ii) a State agency has documented in the case plan (which shall be available for court review) a compelling reason for determining that filing such a petition would not be in the best interests of the child; or
(iii) the State has not provided to the family of the child, consistent with the time period in the State case plan, such services as the State deems necessary for the safe return of the child to the child’s home, if reasonable efforts of the type described in section 671 (a)(15)(B)(ii) of this title are required to be made with respect to the child;  [2]
(F) a child shall be considered to have entered foster care on the earlier of—
(i) the date of the first judicial finding that the child has been subjected to child abuse or neglect; or
(ii) the date that is 60 days after the date on which the child is removed from the home;  [2]
(G) the foster parents (if any) of a child and any preadoptive parent or relative providing care for the child are provided with notice of, and a right to be heard in, any proceeding to be held with respect to the child, except that this subparagraph shall not be construed to require that any foster parent, preadoptive parent, or relative providing care for the child be made a party to such a proceeding solely on the basis of such notice and right to be heard;  [2]
(H) during the 90-day period immediately prior to the date on which the child will attain 18 years of age, or such greater age as the State may elect under paragraph (8)(B)(iii), whether during that period foster care maintenance payments are being made on the child’s behalf or the child is receiving benefits or services under section 677 of this title, a caseworker on the staff of the State agency, and, as appropriate, other representatives of the child provide the child with assistance and support in developing a transition plan that is personalized at the direction of the child, includes specific options on housing, health insurance, education, local opportunities for mentors and continuing support services, and work force supports and employment services, includes information about the importance of designating another individual to make health care treatment decisions on behalf of the child if the child becomes unable to participate in such decisions and the child does not have, or does not want, a relative who would otherwise be authorized under State law to make such decisions, and provides the child with the option to execute a health care power of attorney, health care proxy, or other similar document recognized under State law, and is as detailed as the child may elect;  [2] and
(I) each child in foster care under the responsibility of the State who has attained 16 years of age receives without cost a copy of any consumer report (as defined in section 1681a (d) of title 15) pertaining to the child each year until the child is discharged from care, and receives assistance (including, when feasible, from any court-appointed advocate for the child) in interpreting and resolving any inaccuracies in the report.
(6) The term “administrative review” means a review open to the participation of the parents of the child, conducted by a panel of appropriate persons at least one of whom is not responsible for the case management of, or the delivery of services to, either the child or the parents who are the subject of the review.
(7) The term “legal guardianship” means a judicially created relationship between child and caretaker which is intended to be permanent and self-sustaining as evidenced by the transfer to the caretaker of the following parental rights with respect to the child: protection, education, care and control of the person, custody of the person, and decisionmaking. The term “legal guardian” means the caretaker in such a relationship.
(8)
(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the term “child” means an individual who has not attained 18 years of age.
(B) At the option of a State, the term shall include an individual—
(i)
(I) who is in foster care under the responsibility of the State;
(II) with respect to whom an adoption assistance agreement is in effect under section 673 of this title if the child had attained 16 years of age before the agreement became effective; or
(III) with respect to whom a kinship guardianship assistance agreement is in effect under section 673 (d) of this title if the child had attained 16 years of age before the agreement became effective;
(ii) who has attained 18 years of age;
(iii) who has not attained 19, 20, or 21 years of age, as the State may elect; and
(iv) who is—
(I) completing secondary education or a program leading to an equivalent credential;
(II) enrolled in an institution which provides post-secondary or vocational education;
(III) participating in a program or activity designed to promote, or remove barriers to, employment;
(IV) employed for at least 80 hours per month; or
(V) incapable of doing any of the activities described in subclauses (I) through (IV) due to a medical condition, which incapability is supported by regularly updated information in the case plan of the child.
(9) The term “sex trafficking victim” means a victim of—
(A) sex trafficking (as defined in section 7102 (10) of title 22); or
(B) a severe form of trafficking in persons described in section 7102 (9)(A) of title 22.
(12)   [3] The term “sibling” means an individual who satisfies at least one of the following conditions with respect to a child:
(A) The individual is considered by State law to be a sibling of the child.
(B) The individual would have been considered a sibling of the child under State law but for a termination or other disruption of parental rights, such as the death of a parent.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

[2]  So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

[3]  So in original. See Amendment of Section notes below.

Source

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 475, as added and amended Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §§ 101(a)(1), 102 (a)(4),June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 510, 514; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §§ 12305(b)(2), 12307(b),Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 293, 296; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, § 1711(c)(6),Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2784; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, § 9133(a),Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–314; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, § 8104(e),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3797; Pub. L. 101–239, title VIII, § 8007(a), (b),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2462; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §§ 206(a), (b), 209 (a), (b), 265 (c),Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4457, 4459, 4469; Pub. L. 105–89, title I, §§ 101(b), 102 (2), 103 (a), (b), 104, 107, title III, § 302,Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2117, 2118, 2120, 2121, 2128; Pub. L. 109–239, §§ 6–8(a), 11, 12,July 3, 2006, 120 Stat. 512–514; Pub. L. 109–288, § 10,Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1255; Pub. L. 110–351, title I, § 101(c)(4), title II, §§ 201(a), 202, 204 (a),Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3952, 3957, 3959, 3960; Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2955(a),Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 112–34, title I, § 106(a), (b),Sept. 30, 2011, 125 Stat. 377; Pub. L. 113–183, title I, §§ 101(b), 111 (a)(1), 112 (a)(1), (b)(2)(B), 113 (a)–(c), 114(a), title II, § 209(a)(2),Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1921, 1923, 1926—1930, 1941.)
Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 113–183, title I, §§ 111(a)(1), (d), 112 (b)(2)(B), (c), 113 (a)–(c), (f), 114, Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1923, 1925, 1927—1930, provided that, effective on the date that is 1 year after Sept. 29, 2014, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, this section is amended as follows: (1) in paragraph (1)— (A) in the matter preceding subparagraph (A), by inserting “meets the requirements of section 675a of this title and” after “written document which”; and (B) in subparagraph (D)— (i) by striking “Where appropriate, for a child age 16” and inserting “For a child who has attained 14 years of age”; and (ii) by striking “independent living” and inserting “a successful adulthood”; (2) in paragraph (5)— (A) in subparagraph (B), by adding at the end the following “and, for a child for whom another planned permanent living arrangement has been determined as the permanency plan, the steps the State agency is taking to ensure the child’s foster family home or child care institution is following the reasonable and prudent parent standard and to ascertain whether the child has regular, ongoing opportunities to engage in age or developmentally appropriate activities (including by consulting with the child in an age-appropriate manner about the opportunities of the child to participate in the activities);”; and (B) in subparagraph (C)— (i) in clause (i)— (I) by inserting “, as of the date of the hearing,” after “compelling reason for determining”; (II) by inserting “subject to section 675a(a) of this title,” after “another planned permanent living arrangement,”; (III) by striking “16” and inserting “14”; and (IV) by striking “independent living” and inserting “a successful adulthood”; (ii) in clause (ii), by striking “and” at the end; (iii) in clause (iii), by striking “independent living” and inserting “a successful adulthood”; and (iv) by adding at the end “and (iv) if a child has attained 14 years of age, the permanency plan developed for the child, and any revision or addition to the plan, shall be developed in consultation with the child and, at the option of the child, with not more than 2 members of the permanency planning team who are selected by the child and who are not a foster parent of, or caseworker for, the child, except that the State may reject an individual so selected by the child if the State has good cause to believe that the individual would not act in the best interests of the child, and 1 individual so selected by the child may be designated to be the child’s advisor and, as necessary, advocate, with respect to the application of the reasonable and prudent standard to the child;”; and (C) in subparagraph (I)— (i) by striking “and receives assistance” and inserting “receives assistance”; and (ii) by inserting “, and, if the child is leaving foster care by reason of having attained 18 years of age or such greater age as the State has elected under paragraph (8), unless the child has been in foster care for less than 6 months, is not discharged from care without being provided with (if the child is eligible to receive such document) an official or certified copy of the United States birth certificate of the child, a social security card issued by the Commissioner of Social Security, health insurance information, a copy of the child’s medical records, and a driver’s license or identification card issued by a State in accordance with the requirements of section 202 of the REAL ID Act of 2005” before the period; and (3) by adding at the end the following:
(10)(A) The term “reasonable and prudent parent standard” means the standard characterized by careful and sensible parental decisions that maintain the health, safety, and best interests of a child while at the same time encouraging the emotional and developmental growth of the child, that a caregiver shall use when determining whether to allow a child in foster care under the responsibility of the State to participate in extracurricular, enrichment, cultural, and social activities.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term “caregiver” means a foster parent with whom a child in foster care has been placed or a designated official for a child care institution in which a child in foster care has been placed.
(11)(A) The term “age or developmentally-appropriate” means—
(i) activities or items that are generally accepted as suitable for children of the same chronological age or level of maturity or that are determined to be developmentally-appropriate for a child, based on the development of cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral capacities that are typical for an age or age group; and
(ii) in the case of a specific child, activities or items that are suitable for the child based on the developmental stages attained by the child with respect to the cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral capacities of the child.
(B) In the event that any age-related activities have implications relative to the academic curriculum of a child, nothing in this part or part B shall be construed to authorize an officer or employee of the Federal Government to mandate, direct, or control a State or local educational agency, or the specific instructional content, academic achievement standards and assessments, curriculum, or program of instruction of a school.
See 2014 Amendment notes below. Pub. L. 113–183, title I, § 112(a)(1), (3), (c),Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1926, 1928, provided that, effective on the date that is 1 year after Sept. 29, 2014, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, and in the case of children in foster care under the responsibility of an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium (either directly or under supervision of a State), not applicable until the date that is 3 years after Sept. 29, 2014, paragraph (5)(C)(i) of this section is amended by inserting “only in the case of a child who has attained 16 years of age” before “(in cases where”. See 2014 Amendment notes below.
References in Text

Section 672 (a) of this title, referred to in par. (1)(A), was amended generally by Pub. L. 109–171, title VII, § 7404(a),Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 151, and, as so amended, provisions relating to a voluntary placement agreement or judicial determination made with respect to a child, which formerly appeared in subsec. (a)(1), are contained in subsec. (a)(2)(A).
Amendments

2014—Par. (1). Pub. L. 113–183, § 112(b)(2)(B)(i), in introductory provisions, inserted “meets the requirements of section 675a of this title and” after “written document which”.
Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(a), inserted at end “With respect to a child who has attained 14 years of age, the plan developed for the child in accordance with this paragraph, and any revision or addition to the plan, shall be developed in consultation with the child and, at the option of the child, with up to 2 members of the case planning team who are chosen by the child and who are not a foster parent of, or caseworker for, the child. A State may reject an individual selected by a child to be a member of the case planning team at any time if the State has good cause to believe that the individual would not act in the best interests of the child. One individual selected by a child to be a member of the child’s case planning team may be designated to be the child’s advisor and, as necessary, advocate, with respect to the application of the reasonable and prudent parent standard to the child.”
Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(c), substituted “a successful adulthood” for “independent living”.
Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(b)(1), substituted “For a child who has attained 14 years of age” for “Where appropriate, for a child age 16”.
Par. (5)(B). Pub. L. 113–183, § 112(b)(2)(B)(ii)(I), inserted at end “and, for a child for whom another planned permanent living arrangement has been determined as the permanency plan, the steps the State agency is taking to ensure the child’s foster family home or child care institution is following the reasonable and prudent parent standard and to ascertain whether the child has regular, ongoing opportunities to engage in age or developmentally appropriate activities (including by consulting with the child in an age-appropriate manner about the opportunities of the child to participate in the activities);”.
Par. (5)(C)(i). Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(c), substituted “a successful adulthood” for “independent living”.
Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(b)(2)(A)(i), substituted “14” for “16”.
Pub. L. 113–183, § 112(b)(2)(B)(ii)(II), inserted “, as of the date of the hearing,” after “compelling reason for determining” and “subject to section 675a(a) of this title,” after “another planned permanent living arrangement,”
Pub. L. 113–183, § 112(a)(1), inserted “only in the case of a child who has attained 16 years of age” before “(in cases where”.
Par. (5)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(c), substituted “a successful adulthood” for “independent living”.
Par. (5)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(b)(2)(A)(ii), (iii), added cl. (iv).
Par. (5)(I). Pub. L. 113–183, § 114(a), substituted “receives assistance” for “and receives assistance” and inserted before the period at end “, and, if the child is leaving foster care by reason of having attained 18 years of age or such greater age as the State has elected under paragraph (8), unless the child has been in foster care for less than 6 months, is not discharged from care without being provided with (if the child is eligible to receive such document) an official or certified copy of the United States birth certificate of the child, a social security card issued by the Commissioner of Social Security, health insurance information, a copy of the child’s medical records, and a driver’s license or identification card issued by a State in accordance with the requirements of section 202 of the REAL ID Act of 2005”.
Pub. L. 113–183, § 113(b)(2)(B), substituted “14” for “16”.
Par. (9). Pub. L. 113–183, § 101(b), added par. (9).
Pars. (10), (11). Pub. L. 113–183, § 111(a)(1), added pars. (10) and (11).
Par. (12). Pub. L. 113–183, § 209(a)(2), added par. (12).
2011—Par. (1)(G)(i). Pub. L. 112–34, § 106(a)(1), substituted “each placement” for “the placement”.
Par. (1)(G)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 112–34, § 106(a)(2), inserted “each” before “placement”.
Par. (5)(I). Pub. L. 112–34, § 106(b), added subpar. (I).
2010—Par. (5)(H). Pub. L. 111–148inserted “includes information about the importance of designating another individual to make health care treatment decisions on behalf of the child if the child becomes unable to participate in such decisions and the child does not have, or does not want, a relative who would otherwise be authorized under State law to make such decisions, and provides the child with the option to execute a health care power of attorney, health care proxy, or other similar document recognized under State law,” after “employment services,”.
2008—Par. (1)(C)(iv) to (viii). Pub. L. 110–351, § 204(a)(1)(A), redesignated cls. (v) to (viii) as (iv) to (vii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: “assurances that the child’s placement in foster care takes into account proximity to the school in which the child is enrolled at the time of placement;”.
Par. (1)(F). Pub. L. 110–351, § 101(c)(4), added subpar. (F).
Par. (1)(G). Pub. L. 110–351, § 204(a)(1)(B), added subpar. (G).
Par. (4)(A). Pub. L. 110–351, § 204(a)(2), in first sentence, substituted “reasonable” for “and reasonable” and inserted “, and reasonable travel for the child to remain in the school in which the child is enrolled at the time of placement” before period at end.
Par. (5)(H). Pub. L. 110–351, § 202, added subpar. (H).
Par. (8). Pub. L. 110–351, § 201(a), added par. (8).
2006—Par. (1)(C). Pub. L. 109–239, § 7(1), in introductory provisions, substituted “The health” for “To the extent available and accessible, the health” and inserted “the most recent information available regarding” after “including”.
Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 109–239, § 11, which directed amendment of subpar. (E) by inserting “to facilitate orderly and timely in-State and interstate placements” before the period, was executed by making the insertion before period at end of last sentence to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Par. (5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 109–239, § 6, substituted “6 months” for “12 months” and “of the State in which the child has been placed, or of a private agency under contract with either such State” for “or of the State in which the child has been placed”.
Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 109–288inserted “(i)” after “with respect to each such child,”, substituted “(ii) procedural safeguards shall” for “and procedural safeguards shall also”, and added cl. (iii) at end.
Pub. L. 109–239, § 12, inserted “, in the case of a child who will not be returned to the parent, the hearing shall consider in-State and out-of-State placement options,” after “living arrangement” and “the hearing shall determine” after “described in subparagraph (A)(ii),”.
Par. (5)(D). Pub. L. 109–239, § 7(2), inserted “a copy of the record is” before “supplied to the foster parent” and “, and is supplied to the child at no cost at the time the child leaves foster care if the child is leaving foster care by reason of having attained the age of majority under State law” before semicolon at end.
Par. (5)(G). Pub. L. 109–239, § 8(a), substituted “a right” for “an opportunity”, “proceeding” for “review or hearing” in two places, and “and right” for “and opportunity”.
1997—Par. (1). Pub. L. 105–89, § 107(1)(A), (B), struck out “the case plan must also include” before “a written description” in concluding provisions and redesignated those provisions as subpar. (D) of par. (1).
Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 105–89, § 102(2)(A)(i), inserted “safety and” before “appropriateness of the placement”.
Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 105–89, § 102(2)(A)(ii), inserted “safe and” after “child receives” and “safe” after “return of the child to his own”.
Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 105–89, § 107(1)(B), redesignated concluding provisions of par. (1) as subpar. (D) of par. (1) and realigned margins.
Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 105–89, § 107(2), added subpar. (E).
Par. (5)(A). Pub. L. 105–89, § 102(2)(B)(i), inserted “a safe setting that is” after “placement in” in introductory provisions.
Par. (5)(B). Pub. L. 105–89, § 102(2)(B)(ii), inserted “the safety of the child,” after “determine” and “and safely maintained in” before “the home or placed for adoption”.
Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 105–89, § 302, substituted “permanency hearing” for “dispositional hearing” and “no later than 12 months after the date the child is considered to have entered foster care (as determined under subparagraph (F))” for “no later than eighteen months after the original placement”, and which directed the substitution of “permanency plan for the child that includes whether, and if applicable when, the child will be returned to the parent, placed for adoption and the State will file a petition for termination of parental rights, or referred for legal guardianship, or (in cases where the State agency has documented to the State court a compelling reason for determining that it would not be in the best interests of the child to return home, be referred for termination of parental rights, or be placed for adoption, with a fit and willing relative, or with a legal guardian) placed in another planned permanent living arrangement” for “future status of the child (including, but not limited to, whether the child should be returned to the parent, should be continued in foster care for a specified period, should be placed for adoption, or should (because of the child’s special needs or circumstances) be continued in foster care on a permanent or long term basis)”, was executed by making the substitution for text which contained the words “long-term” rather than “long term” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Par. (5)(E). Pub. L. 105–89, § 103(a), added subpar. (E).
Par. (5)(F). Pub. L. 105–89, § 103(b), added subpar. (F).
Par. (5)(G). Pub. L. 105–89, § 104, added subpar. (G).
Par. (7). Pub. L. 105–89, § 101(b), added par. (7).
1994—Par. (5)(A). Pub. L. 103–432, § 209(a), inserted “which—” after “needs of the child,” and added cls. (i) and (ii).
Pub. L. 103–432, § 206(a), inserted “and most appropriate” after “(most family like)”.
Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 103–432, § 209(b), inserted “and, in the case of a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii), whether the out-of-State placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child,” after “permanent or long-term basis)”.
Pub. L. 103–432, § 206(b), substituted “(and not less frequently than every 12 months” for “(and periodically”.
Par. (5)(D). Pub. L. 103–432, § 265(c), realigned margins.
1989—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–239, § 8007(a), inserted “(A)” before “A description”, substituted “section 672 (a)(1) of this title. (B) A plan” for “section 672 (a)(1) of this title; and a plan”, realigned margins of subpars. (A) and (B), added subpar. (C), and set the last sentence flush with the left margin of par. (1).
Par. (5)(D). Pub. L. 101–239, § 8007(b), added subpar. (D).
1988—Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 100–647inserted “and, in the case of a child who has attained age 16, the services needed to assist the child to make the transition from foster care to independent living” after “long-term basis)”.
1987—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–203designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).
1986—Par. (1). Pub. L. 99–272, § 12307(b), inserted at end “Where appropriate, for a child age 16 or over, the case plan must also include a written description of the programs and services which will help such child prepare for the transition from foster care to independent living.”
Par. (3). Pub. L. 99–514added cl. (A) and struck out former cl. (A) which read as follows: “specifies the amounts of any adoption assistance payments and any other services and assistance which are to be provided as part of such agreement, and”.
Pub. L. 99–272, § 12305(b)(2), substituted in cl. (A) “any adoption assistance payments and any other services and assistance” for “the adoption assistance payments and any additional services and assistance”.
1980—Par. (1). Pub. L. 96–272, § 102(a)(4), inserted reference to voluntary placement agreements.
Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by section 111 ofPub. L. 113–183effective on the date that is 1 year after Sept. 29, 2014, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 111(d) ofPub. L. 113–183, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Amendment by section 112(a)(1) ofPub. L. 113–183effective on the date that is 1 year after Sept. 29, 2014, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, and in the case of children in foster care under the responsibility of an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium (either directly or under supervision of a State), not applicable until the date that is 3 years after Sept. 29, 2014, see section 112(a)(3), (c) ofPub. L. 113–183, set out as notes under section 622 of this title.
Amendment by section 112(b)(2)(B) ofPub. L. 113–183effective on the date that is 1 year after Sept. 29, 2014, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 112(c) ofPub. L. 113–183, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Pub. L. 113–183, title I, § 113(f),Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1929, provided that:
“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 675a of this title] shall take effect on the date that is 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014].
“(2) Delay permitted if state legislation required.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) is required in order for a State plan developed pursuant to part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.] to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this section, the plan shall not be regarded as failing to meet any of the additional requirements before the 1st day of the 1st calendar quarter beginning after the 1st regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014]. If the State has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.”
Pub. L. 113–183, title I, § 114(b),Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1930, provided that:
“(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014].
“(2) Delay permitted if state legislation required.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) is required in order for a State plan developed pursuant to part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.] to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this section, the plan shall not be regarded as failing to meet any of the additional requirements before the 1st day of the 1st calendar quarter beginning after the 1st regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014]. If the State has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.”
Amendment by section 209 ofPub. L. 113–183effective Sept. 29, 2014, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 210(e) ofPub. L. 113–183, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–34effective Oct. 1, 2011, and applicable to payments under this part and part B of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 107 ofPub. L. 112–34, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148effective Oct. 1, 2010, see section 2955(d) ofPub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(a) ofPub. L. 110–351effective Oct. 1, 2010, see section 201(d) ofPub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 672 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 110–351effective Oct. 7, 2008, except as otherwise provided, and applicable to payments under this part and part B of this subchapter for quarters beginning on or after effective date of amendment, with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 601 ofPub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part B of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) ofPub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 109–239effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part B of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 14 ofPub. L. 109–239, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–89effective Nov. 19, 1997, except as otherwise provided, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 501 ofPub. L. 105–89, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–432, title II, § 206(c),Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4457, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1995.”
Pub. L. 103–432, title II, § 209(d),Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4459, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 679 of this title] shall be effective with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1995.”
Amendment by section 265(c) ofPub. L. 103–432effective as if included in the provision of Pub. L. 101–239to which the amendment relates, at the time the provision became law, see section 265(d) ofPub. L. 103–432, set out as a note under section 673 of this title.
Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VIII, § 8007(c),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2462, provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall take effect on April 1, 1990.”
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647effective Oct. 1, 1988, see section 8104(g)(1) ofPub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 677 of this title.
Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203effective Apr. 1, 1988, see section 9133(c) ofPub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 672 of this title.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514applicable only with respect to expenditures made after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1711(d) ofPub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 670 of this title.
Amendment by section 12305(b)(2) ofPub. L. 99–272applicable to medical assistance furnished in or after the first calendar quarter beginning more than 90 days after Apr. 7, 1986, see section 12305(c) ofPub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 673 of this title.
Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–272, title I, § 101(a)(4)(A),June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 512, provided that: “Clause (B) of the first sentence of section 475(3) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 675 (3)(B)] (as added by subsection (a) of this section) shall be effective with respect to adoption assistance agreements entered into on or after October 1, 1983.”
Amendment by section 102(a)(4) ofPub. L. 96–272effective only with respect to expenditures made after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 102(c) ofPub. L. 96–272, as amended, set out as a note under section 672 of this title.
Construction

For construction of amendment by section 209(a)(2) ofPub. L. 113–183, see section 209(b) ofPub. L. 113–183, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Pub. L. 105–89, title I, § 103(d),Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2119, provided that: “Nothing in this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] or in part E of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.), as amended by this Act, shall be construed as precluding State courts or State agencies from initiating the termination of parental rights for reasons other than, or for timelines earlier than, those specified in part E of title IV of such Act, when such actions are determined to be in the best interests of the child, including cases where the child has experienced multiple foster care placements of varying durations.”
Transition Rules; New and Current Foster Children

Pub. L. 105–89, title I, § 103(c),Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2119, provided that:
“(1) New foster children.—In the case of a child who enters foster care (within the meaning of section 475(5)(F) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 675 (5)(F)]) under the responsibility of a State after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 1997]—
“(A) if the State comes into compliance with the amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] before the child has been in such foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months, the State shall comply with section 475(5)(E) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 675 (5)(E)] with respect to the child when the child has been in such foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months; and
“(B) if the State comes into such compliance after the child has been in such foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months, the State shall comply with such section 475(5)(E) with respect to the child not later than 3 months after the end of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after such date of enactment.
“(2) Current foster children.—In the case of children in foster care under the responsibility of the State on the date of the enactment of this Act, the State shall—
“(A) not later than 6 months after the end of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after such date of enactment, comply with section 475(5)(E) of the Social Security Act with respect to not less than 1/3 of such children as the State shall select, giving priority to children for whom the permanency plan (within the meaning of part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.]) is adoption and children who have been in foster care for the greatest length of time;
“(B) not later than 12 months after the end of such first regular session, comply with such section 475(5)(E) with respect to not less than 2/3 of such children as the State shall select; and
“(C) not later than 18 months after the end of such first regular session, comply with such section 475(5)(E) with respect to all of such children.
“(3) Treatment of 2-year legislative sessions.—For purposes of this subsection, in the case of a State that has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.
“(4) Requirements treated as state plan requirements.—For purposes of part E of title IV of the Social Security Act, the requirements of this subsection shall be treated as State plan requirements imposed by section 471(a) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 671 (a)].”

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 1355 - GENERAL

45 CFR Part 1356 - REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E

45 CFR Part 1357 - REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B

 

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