42 U.S. Code § 6928 - Federal enforcement

(a) Compliance orders
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), whenever on the basis of any information the Administrator determines that any person has violated or is in violation of any requirement of this subchapter, the Administrator may issue an order assessing a civil penalty for any past or current violation, requiring compliance immediately or within a specified time period, or both, or the Administrator may commence a civil action in the United States district court in the district in which the violation occurred for appropriate relief, including a temporary or permanent injunction.
(2) In the case of a violation of any requirement of this subchapter where such violation occurs in a State which is authorized to carry out a hazardous waste program under section 6926 of this title, the Administrator shall give notice to the State in which such violation has occurred prior to issuing an order or commencing a civil action under this section.
(3) Any order issued pursuant to this subsection may include a suspension or revocation of any permit issued by the Administrator or a State under this subchapter and shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation. Any penalty assessed in the order shall not exceed $25,000 per day of noncompliance for each violation of a requirement of this subchapter. In assessing such a penalty, the Administrator shall take into account the seriousness of the violation and any good faith efforts to comply with applicable requirements.
(b) Public hearing
Any order issued under this section shall become final unless, no later than thirty days after the order is served, the person or persons named therein request a public hearing. Upon such request the Administrator shall promptly conduct a public hearing. In connection with any proceeding under this section the Administrator may issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and may promulgate rules for discovery procedures.
(c) Violation of compliance orders
If a violator fails to take corrective action within the time specified in a compliance order, the Administrator may assess a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day of continued noncompliance with the order and the Administrator may suspend or revoke any permit issued to the violator (whether issued by the Administrator or the State).
(d) Criminal penalties
Any person who—
(1) knowingly transports or causes to be transported any hazardous waste identified or listed under this subchapter to a facility which does not have a permit under this subchapter, or pursuant to title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (86 Stat. 1052) [33 U.S.C. 1411 et seq.],
(2) knowingly treats, stores, or disposes of any hazardous waste identified or listed under this subchapter—
(A) without a permit under this subchapter or pursuant to title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (86 Stat. 1052) [33 U.S.C. 1411 et seq.]; or
(B) in knowing violation of any material condition or requirement of such permit; or
(C) in knowing violation of any material condition or requirement of any applicable interim status regulations or standards;
(3) knowingly omits material information or makes any false material statement or representation in any application, label, manifest, record, report, permit, or other document filed, maintained, or used for purposes of compliance with regulations promulgated by the Administrator (or by a State in the case of an authorized State program) under this subchapter;
(4) knowingly generates, stores, treats, transports, disposes of, exports, or otherwise handles any hazardous waste or any used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter (whether such activity took place before or takes place after November 8, 1984) and who knowingly destroys, alters, conceals, or fails to file any record, application, manifest, report, or other document required to be maintained or filed for purposes of compliance with regulations promulgated by the Administrator (or by a State in the case of an authorized State program) under this subchapter;
(5) knowingly transports without a manifest, or causes to be transported without a manifest, any hazardous waste or any used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter required by regulations promulgated under this subchapter (or by a State in the case of a State program authorized under this subchapter) to be accompanied by a manifest;
(6) knowingly exports a hazardous waste identified or listed under this subchapter
(A) without the consent of the receiving country or,
(B) where there exists an international agreement between the United States and the government of the receiving country establishing notice, export, and enforcement procedures for the transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes, in a manner which is not in conformance with such agreement; or
(7) knowingly stores, treats, transports, or causes to be transported, disposes of, or otherwise handles any used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter—
(A) in knowing violation of any material condition or requirement of a permit under this subchapter; or
(B) in knowing violation of any material condition or requirement of any applicable regulations or standards under this chapter;
shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not more than $50,000 for each day of violation, or imprisonment not to exceed two years (five years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2)), or both. If the conviction is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment under the respective paragraph shall be doubled with respect to both fine and imprisonment.
(e) Knowing endangerment
Any person who knowingly transports, treats, stores, disposes of, or exports any hazardous waste identified or listed under this subchapter or used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter in violation of paragraph (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), or (7) of subsection (d) of this section who knows at that time that he thereby places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury, shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not more than $250,000 or imprisonment for not more than fifteen years, or both. A defendant that is an organization shall, upon conviction of violating this subsection, be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000,000.
(f) Special rules
For the purposes of subsection (e) of this section—
(1) A person’s state of mind is knowing with respect to—
(A) his conduct, if he is aware of the nature of his conduct;
(B) an existing circumstance, if he is aware or believes that the circumstance exists; or
(C) a result of his conduct, if he is aware or believes that his conduct is substantially certain to cause danger of death or serious bodily injury.
(2) In determining whether a defendant who is a natural person knew that his conduct placed another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury—
(A) the person is responsible only for actual awareness or actual belief that he possessed; and
(B) knowledge possessed by a person other than the defendant but not by the defendant himself may not be attributed to the defendant;
Provided, That in proving the defendant’s possession of actual knowledge, circumstantial evidence may be used, including evidence that the defendant took affirmative steps to shield himself from relevant information.
(3) It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution that the conduct charged was consented to by the person endangered and that the danger and conduct charged were reasonably foreseeable hazards of—
(A) an occupation, a business, or a profession; or
(B) medical treatment or medical or scientific experimentation conducted by professionally approved methods and such other person had been made aware of the risks involved prior to giving consent.
The defendant may establish an affirmative defense under this subsection by a preponderance of the evidence.
(4) All general defenses, affirmative defenses, and bars to prosecution that may apply with respect to other Federal criminal offenses may apply under subsection (e) of this section and shall be determined by the courts of the United States according to the principles of common law as they may be interpreted in the light of reason and experience. Concepts of justification and excuse applicable under this section may be developed in the light of reason and experience.
(5) The term “organization” means a legal entity, other than a government, established, or organized for any purpose, and such term includes a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, joint stock company, foundation, institution, trust, society, union, or any other association of persons.
(6) The term “serious bodily injury” means—
(A) bodily injury which involves a substantial risk of death;
(B) unconsciousness;
(C) extreme physical pain;
(D) protracted and obvious disfigurement; or
(E) protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty.
(g) Civil penalty
Any person who violates any requirement of this subchapter shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $25,000 for each such violation. Each day of such violation shall, for purposes of this subsection, constitute a separate violation.
(h) Interim status corrective action orders
(1) Whenever on the basis of any information the Administrator determines that there is or has been a release of hazardous waste into the environment from a facility authorized to operate under section 6925 (e) of this title, the Administrator may issue an order requiring corrective action or such other response measure as he deems necessary to protect human health or the environment or the Administrator may commence a civil action in the United States district court in the district in which the facility is located for appropriate relief, including a temporary or permanent injunction.
(2) Any order issued under this subsection may include a suspension or revocation of authorization to operate under section 6925 (e) of this title, shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the required corrective action or other response measure, and shall specify a time for compliance. If any person named in an order fails to comply with the order, the Administrator may assess, and such person shall be liable to the United States for, a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $25,000 for each day of noncompliance with the order.

Source

(Pub. L. 89–272, title II, § 3008, as added Pub. L. 94–580, § 2,Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2811; amended Pub. L. 95–609, § 7(k),Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3082; Pub. L. 96–482, § 13,Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2339; Pub. L. 98–616, title II, §§ 232, 233, 245 (c), title IV, § 403(d)(1)–(3), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3256, 3257, 3264, 3272; Pub. L. 99–499, title II, § 205(i),Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1703.)
References in Text

The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), (2)(A), probably means the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, Pub. L. 92–532, Oct. 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 1052, as amended. Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 1411 et seq.) of chapter 27 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1401 of Title 33 and Tables.
Amendments

1986—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–499, § 205(i)(1), inserted “or any used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter”.
Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 99–499, § 205(i)(1), (2), inserted “or any used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter” and struck out “; or” after “accompanied by a manifest;”.
Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 99–499, § 205(i)(3), inserted at end “; or”.
Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 99–499, § 205(i)(4), added par. (7).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–499, § 205(i)(5), inserted “or used oil not identified or listed as a hazardous waste under this subchapter” and substituted “(5), (6), or (7)” for “(5), or (6)”.
1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–616, § 403(d)(1), in amending par. (1) generally, expanded authority of Administrator by empowering him to determine that a person “has violated” a requirement of this subchapter, and to assess a civil penalty for a past or current violation.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–616, § 403(d)(2), in amending par. (3) generally, substituted provision that any order issued pursuant to this subsection may include a suspension or revocation of any permit issued by the Administrator or a State under this subchapter and shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation, and provision that any penalty assessed in the order shall not exceed $25,000 per day of noncompliance for each violation of a requirement of this subchapter, and that in assessing such a penalty, the Administrator take into account the seriousness of the violation and any good faith efforts to comply with applicable requirements, for provision that if such violator fails to take corrective action within the time specified in the order, he shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day of continued noncompliance and the Administrator may suspend or revoke any permit issued to the violator, whether issued by the Administrator or the State.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–616, § 233(b), inserted “issued under this section”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–616, § 403(d)(3), substituted provisions relating to penalties for violation of compliance orders for former provisions which set forth requirements for compliance orders.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(a)(3), amended closing provisions generally. Prior to amendment, closing provisions read as follows: “shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not more than $25,000 ($50,000 in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2)) for each day of violation, or to imprisonment not to exceed one year (two years in the case of a violation of paragraph (1) or (2)), or both. If the conviction is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, punishment shall be by a fine of not more than $50,000 per day of violation, or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or by both.”
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(a)(1), inserted “or causes to be transported” and substituted “this subchapter” for “section 6925 of this title (or section 6926 of this title in case of a State program)”.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(a)(2)(A), struck out “either” after “subchapter” in provision preceding subpar. (A).
Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(a)(2)(B), (c), substituted “this subchapter” for “section 6925 of this title (or section 6926 of this title in the case of a State program)” and struck out “having obtained” before “a permit under”.
Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(a)(2)(C), added subpar. (C).
Subsec. (d)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(a)(3), in amending pars. (3) and (4) generally, expanded par. (3) by providing criminal penalties for one who knowingly omits material information from documents required to be filed, maintained or used under this subchapter, expanded par. (4) by providing criminal penalties for one who knowingly fails to file required material under this subchapter, and added par. (5).
Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 98–616, § 245(c), added par. (6).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–616, § 232(b), in amending subsec. (e) generally, struck out provisions referring to violations of interim status standards and omission of material information from permit applications, struck out provision requiring proof of “unjustifiable and inexcusable disregard for human life” or “extreme indifference to human life” for conviction under this subsection, and inserted provision increasing maximum prison sentence to fifteen years for violation of subsec. (d)(1) through (6) of this section by one who knowingly places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury, replacing former provision calling for maximum imprisonment of two years, or five years in cases evidencing extreme indifference to human life.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–616, § 233(a), added subsec. (h).
1980—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–482, § 13(1), (2), struck out “the Administrator shall give notice to the violator of his failure to comply with such requirement. If such violation extends beyond the thirtieth day after the Administrator’s notification” before “the Administrator may issue” and substituted “compliance immediately or within a specified time period” for “compliance within a specified time period”.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–482, § 13(2), struck out “thirty days” after “violation has occurred”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–482, § 13(3), substituted “order shall become final unless, no later than thirty days after the order is served” for “order or any suspension or revocation of a permit shall become final unless, no later than thirty days after the order or notice of the suspension or revocation is served”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–482, § 13(4), authorized orders for suspension or revocation of permits.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–482, § 13(5), in par. (2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B), in par. (3), inserted provision requiring the statement or representation to be material, added par. (4), and in provisions following par. (4), inserted provision authorizing a fine of $50,000 and a two year imprisonment for violation of par. (1) or (2).
Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 96–482, § 13(5), added subsecs. (e) to (g).
1978—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95–609, § 7(k)(1), inserted provision relating to title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–609, § 7(k)(2), inserted provisions relating to treatment or storage of hazardous wastes and relating to title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act.
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of certain enforcement functions of Administrator or other official of Environmental Protection Agency under this chapter to Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, and subsequent transfer to Secretary of Energy, then to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects, see note set out under section 6903 of this title.

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40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 22 - CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS

40 CFR Part 24 - RULES GOVERNING ISSUANCE OF AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS

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