(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 111, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a),Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1683; amended Pub. L. 92–157, title III, § 302(f),Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 109(a)–(d)(1), (e), (f), title IV, § 401(b),Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 697–703, 791; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(7)–(9), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(a),Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3457; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(e)–(g), title III, § 302(a), (b), title IV, § 403(a),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2467, 2574, 2631.)
References in Text
Such Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), means Pub. L. 93–319
, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 246
, as amended, known as the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, which is classified principally to chapter 16C (§ 791 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549
, title VII, § 701,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672
, and, as so amended, subsec. (d) ofsection
no longer relates to final compliance orders.
Subsection (a)(1) of this section, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549
, title VII, § 403(a),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2631
, and, as so amended, no longer contains subpars.
Section was formerly classified to section
of this title.
A prior section 111 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section
118 by Pub. L. 91–604
and is classified to section
of this title.
1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549
, § 403(a), amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions defining “standard of performance” with respect to any air pollutant for provisions defining such term with respect to subsec. (b) fossil fuel fired and other stationary sources and subsec. (d) particular sources.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–549
, § 108(f), inserted at end “Nothing in subchapter II of this chapter relating to nonroad engines shall be construed to apply to stationary internal combustion engines.”
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–549
, § 108(e)(1), substituted “Within one year” for “Within 120 days”, “within one year” for “within 90 days”, and “every 8 years” for “every four years”, inserted before last sentence “Notwithstanding the requirements of the previous sentence, the Administrator need not review any such standard if the Administrator determines that such review is not appropriate in light of readily available information on the efficacy of such standard.”, and inserted at end “When implementation and enforcement of any requirement of this chapter indicate that emission limitations and percent reductions beyond those required by the standards promulgated under this section are achieved in practice, the Administrator shall, when revising standards promulgated under this section, consider the emission limitations and percent reductions achieved in practice.”
Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–549
, § 302(a), which directed the substitution of “7412(b)” for “7412(b)(1)(A)”, could not be executed, because of the prior amendment by Pub. L. 101–549
, § 108(g), see below.
Pub. L. 101–549
, § 108(g), substituted “or emitted from a source category which is regulated under section
of this title” for “or 7412(b)(1)(A)”.
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–549
, § 108(e)(2), amended par. (1) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring the Administrator to promulgate regulations listing the categories of major stationary sources not on the required list by Aug. 7, 1977, and regulations establishing standards of performance for such categories.
Subsec. (g)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 101–549
, § 302(b), redesignated par. (7) as (5) and struck out “or section
of this title” after “this section”, redesignated par. (8) as (6), and struck out former pars. (5) and (6) which read as follows:
“(5) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to list any air pollutant which causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness as a hazardous air pollutant under section
of this title the Administrator shall revise the list of hazardous air pollutants under such section to include such pollutant.
“(6) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that any category of stationary sources of a hazardous air pollutant listed under section
of this title is not subject to emission standards under such section, the Administrator shall propose and promulgate such emission standards applicable to such category of sources.”
1978—Subsecs. (d)(1)(A)(ii), (g)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–623
, § 13(a)(2), substituted “under this section” for “under subsection (b) of this section”.
Subsec. (h)(5). Pub. L. 95–623
, § 13(a)(1), added par. (5).
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–623
, § 13(a)(3), substituted in pars. (1)(A) and (2)(A) “standards under this section” and “under this section” for “standards under subsection (b) of this section” and “under subsection (b) of this section”, respectively.
1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(c)(1)(A), added subpars. (A), (B), and (C), substituted “For the purpose of subparagraphs (A)(i) and (ii) and (B), a standard of performance shall reflect” for “a standard for emissions of air pollutants which reflects”, “and the percentage reduction achievable” for “achievable”, and “technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any nonair quality health and environment impact and energy requirements)” for “system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction)” in existing provisions, and inserted provision that, for the purpose of subparagraph (1)(A)(ii), any cleaning of the fuel or reduction in the pollution characteristics of the fuel after extraction and prior to combustion may be credited, as determined under regulations promulgated by the Administrator, to a source which burns such fuel.
Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(c)(1)(B), added par. (7) defining “technological system of continuous emission reduction”.
Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(f), added par. (7) directing that under certain circumstances a conversion to coal not be deemed a modification for purposes of pars. (2) and (4).
Subsec. (a)(7), (8). Pub. L. 95–190
, § 14(a)(7), redesignated second par. (7) as (8).
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 401(b), substituted “such list if in his judgment it causes, or contributes significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger” for “such list if he determines it may contribute significantly to air pollution which causes or contributes to the endangerment of”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(c)(2), substituted “shall, at least every four years, review and, if appropriate,” for “may, from time to time,”.
Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(c)(3), added pars. (5) and (6).
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(d)(1), struck out “(except with respect to new sources owned or operated by the United States)” after “implement and enforce such standards”.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(b)(1), substituted “standards of performance” for “emission standards” and inserted provisions directing that regulations of the Administrator permit the State, in applying a standard of performance to any particular source under a submitted plan, to take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful life of the existing source to which the standard applies.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(b)(2), provided that, in promulgating a standard of performance under a plan, the Administrator take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful lives of the sources in the category of sources to which the standard applies.
Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(a), added subsecs. (f) to (i).
Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 95–190
, § 14(a)(8), (9), redesignatedsubsec. (k) as (j) and, as so redesignated, substituted “(B)” for “(8)” as designation for second subpar. in par. (2). Former subsec. (j), added by Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(e), which related to compliance with applicable standards of performance, was struck out.
Pub. L. 95–95
, § 109(e), added subsec. (k).
1971—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 92–157
substituted in first sentence “publish proposed” for “propose”.
Effective Date of 1977 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95
effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) ofPub. L. 95–95
, set out as a note under section
of this title.
Pub. L. 101–549
, title IV, § 403(b), (c),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2631
, provided that:
“(b) Revised Regulations.—Not later than three years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall promulgate revised regulations for standards of performance for new fossil fuel fired electric utility units commencing construction after the date on which such regulations are proposed that, at a minimum, require any source subject to such revised standards to emit sulfur dioxide at a rate not greater than would have resulted from compliance by such source with the applicable standards of performance under this section [amending sections
of this title] prior to such revision.
“(c) Applicability.—The provisions of subsections (a) [amending this section] and (b) apply only so long as the provisions of section 403(e) of the Clean Air Act [42
] remain in effect.”
Transfer of Functions
Enforcement functions of Administrator or other official in Environmental Protection Agency related to compliance with new source performance standards under this section with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas transferred to Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until first anniversary of date of initial operation of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, eff. July 1, 1979, §§ 102(a),
, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373
, 1376, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) ofPub. L. 102–486
, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section
, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section
Pending Actions and Proceedings
Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95
[Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95
, see section 406(a) ofPub. L. 95–95
, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section
of this title.
Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions
All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95
[Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95
[this chapter], see section 406(b) ofPub. L. 95–95
, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section
of this title.
Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards
Memorandum of President of the United States, June 25, 2013, 78
Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
With every passing day, the urgency of addressing climate change intensifies. I made clear in my State of the Union address that my Administration is committed to reducing carbon pollution that causes climate change, preparing our communities for the consequences of climate change, and speeding the transition to more sustainable sources of energy.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has already undertaken such action with regard to carbon pollution from the transportation sector, issuing Clean Air Act standards limiting the greenhouse gas emissions of new cars and light trucks through 2025 and heavy duty trucks through 2018. The EPA standards were promulgated in conjunction with the Department of Transportation, which, at the same time, established fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks as part of a harmonized national program. Both agencies engaged constructively with auto manufacturers, labor unions, States, and other stakeholders, and the resulting standards have received broad support. These standards will reduce the Nation’s carbon pollution and dependence on oil, and also lead to greater innovation, economic growth, and cost savings for American families.
The United States now has the opportunity to address carbon pollution from the power sector, which produces nearly 40 percent of such pollution. As a country, we can continue our progress in reducing power plant pollution, thereby improving public health and protecting the environment, while supplying the reliable, affordable power needed for economic growth and advancing cleaner energy technologies, such as efficient natural gas, nuclear power, renewables such as wind and solar energy, and clean coal technology.
Investments in these technologies will also strengthen our economy, as the clean and efficient production and use of electricity will ensure that it remains reliable and affordable for American businesses and families.
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to reduce power plant carbon pollution, building on actions already underway in States and the power sector, I hereby direct the following:
Section 1. Flexible Carbon Pollution Standards for Power Plants. (a) Carbon Pollution Standards for Future Power Plants. On April 13, 2012, the EPA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled “Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units,” 77 Fed. Reg. 22392. In light of the information conveyed in more than two million comments on that proposal and ongoing developments in the industry, you have indicated EPA’s intention to issue a new proposal. I therefore direct you to issue a new proposal by no later than September 20, 2013. I further direct you to issue a final rule in a timely fashion after considering all public comments, as appropriate.
(b) Carbon Pollution Regulation for Modified, Reconstructed, and Existing Power Plants. To ensure continued progress in reducing harmful carbon pollution, I direct you to use your authority under sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to issue standards, regulations, or guidelines, as appropriate, that address carbon pollution from modified, reconstructed, and existing power plants and build on State efforts to move toward a cleaner power sector. In addition, I request that you:
(i) issue proposed carbon pollution standards, regulations, or guidelines, as appropriate, for modified, reconstructed, and existing power plants by no later than June 1, 2014;
(ii) issue final standards, regulations, or guidelines, as appropriate, for modified, reconstructed, and existing power plants by no later than June 1, 2015; and
(iii) include in the guidelines addressing existing power plants a requirement that States submit to EPA the implementation plans required under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act and its implementing regulations by no later than June 30, 2016.
(c) Development of Standards, Regulations, or Guidelines for Power Plants. In developing standards, regulations, or guidelines pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and consistent with Executive Orders 12866 of September 30, 1993, as amended, and 13563 of January 18, 2011, you shall ensure, to the greatest extent possible, that you:
(i) launch this effort through direct engagement with States, as they will play a central role in establishing and implementing standards for existing power plants, and, at the same time, with leaders in the power sector, labor leaders, non-governmental organizations, other experts, tribal officials, other stakeholders, and members of the public, on issues informing the design of the program;
(ii) consistent with achieving regulatory objectives and taking into account other relevant environmental regulations and policies that affect the power sector, tailor regulations and guidelines to reduce costs;
(iii) develop approaches that allow the use of market-based instruments, performance standards, and other regulatory flexibilities;
(iv) ensure that the standards enable continued reliance on a range of energy sources and technologies;
(v) ensure that the standards are developed and implemented in a manner consistent with the continued provision of reliable and affordable electric power for consumers and businesses; and
(vi) work with the Department of Energy and other Federal and State agencies to promote the reliable and affordable provision of electric power through the continued development and deployment of cleaner technologies and by increasing energy efficiency, including through stronger appliance efficiency standards and other measures.
Sec. 2. General Provisions. (a) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law, including international trade obligations, and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(b) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) the authority granted by law to a department, agency, or the head thereof; or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
(d) You are hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.