42 U.S. Code § 677 - John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Program

(a) Purpose
The purpose of this section is to provide States with flexible funding that will enable programs to be designed and conducted—
(1) to identify children who are likely to remain in foster care until 18 years of age and to help these children make the transition to self-sufficiency by providing services such as assistance in obtaining a high school diploma, career exploration, vocational training, job placement and retention, training in daily living skills, training in budgeting and financial management skills, substance abuse prevention, and preventive health activities (including smoking avoidance, nutrition education, and pregnancy prevention);
(2) to help children who are likely to remain in foster care until 18 years of age receive the education, training, and services necessary to obtain employment;
(3) to help children who are likely to remain in foster care until 18 years of age prepare for and enter postsecondary training and education institutions;
(4) to provide personal and emotional support to children aging out of foster care, through mentors and the promotion of interactions with dedicated adults;
(5) to provide financial, housing, counseling, employment, education, and other appropriate support and services to former foster care recipients between 18 and 21 years of age to complement their own efforts to achieve self-sufficiency and to assure that program participants recognize and accept their personal responsibility for preparing for and then making the transition from adolescence to adulthood;
(6) to make available vouchers for education and training, including postsecondary training and education, to youths who have aged out of foster care; and
(7) to provide the services referred to in this subsection to children who, after attaining 16 years of age, have left foster care for kinship guardianship or adoption.
(b) Applications
(1) In general
A State may apply for funds from its allotment under subsection (c) of this section for a period of five consecutive fiscal years by submitting to the Secretary, in writing, a plan that meets the requirements of paragraph (2) and the certifications required by paragraph (3) with respect to the plan.
(2) State plan
A plan meets the requirements of this paragraph if the plan specifies which State agency or agencies will administer, supervise, or oversee the programs carried out under the plan, and describes how the State intends to do the following:
(A) Design and deliver programs to achieve the purposes of this section.
(B) Ensure that all political subdivisions in the State are served by the program, though not necessarily in a uniform manner.
(C) Ensure that the programs serve children of various ages and at various stages of achieving independence.
(D) Involve the public and private sectors in helping adolescents in foster care achieve independence.
(E) Use objective criteria for determining eligibility for benefits and services under the programs, and for ensuring fair and equitable treatment of benefit recipients.
(F) Cooperate in national evaluations of the effects of the programs in achieving the purposes of this section.
(3) Certifications
The certifications required by this paragraph with respect to a plan are the following:
(A) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State will provide assistance and services to children who have left foster care because they have attained 18 years of age, and who have not attained 21 years of age.
(B) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that not more than 30 percent of the amounts paid to the State from its allotment under subsection (c) of this section for a fiscal year will be expended for room or board for children who have left foster care because they have attained 18 years of age, and who have not attained 21 years of age.
(C) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that none of the amounts paid to the State from its allotment under subsection (c) of this section will be expended for room or board for any child who has not attained 18 years of age.
(D) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State will use training funds provided under the program of Federal payments for foster care and adoption assistance to provide training to help foster parents, adoptive parents, workers in group homes, and case managers understand and address the issues confronting adolescents preparing for independent living, and will, to the extent possible, coordinate such training with the independent living program conducted for adolescents.
(E) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State has consulted widely with public and private organizations in developing the plan and that the State has given all interested members of the public at least 30 days to submit comments on the plan.
(F) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State will make every effort to coordinate the State programs receiving funds provided from an allotment made to the State under subsection (c) of this section with other Federal and State programs for youth (especially transitional living youth projects funded under part B of title III of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5714–1 et seq.]), abstinence education programs, local housing programs, programs for disabled youth (especially sheltered workshops), and school-to-work programs offered by high schools or local workforce agencies.
(G) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that each Indian tribe in the State has been consulted about the programs to be carried out under the plan; that there have been efforts to coordinate the programs with such tribes; that benefits and services under the programs will be made available to Indian children in the State on the same basis as to other children in the State; and that the State will negotiate in good faith with any Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium in the State that does not receive an allotment under subsection (j)(4) for a fiscal year and that requests to develop an agreement with the State to administer, supervise, or oversee the programs to be carried out under the plan with respect to the Indian children who are eligible for such programs and who are under the authority of the tribe, organization, or consortium and to receive from the State an appropriate portion of the State allotment under subsection (c) for the cost of such administration, supervision, or oversight.
(H) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State will ensure that adolescents participating in the program under this section participate directly in designing their own program activities that prepare them for independent living and that the adolescents accept personal responsibility for living up to their part of the program.
(I) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State has established and will enforce standards and procedures to prevent fraud and abuse in the programs carried out under the plan.
(J) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State educational and training voucher program under this section is in compliance with the conditions specified in subsection (i) of this section, including a statement describing methods the State will use—
(i) to ensure that the total amount of educational assistance to a youth under this section and under other Federal and Federally supported programs does not exceed the limitation specified in subsection (i)(5) of this section; and
(ii) to avoid duplication of benefits under this and any other Federal or Federally assisted benefit program.
(K) A certification by the chief executive officer of the State that the State will ensure that an adolescent participating in the program under this section are  [1] provided with education about the importance of designating another individual to make health care treatment decisions on behalf of the adolescent if the adolescent becomes unable to participate in such decisions and the adolescent does not have, or does not want, a relative who would otherwise be authorized under State law to make such decisions, whether a health care power of attorney, health care proxy, or other similar document is recognized under State law, and how to execute such a document if the adolescent wants to do so.
(4) Approval
The Secretary shall approve an application submitted by a State pursuant to paragraph (1) for a period if—
(A) the application is submitted on or before June 30 of the calendar year in which such period begins; and
(B) the Secretary finds that the application contains the material required by paragraph (1).
(5) Authority to implement certain amendments; notification
A State with an application approved under paragraph (4) may implement any amendment to the plan contained in the application if the application, incorporating the amendment, would be approvable under paragraph (4). Within 30 days after a State implements any such amendment, the State shall notify the Secretary of the amendment.
(6) Availability
The State shall make available to the public any application submitted by the State pursuant to paragraph (1), and a brief summary of the plan contained in the application.
(c) Allotments to States
(1) General program allotment
From the amount specified in subsection (h)(1) of this section that remains after applying subsection (g)(2) of this section for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allot to each State with an application approved under subsection (b) of this section for the fiscal year the amount which bears the ratio to such remaining amount equal to the State foster care ratio, as adjusted in accordance with paragraph (2).
(2) Hold harmless provision
(A) In general
The Secretary shall allot to each State whose allotment for a fiscal year under paragraph (1) is less than the greater of $500,000 or the amount payable to the State under this section for fiscal year 1998, an additional amount equal to the difference between such allotment and such greater amount.
(B) Ratable reduction of certain allotments
In the case of a State not described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reduce the amount allotted to the State for the fiscal year under paragraph (1) by the amount that bears the same ratio to the sum of the differences determined under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph for the fiscal year as the excess of the amount so allotted over the greater of $500,000 or the amount payable to the State under this section for fiscal year 1998 bears to the sum of such excess amounts determined for all such States.
(3) Voucher program allotment
From the amount, if any, appropriated pursuant to subsection (h)(2) of this section for a fiscal year, the Secretary may allot to each State with an application approved under subsection (b) of this section for the fiscal year an amount equal to the State foster care ratio multiplied by the amount so specified.
(4) State foster care ratio
In this subsection, the term “State foster care ratio” means the ratio of the number of children in foster care under a program of the State in the most recent fiscal year for which the information is available to the total number of children in foster care in all States for the most recent fiscal year.
(d) Use of funds
(1) In general
A State to which an amount is paid from its allotment under subsection (c) of this section may use the amount in any manner that is reasonably calculated to accomplish the purposes of this section.
(2) No supplantation of other funds available for same general purposes
The amounts paid to a State from its allotment under subsection (c) of this section shall be used to supplement and not supplant any other funds which are available for the same general purposes in the State.
(3) Two-year availability of funds
Payments made to a State under this section for a fiscal year shall be expended by the State in the fiscal year or in the succeeding fiscal year.
(4) Reallocation of unused funds
If a State does not apply for funds under this section for a fiscal year within such time as may be provided by the Secretary, the funds to which the State would be entitled for the fiscal year shall be reallocated to 1 or more other States on the basis of their relative need for additional payments under this section, as determined by the Secretary.
(e) Penalties
(1) Use of grant in violation of this part
If the Secretary is made aware, by an audit conducted under chapter 75 of title 31 or by any other means, that a program receiving funds from an allotment made to a State under subsection (c) of this section has been operated in a manner that is inconsistent with, or not disclosed in the State application approved under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall assess a penalty against the State in an amount equal to not less than 1 percent and not more than 5 percent of the amount of the allotment.
(2) Failure to comply with data reporting requirement
The Secretary shall assess a penalty against a State that fails during a fiscal year to comply with an information collection plan implemented under subsection (f) of this section in an amount equal to not less than 1 percent and not more than 5 percent of the amount allotted to the State for the fiscal year.
(3) Penalties based on degree of noncompliance
The Secretary shall assess penalties under this subsection based on the degree of noncompliance.
(f) Data collection and performance measurement
(1) In general
The Secretary, in consultation with State and local public officials responsible for administering independent living and other child welfare programs, child welfare advocates, Members of Congress, youth service providers, and researchers, shall—
(A) develop outcome measures (including measures of educational attainment, high school diploma, employment, avoidance of dependency, homelessness, nonmarital childbirth, incarceration, and high-risk behaviors) that can be used to assess the performance of States in operating independent living programs;
(B) identify data elements needed to track—
(i) the number and characteristics of children receiving services under this section;
(ii) the type and quantity of services being provided; and
(iii) State performance on the outcome measures; and
(C) develop and implement a plan to collect the needed information beginning with the second fiscal year beginning after December 14, 1999.
(2) Report to the Congress
Within 12 months after December 14, 1999, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Finance of the Senate a report detailing the plans and timetable for collecting from the States the information described in paragraph (1) and a proposal to impose penalties consistent with paragraph (e)(2) on States that do not report data.
(g) Evaluations
(1) In general
The Secretary shall conduct evaluations of such State programs funded under this section as the Secretary deems to be innovative or of potential national significance. The evaluation of any such program shall include information on the effects of the program on education, employment, and personal development. To the maximum extent practicable, the evaluations shall be based on rigorous scientific standards including random assignment to treatment and control groups. The Secretary is encouraged to work directly with State and local governments to design methods for conducting the evaluations, directly or by grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.
(2) Funding of evaluations
The Secretary shall reserve 1.5 percent of the amount specified in subsection (h) of this section for a fiscal year to carry out, during the fiscal year, evaluation, technical assistance, performance measurement, and data collection activities related to this section, directly or through grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements with appropriate entities.
(h) Limitations on authorization of appropriations
To carry out this section and for payments to States under section 674 (a)(4) of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for each fiscal year—
(1) $140,000,000, which shall be available for all purposes under this section; and
(2) an additional $60,000,000, which are authorized to be available for payments to States for education and training vouchers for youths who age out of foster care, to assist the youths to develop skills necessary to lead independent and productive lives.
(i) Educational and training vouchers
The following conditions shall apply to a State educational and training voucher program under this section:
(1) Vouchers under the program may be available to youths otherwise eligible for services under the State program under this section.
(2) For purposes of the voucher program, youths who, after attaining 16 years of age, are adopted from, or enter kinship guardianship from, foster care may be considered to be youths otherwise eligible for services under the State program under this section.
(3) The State may allow youths participating in the voucher program on the date they attain 21 years of age to remain eligible until they attain 23 years of age, as long as they are enrolled in a postsecondary education or training program and are making satisfactory progress toward completion of that program.
(4) The voucher or vouchers provided for an individual under this section—
(A) may be available for the cost of attendance at an institution of higher education, as defined in section 1002 of title 20; and
(B) shall not exceed the lesser of $5,000 per year or the total cost of attendance, as defined in section 1087ll of title 20.
(5) The amount of a voucher under this section may be disregarded for purposes of determining the recipient’s eligibility for, or the amount of, any other Federal or Federally supported assistance, except that the total amount of educational assistance to a youth under this section and under other Federal and Federally supported programs shall not exceed the total cost of attendance, as defined in section 1087ll of title 20, and except that the State agency shall take appropriate steps to prevent duplication of benefits under this and other Federal or Federally supported programs.
(6) The program is coordinated with other appropriate education and training programs.
(j) Authority for an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium to receive an allotment
(1) In general
An Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium with a plan approved under section 679c of this title, or which is receiving funding to provide foster care under this part pursuant to a cooperative agreement or contract with a State, may apply for an allotment out of any funds authorized by paragraph (1) or (2) (or both) of subsection (h) of this section.
(2) Application
A tribe, organization, or consortium desiring an allotment under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall submit an application to the Secretary to directly receive such allotment that includes a plan which—
(A) satisfies such requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (b) as the Secretary determines are appropriate;
(B) contains a description of the tribe’s, organization’s, or consortium’s consultation process regarding the programs to be carried out under the plan with each State for which a portion of an allotment under subsection (c) would be redirected to the tribe, organization, or consortium; and
(C) contains an explanation of the results of such consultation, particularly with respect to—
(i) determining the eligibility for benefits and services of Indian children to be served under the programs to be carried out under the plan; and
(ii) the process for consulting with the State in order to ensure the continuity of benefits and services for such children who will transition from receiving benefits and services under programs carried out under a State plan under subsection (b)(2) to receiving benefits and services under programs carried out under a plan under this subsection.
(3) Payments
The Secretary shall pay an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium with an application and plan approved under this subsection from the allotment determined for the tribe, organization, or consortium under paragraph (4) of this subsection in the same manner as is provided in section 674 (a)(4) of this title (and, where requested, and if funds are appropriated, section 674 (e) of this title) with respect to a State, or in such other manner as is determined appropriate by the Secretary, except that in no case shall an Indian tribe, a tribal organization, or a tribal consortium receive a lesser proportion of such funds than a State is authorized to receive under those sections.
(4) Allotment
From the amounts allotted to a State under subsection (c) of this section for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allot to each Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium with an application and plan approved under this subsection for that fiscal year an amount equal to the tribal foster care ratio determined under paragraph (5) of this subsection for the tribe, organization, or consortium multiplied by the allotment amount of the State within which the tribe, organization, or consortium is located. The allotment determined under this paragraph is deemed to be a part of the allotment determined under subsection (c) for the State in which the Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium is located.
(5) Tribal foster care ratio
For purposes of paragraph (4), the tribal foster care ratio means, with respect to an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium, the ratio of—
(A) the number of children in foster care under the responsibility of the Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium (either directly or under supervision of the State), in the most recent fiscal year for which the information is available; to
(B) the sum of—
(i) the total number of children in foster care under the responsibility of the State within which the Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium is located; and
(ii) the total number of children in foster care under the responsibility of all Indian tribes, tribal organizations, or tribal consortia in the State (either directly or under supervision of the State) that have a plan approved under this subsection.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “is”.

Source

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 477, as added Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, § 12307(a),Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 294; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, § 8104(a)–(d), (f), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3796, 3797; Pub. L. 101–239, title VIII, § 8002(a), (b),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2452; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5073(a),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–233; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, § 13714(a),Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 657; Pub. L. 105–89, title III, § 304,Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2130; Pub. L. 106–169, title I, § 101(b),Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1824; Pub. L. 107–133, title II, §§ 201(a)–(e), 202(a), Jan. 17, 2002, 115 Stat. 2422, 2423, 2425; Pub. L. 110–351, title I, § 101(e), title III, § 301(b), (c)(1)(B),Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3953, 3967, 3969; Pub. L. 111–148, title II, § 2955(b),Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 352.)
References in Text

The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(F), is Pub. L. 93–415, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1109. Part B of title III of the Act is classified generally to Part B (§ 5714–1 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 72 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note under section 5601 of this title and Tables.
Codification

December 14, 1999, referred to in subsec. (f), was in the original “the date of the enactment of this section” which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–169, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(3)(K). Pub. L. 111–148added subpar. (K).
2008—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 110–351, § 101(e)(1), added par. (7).
Subsec. (b)(3)(G). Pub. L. 110–351, § 301(c)(1)(B), substituted “tribes; that” for “tribes; and that” and inserted “; and that the State will negotiate in good faith with any Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium in the State that does not receive an allotment under subsection (j)(4) for a fiscal year and that requests to develop an agreement with the State to administer, supervise, or oversee the programs to be carried out under the plan with respect to the Indian children who are eligible for such programs and who are under the authority of the tribe, organization, or consortium and to receive from the State an appropriate portion of the State allotment under subsection (c) for the cost of such administration, supervision, or oversight” before period at end.
Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 110–351, § 101(e)(2), substituted “who, after attaining 16 years of age, are adopted from, or enter kinship guardianship from, foster care” for “adopted from foster care after attaining age 16”.
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–351, § 301(b), added subsec. (j).
2002—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 107–133, § 201(a), added par. (6).
Subsec. (b)(3)(J). Pub. L. 107–133, § 201(c), added subpar. (J).
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–133, § 201(e)(1), in heading substituted “General program allotment” for “In general” and in text substituted “From the amount specified in subsection (h)(1)” for “From the amount specified in subsection (h)”, “which bears the ratio” for “which bears the same ratio”, and “equal to the State foster care ratio, as adjusted in accordance with paragraph (2).” for “as the number of children in foster care under a program of the State in the most recent fiscal year for which such information is available bears to the total number of children in foster care in all States for such most recent fiscal year, as adjusted in accordance with paragraph (2).”
Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 107–133, § 201(e)(2), added pars. (3) and (4).
Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 107–133, § 202(a), added par. (4).
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–133, § 201(d), substituted “there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for each fiscal year—” and pars. (1) and (2) for “there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary $140,000,000 for each fiscal year.”
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–133, § 201(b), added subsec. (i).
1999—Pub. L. 106–169amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which had authorized payments to States and localities for establishment of programs designed to assist children who have attained age 16 in making transition from foster care to independent living, and set forth provisions relating to administration of programs, assurances, types of programs, amounts of entitlement, and provisions requiring annual report and promulgation of regulations.
1997—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–89inserted before comma at end “(including children with respect to whom such payments are no longer being made because the child has accumulated assets, not to exceed $5,000, which are otherwise regarded as resources for purposes of determining eligibility for benefits under this part)”.
1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, § 13714(a)(1), struck out at end “Such payments shall be made only for the fiscal years 1987 through 1992.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–66, § 13714(a)(2), substituted “any succeeding fiscal year” for “any of the fiscal years 1988 through 1992”.
Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, § 13714(a)(3), substituted “fiscal year 1987 and any succeeding fiscal year” for “each of the fiscal years 1987 through 1992”.
Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, § 13714(a)(4), substituted “fiscal year 1991 and any succeeding fiscal year” for “fiscal years 1991 and 1992”.
Subsec. (e)(1)(C)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 103–66, § 13714(a)(5), substituted “any succeeding fiscal year” for “fiscal year 1992”.
1990—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–508inserted “who has not attained age 21” after “also include any child” and struck out before semicolon “, but such child may not be so included after the end of the 6-month period beginning on the date of discontinuance of such payments or care”.
1989—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, § 8002(a)(1), substituted “through 1992” for “, 1988, and 1989”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–239, § 8002(a)(2), substituted “any of the fiscal years 1988 through 1992” for “the fiscal year 1988 or 1989”.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–239, § 8002(b)(1), (2), (4), (5), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted “The basic amount” for “The amount” and “the basic ceiling for such fiscal year” for “$45,000,000”, and added subpars. (B) and (C).
Pub. L. 101–239, § 8002(b)(3), which directed amendment of subpar. (A) by substituting “1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992” for “and 1989” could not be executed because the words “and 1989” did not appear after execution of amendment by Pub. L. 101–239, § 8002(a)(1), see below.
Pub. L. 101–239, § 8002(a)(1), substituted “through 1992” for “, 1988, and 1989”.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(a)(1), substituted “1987, 1988, and 1989” for “1987 and 1988”.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “children described in paragraph (2) who have attained age 16” for “children, with respect to whom foster care maintenance payments are being made by the State under this part and who have attained age 16,” and added par. (2).
Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(d), added subpar. (C).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(a)(2), substituted “for the fiscal year 1988 or 1989, such description and assurances must be submitted prior to February 1 of such fiscal year” for “for fiscal year 1988, such description and assurances must be submitted prior to January 1, 1988”.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(a)(1), substituted “1987, 1988, and 1989” for “1987 and 1988”.
Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(f), inserted at end “Amounts payable under this section may not be used for the provision of room or board.”
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(b), inserted at end “Notwithstanding paragraph (3), payments made to a State under this section for the fiscal year 1987 and unobligated may be expended by such State in the fiscal year 1989.”
Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(a)(3), (4), substituted “Not later than the first January 1 following the end of each fiscal year, each State shall submit to the Secretary a report on the programs carried out during such fiscal year” for “Not later than March 1, 1988, each State shall submit to the Secretary a report on the programs carried out”.
Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, § 8104(a)(5), (6), substituted:
“(A) Not later than July 1, 1988, the Secretary shall submit an interim report on the activities carried out under this section.
“(B) Not later than March 1, 1989,”
for “Not later than July 1, 1988,” and substituted “fiscal years 1987 and 1988” for “fiscal year 1987” in subpar. (B).
Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148effective Oct. 1, 2010, see section 2955(d) ofPub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(b), (c)(1)(B) ofPub. L. 110–351effective Oct. 1, 2009, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, see section 301(f) ofPub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 110–351effective Oct. 7, 2008, except as otherwise provided, and applicable to payments under this part and part B of this subchapter for quarters beginning on or after effective date of amendment, with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 601 ofPub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–133effective Jan. 17, 2002, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 301 ofPub. L. 107–133, set out as a note under section 629 of this title.
Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–89effective Nov. 19, 1997, except as otherwise provided, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 501 ofPub. L. 105–89, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.
Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, § 13714(b),Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 657, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to activities engaged in, on, or after October 1, 1992.”
Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title V, § 5073(b),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–233, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to payments made under part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.] for fiscal years beginning in or after fiscal year 1991.”
Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239effective Oct. 1, 1989, see section 8002(e) ofPub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 674 of this title.
Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, § 8104(g),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3797, provided that:
“(1) The amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (e) [amending this section and section 675 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1988.
“(2) The amendments made by subsections (c), (d), and (f) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].”
Regulations

Pub. L. 106–169, title I, § 101(d),Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1828, provided that: “Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 14, 1999], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 674 of this title].”
Construction of 2008 Amendment

For construction of amendment by section 301(b), (c)(1)(B) ofPub. L. 110–351, see section 301(d) ofPub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.
Temporary Extension of Availability of Independent Living Funds

Pub. L. 107–133, title II, § 202(b),Jan. 17, 2002, 115 Stat. 2425, provided that: “Notwithstanding section 477(d)(3) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 677 (d)(3)], payments made to a State under section 477 of such Act for fiscal year 2000 shall remain available for expenditure by the State through fiscal year 2002.”
Findings

Pub. L. 106–169, title I, § 101(a),Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1823, provided that: “The Congress finds the following:
“(1) States are required to make reasonable efforts to find adoptive families for all children, including older children, for whom reunification with their biological family is not in the best interests of the child. However, some older children will continue to live in foster care. These children should be enrolled in an Independent Living program designed and conducted by State and local government to help prepare them for employment, postsecondary education, and successful management of adult responsibilities.
“(2) Older children who continue to be in foster care as adolescents may become eligible for Independent Living programs. These Independent Living programs are not an alternative to adoption for these children. Enrollment in Independent Living programs can occur concurrent with continued efforts to locate and achieve placement in adoptive families for older children in foster care.
“(3) About 20,000 adolescents leave the Nation’s foster care system each year because they have reached 18 years of age and are expected to support themselves.
“(4) Congress has received extensive information that adolescents leaving foster care have significant difficulty making a successful transition to adulthood; this information shows that children aging out of foster care show high rates of homelessness, non-marital childbearing, poverty, and delinquent or criminal behavior; they are also frequently the target of crime and physical assaults.
“(5) The Nation’s State and local governments, with financial support from the Federal Government, should offer an extensive program of education, training, employment, and financial support for young adults leaving foster care, with participation in such program beginning several years before high school graduation and continuing, as needed, until the young adults emancipated from foster care establish independence or reach 21 years of age.”
Study and Report Evaluating Effectiveness of Programs

Pub. L. 101–239, title VIII, § 8002(d),Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2453, provided that:
“(1) Study.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall study the programs authorized under section 477 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 677] for the purposes of evaluating the effectiveness of the programs. The study shall include a comparison of outcomes of children who participated in the programs and a comparable group of children who did not participate in the programs.
“(2) Report.—Upon completion of the study, the Secretary shall issue a report to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives.”

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42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 1355 - GENERAL

45 CFR Part 1356 - REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-E

45 CFR Part 1357 - REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B

 

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