42 U.S. Code § 7404 - Research relating to fuels and vehicles

(a) Research programs; grants; contracts; pilot and demonstration plants; byproducts research
The Administrator shall give special emphasis to research and development into new and improved methods, having industry-wide application, for the prevention and control of air pollution resulting from the combustion of fuels. In furtherance of such research and development he shall—
(1) conduct and accelerate research programs directed toward development of improved, cost-effective techniques for—
(A) control of combustion byproducts of fuels,
(B) removal of potential air pollutants from fuels prior to combustion,
(C) control of emissions from the evaporation of fuels,
(D) improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as to decrease atmospheric emissions, and
(E) producing synthetic or new fuels which, when used, result in decreased atmospheric emissions. [1]
(2) provide for Federal grants to public or nonprofit agencies, institutions, and organizations and to individuals, and contracts with public or private agencies, institutions, or persons, for payment of
(A) part of the cost of acquiring, constructing, or otherwise securing for research and development purposes, new or improved devices or methods having industrywide application of preventing or controlling discharges into the air of various types of pollutants;
(B) part of the cost of programs to develop low emission alternatives to the present internal combustion engine;
(C) the cost to purchase vehicles and vehicle engines, or portions thereof, for research, development, and testing purposes; and
(D) carrying out the other provisions of this section, without regard to section 3324 (a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41: Provided, That research or demonstration contracts awarded pursuant to this subsection (including contracts for construction) may be made in accordance with, and subject to the limitations provided with respect to research contracts of the military departments in, section 2353 of title 10, except that the determination, approval, and certification required thereby shall be made by the Administrator; Provided further, That no grant may be made under this paragraph in excess of $1,500,000;
(3) determine, by laboratory and pilot plant testing, the results of air pollution research and studies in order to develop new or improved processes and plant designs to the point where they can be demonstrated on a large and practical scale;
(4) construct, operate, and maintain, or assist in meeting the cost of the construction, operation, and maintenance of new or improved demonstration plants or processes which have promise of accomplishing the purposes of this chapter;  [2]
(5) study new or improved methods for the recovery and marketing of commercially valuable byproducts resulting from the removal of pollutants.
(b) Powers of Administrator in establishing research and development programs
In carrying out the provisions of this section, the Administrator may—
(1) conduct and accelerate research and development of cost-effective instrumentation techniques to facilitate determination of quantity and quality of air pollutant emissions, including, but not limited to, automotive emissions;
(2) utilize, on a reimbursable basis, the facilities of existing Federal scientific laboratories;
(3) establish and operate necessary facilities and test sites at which to carry on the research, testing, development, and programming necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section;
(4) acquire secret processes, technical data, inventions, patent applications, patents, licenses, and an interest in lands, plants, and facilities, and other property or rights by purchase, license, lease, or donation; and
(5) cause on-site inspections to be made of promising domestic and foreign projects, and cooperate and participate in their development in instances in which the purposes of the chapter will be served thereby.
(c) Clean alternative fuels
The Administrator shall conduct a research program to identify, characterize, and predict air emissions related to the production, distribution, storage, and use of clean alternative fuels to determine the risks and benefits to human health and the environment relative to those from using conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. The Administrator shall consult with other Federal agencies to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication of activities authorized under this subsection.


[1]  So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

[2]  So in original. The word “and” probably should appear.

Source

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 104, as added Pub. L. 90–148, § 2,Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 487; amended Pub. L. 91–137, Dec. 5, 1969, 83 Stat. 283; Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 2(b), (c), 13 (a), 15 (c)(2),Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, 1677, 1709, 1713; Pub. L. 93–15, § 1(a),Apr. 9, 1973, 87 Stat. 11; Pub. L. 93–319, § 13(a),June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 265; Pub. L. 101–549, title IX, § 901(d),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2706.)
Codification

In subsec. (a)(2)(D), “section 3324 (a) and (b) of title 31 and section 6101 of title 41” substituted for “sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes (31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5)” on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, § 4(b),Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, which Act enacted Title 31, Money and Finance, and Pub. L. 111–350, § 6(c),Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.
Section was formerly classified to section 1857b–1 of this title.
Prior Provisions

A prior section 104 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 105 by Pub. L. 90–148and is classified to section 7405 of this title.
Amendments

1990—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, § 901(d)(1), substituted “cost-effective” for “low-cost”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–549, § 901(d)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: “For the purposes of this section there are authorized to be appropriated $75,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1971, $125,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1972, $150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, and $150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1974, and $150,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1975. Amounts appropriated pursuant to this subsection shall remain available until expended.”
1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–319authorized appropriation of $150,000,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1975.
1973—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–15authorized appropriation of $150,000,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1974.
1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, § 15(c)(2), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–604, § 2(b), inserted provisions authorizing research programs directed toward development of techniques for improving the efficiency of fuels combustion so as to decrease atmospheric emissions, and producing synthetic or new fuels which result in decreased atmospheric emissions.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–604, § 2(c), added cls. (B) and (C) and redesignated former cl. (B) as (D).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, § 15(c)(2), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, § 13(a), substituted provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending June 30, 1971, 1972, and 1973, for provisions authorizing appropriations for fiscal years ending June 30, 1968 and 1969.
1969—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–137authorized appropriation of $45,000,000 for fiscal year ending June 30, 1970.
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Study and Test Program

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 807,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689, provided that: “The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Energy, shall conduct a study and test program on the development of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle. The study and test program shall determine how best to transfer existing NASA hydrogen fuel cell technology into the form of a mass-producible, cost effective hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. Such study and test program shall include at a minimum a feasibility-design study, the construction of a prototype, and a demonstration. This study and test program should be completed and a report submitted to Congress within 3 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990]. This study and test program should be performed in the university or universities which are best exhibiting the facilities and expertise to develop such a fuel cell vehicle.”
Combustion of Contaminated Used Oil in Ships

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, § 813,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2693, provided that: “Within 2 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall complete a study and submit a report to Congress evaluating the health and environmental impacts of the combustion of contaminated used oil in ships, the reasons for using such oil for such purposes, the alternatives to such use, the costs of such alternatives, and other relevant factors and impacts. In preparing such study, the Administrator shall obtain the view and comments of all interested persons and shall consult with the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.”
Extension to Aug. 31, 1970 of Authorization Period for Fiscal Year 1970

Pub. L. 91–316, July 10, 1970, 84 Stat. 416, provided in part that the authorization contained in section 104(c) of the Clean Air Act [subsec. (c) of this section] for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1970, should remain available through Aug. 31, 1970, notwithstanding any provisions of this section.

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42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


2 CFR - Grants and Agreements

2 CFR Part 1532 - NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION

30 CFR - Mineral Resources

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40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 6 - PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 30 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

40 CFR Part 31 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

40 CFR Part 32

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40 CFR Part 51 - REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 52 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 55 - OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS

40 CFR Part 60 - STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES

40 CFR Part 61 - NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 62 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 63 - NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES

40 CFR Part 65 - CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE

40 CFR Part 70 - STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 81 - DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES

40 CFR Part 85 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES

40 CFR Part 86 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES

40 CFR Part 87 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES

40 CFR Part 89 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 90 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS

40 CFR Part 91 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 92 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES

40 CFR Part 93 - DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 94 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 98 - MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING

40 CFR Part 122 - EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM

40 CFR Part 123 - STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

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40 CFR Part 144 - UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 145 - STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

40 CFR Part 233 - 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS

40 CFR Part 270 - EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 271 - REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 451 - CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

40 CFR Part 1027 - FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1036 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1037 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1039 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1045 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS

40 CFR Part 1048 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1051 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1054 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1060 - CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1065 - ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1066 - VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1068 - GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1074 - PREEMPTION OF STATE STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR WAIVER OF FEDERAL PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES

 

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