42 U.S. Code § 7411 - Standards of performance for new stationary sources

(a) Definitions
For purposes of this section:
(1) The term “standard of performance” means a standard for emissions of air pollutants which reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any nonair quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated.
(2) The term “new source” means any stationary source, the construction or modification of which is commenced after the publication of regulations (or, if earlier, proposed regulations) prescribing a standard of performance under this section which will be applicable to such source.
(3) The term “stationary source” means any building, structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant. Nothing in subchapter II of this chapter relating to nonroad engines shall be construed to apply to stationary internal combustion engines.
(4) The term “modification” means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a stationary source which increases the amount of any air pollutant emitted by such source or which results in the emission of any air pollutant not previously emitted.
(5) The term “owner or operator” means any person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises a stationary source.
(6) The term “existing source” means any stationary source other than a new source.
(7) The term “technological system of continuous emission reduction” means—
(A) a technological process for production or operation by any source which is inherently low-polluting or nonpolluting, or
(B) a technological system for continuous reduction of the pollution generated by a source before such pollution is emitted into the ambient air, including precombustion cleaning or treatment of fuels.
(8) A conversion to coal
(A) by reason of an order under section 2(a) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 [15 U.S.C. 792 (a)] or any amendment thereto, or any subsequent enactment which supersedes such Act [15 U.S.C. 791 et seq.], or
(B) which qualifies under section 7413 (d)(5)(A)(ii)  [1] of this title, shall not be deemed to be a modification for purposes of paragraphs (2) and (4) of this subsection.
(b) List of categories of stationary sources; standards of performance; information on pollution control techniques; sources owned or operated by United States; particular systems; revised standards
(1)
(A) The Administrator shall, within 90 days after December 31, 1970, publish (and from time to time thereafter shall revise) a list of categories of stationary sources. He shall include a category of sources in such list if in his judgment it causes, or contributes significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.
(B) Within one year after the inclusion of a category of stationary sources in a list under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall publish proposed regulations, establishing Federal standards of performance for new sources within such category. The Administrator shall afford interested persons an opportunity for written comment on such proposed regulations. After considering such comments, he shall promulgate, within one year after such publication, such standards with such modifications as he deems appropriate. The Administrator shall, at least every 8 years, review and, if appropriate, revise such standards following the procedure required by this subsection for promulgation of such standards. Notwithstanding the requirements of the previous sentence, the Administrator need not review any such standard if the Administrator determines that such review is not appropriate in light of readily available information on the efficacy of such standard. Standards of performance or revisions thereof shall become effective upon promulgation. When implementation and enforcement of any requirement of this chapter indicate that emission limitations and percent reductions beyond those required by the standards promulgated under this section are achieved in practice, the Administrator shall, when revising standards promulgated under this section, consider the emission limitations and percent reductions achieved in practice.
(2) The Administrator may distinguish among classes, types, and sizes within categories of new sources for the purpose of establishing such standards.
(3) The Administrator shall, from time to time, issue information on pollution control techniques for categories of new sources and air pollutants subject to the provisions of this section.
(4) The provisions of this section shall apply to any new source owned or operated by the United States.
(5) Except as otherwise authorized under subsection (h) of this section, nothing in this section shall be construed to require, or to authorize the Administrator to require, any new or modified source to install and operate any particular technological system of continuous emission reduction to comply with any new source standard of performance.
(6) The revised standards of performance required by enactment of subsection (a)(1)(A)(i) and (ii)  [1] of this section shall be promulgated not later than one year after August 7, 1977. Any new or modified fossil fuel fired stationary source which commences construction prior to the date of publication of the proposed revised standards shall not be required to comply with such revised standards.
(c) State implementation and enforcement of standards of performance
(1) Each State may develop and submit to the Administrator a procedure for implementing and enforcing standards of performance for new sources located in such State. If the Administrator finds the State procedure is adequate, he shall delegate to such State any authority he has under this chapter to implement and enforce such standards.
(2) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Administrator from enforcing any applicable standard of performance under this section.
(d) Standards of performance for existing sources; remaining useful life of source
(1) The Administrator shall prescribe regulations which shall establish a procedure similar to that provided by section 7410 of this title under which each State shall submit to the Administrator a plan which
(A) establishes standards of performance for any existing source for any air pollutant
(i) for which air quality criteria have not been issued or which is not included on a list published under section 7408 (a) of this title or emitted from a source category which is regulated under section 7412 of this title but
(ii) to which a standard of performance under this section would apply if such existing source were a new source, and
(B) provides for the implementation and enforcement of such standards of performance. Regulations of the Administrator under this paragraph shall permit the State in applying a standard of performance to any particular source under a plan submitted under this paragraph to take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful life of the existing source to which such standard applies.
(2) The Administrator shall have the same authority—
(A) to prescribe a plan for a State in cases where the State fails to submit a satisfactory plan as he would have under section 7410 (c) of this title in the case of failure to submit an implementation plan, and
(B) to enforce the provisions of such plan in cases where the State fails to enforce them as he would have under sections 7413 and 7414 of this title with respect to an implementation plan.
In promulgating a standard of performance under a plan prescribed under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into consideration, among other factors, remaining useful lives of the sources in the category of sources to which such standard applies.
(e) Prohibited acts
After the effective date of standards of performance promulgated under this section, it shall be unlawful for any owner or operator of any new source to operate such source in violation of any standard of performance applicable to such source.
(f) New source standards of performance
(1) For those categories of major stationary sources that the Administrator listed under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section before November 15, 1990, and for which regulations had not been proposed by the Administrator by November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall—
(A) propose regulations establishing standards of performance for at least 25 percent of such categories of sources within 2 years after November 15, 1990;
(B) propose regulations establishing standards of performance for at least 50 percent of such categories of sources within 4 years after November 15, 1990; and
(C) propose regulations for the remaining categories of sources within 6 years after November 15, 1990.
(2) In determining priorities for promulgating standards for categories of major stationary sources for the purpose of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall consider—
(A) the quantity of air pollutant emissions which each such category will emit, or will be designed to emit;
(B) the extent to which each such pollutant may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare; and
(C) the mobility and competitive nature of each such category of sources and the consequent need for nationally applicable new source standards of performance.
(3) Before promulgating any regulations under this subsection or listing any category of major stationary sources as required under this subsection, the Administrator shall consult with appropriate representatives of the Governors and of State air pollution control agencies.
(g) Revision of regulations
(1) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to specify in regulations under subsection (f)(1) of this section any category of major stationary sources required to be specified under such regulations, the Administrator shall revise such regulations to specify any such category.
(2) Upon application of the Governor of a State, showing that any category of stationary sources which is not included in the list under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section contributes significantly to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare (notwithstanding that such category is not a category of major stationary sources), the Administrator shall revise such regulations to specify such category of stationary sources.
(3) Upon application of the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to apply properly the criteria required to be considered under subsection (f)(2) of this section, the Administrator shall revise the list under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section to apply properly such criteria.
(4) Upon application of the Governor of a State showing that—
(A) a new, innovative, or improved technology or process which achieves greater continuous emission reduction has been adequately demonstrated for any category of stationary sources, and
(B) as a result of such technology or process, the new source standard of performance in effect under this section for such category no longer reflects the greatest degree of emission limitation achievable through application of the best technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) has been adequately demonstrated,
the Administrator shall revise such standard of performance for such category accordingly.
(5) Unless later deadlines for action of the Administrator are otherwise prescribed under this section, the Administrator shall, not later than three months following the date of receipt of any application by a Governor of a State, either—
(A) find that such application does not contain the requisite showing and deny such application, or
(B) grant such application and take the action required under this subsection.
(6) Before taking any action required by subsection (f) of this section or by this subsection, the Administrator shall provide notice and opportunity for public hearing.
(h) Design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard; alternative emission limitation
(1) For purposes of this section, if in the judgment of the Administrator, it is not feasible to prescribe or enforce a standard of performance, he may instead promulgate a design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or combination thereof, which reflects the best technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirements) the Administrator determines has been adequately demonstrated. In the event the Administrator promulgates a design or equipment standard under this subsection, he shall include as part of such standard such requirements as will assure the proper operation and maintenance of any such element of design or equipment.
(2) For the purpose of this subsection, the phrase “not feasible to prescribe or enforce a standard of performance” means any situation in which the Administrator determines that
(A) a pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such pollutant, or that any requirement for, or use of, such a conveyance would be inconsistent with any Federal, State, or local law, or
(B) the application of measurement methodology to a particular class of sources is not practicable due to technological or economic limitations.
(3) If after notice and opportunity for public hearing, any person establishes to the satisfaction of the Administrator that an alternative means of emission limitation will achieve a reduction in emissions of any air pollutant at least equivalent to the reduction in emissions of such air pollutant achieved under the requirements of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall permit the use of such alternative by the source for purposes of compliance with this section with respect to such pollutant.
(4) Any standard promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be promulgated in terms of standard of performance whenever it becomes feasible to promulgate and enforce such standard in such terms.
(5) Any design, equipment, work practice, or operational standard, or any combination thereof, described in this subsection shall be treated as a standard of performance for purposes of the provisions of this chapter (other than the provisions of subsection (a) of this section and this subsection).
(i) Country elevators
Any regulations promulgated by the Administrator under this section applicable to grain elevators shall not apply to country elevators (as defined by the Administrator) which have a storage capacity of less than two million five hundred thousand bushels.
(j) Innovative technological systems of continuous emission reduction
(1)
(A) Any person proposing to own or operate a new source may request the Administrator for one or more waivers from the requirements of this section for such source or any portion thereof with respect to any air pollutant to encourage the use of an innovative technological system or systems of continuous emission reduction. The Administrator may, with the consent of the Governor of the State in which the source is to be located, grant a waiver under this paragraph, if the Administrator determines after notice and opportunity for public hearing, that—
(i) the proposed system or systems have not been adequately demonstrated,
(ii) the proposed system or systems will operate effectively and there is a substantial likelihood that such system or systems will achieve greater continuous emission reduction than that required to be achieved under the standards of performance which would otherwise apply, or achieve at least an equivalent reduction at lower cost in terms of energy, economic, or nonair quality environmental impact,
(iii) the owner or operator of the proposed source has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the proposed system will not cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety in its operation, function, or malfunction, and
(iv) the granting of such waiver is consistent with the requirements of subparagraph (C).
In making any determination under clause (ii), the Administrator shall take into account any previous failure of such system or systems to operate effectively or to meet any requirement of the new source performance standards. In determining whether an unreasonable risk exists under clause (iii), the Administrator shall consider, among other factors, whether and to what extent the use of the proposed technological system will cause, increase, reduce, or eliminate emissions of any unregulated pollutants; available methods for reducing or eliminating any risk to public health, welfare, or safety which may be associated with the use of such system; and the availability of other technological systems which may be used to conform to standards under this section without causing or contributing to such unreasonable risk. The Administrator may conduct such tests and may require the owner or operator of the proposed source to conduct such tests and provide such information as is necessary to carry out clause (iii) of this subparagraph. Such requirements shall include a requirement for prompt reporting of the emission of any unregulated pollutant from a system if such pollutant was not emitted, or was emitted in significantly lesser amounts without use of such system.
(B) A waiver under this paragraph shall be granted on such terms and conditions as the Administrator determines to be necessary to assure—
(i) emissions from the source will not prevent attainment and maintenance of any national ambient air quality standards, and
(ii) proper functioning of the technological system or systems authorized.
Any such term or condition shall be treated as a standard of performance for the purposes of subsection (e) of this section and section 7413 of this title.
(C) The number of waivers granted under this paragraph with respect to a proposed technological system of continuous emission reduction shall not exceed such number as the Administrator finds necessary to ascertain whether or not such system will achieve the conditions specified in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A).
(D) A waiver under this paragraph shall extend to the sooner of—
(i) the date determined by the Administrator, after consultation with the owner or operator of the source, taking into consideration the design, installation, and capital cost of the technological system or systems being used, or
(ii) the date on which the Administrator determines that such system has failed to—
(I) achieve at least an equivalent continuous emission reduction to that required to be achieved under the standards of performance which would otherwise apply, or
(II) comply with the condition specified in paragraph (1)(A)(iii),
and that such failure cannot be corrected.
(E) In carrying out subparagraph (D)(i), the Administrator shall not permit any waiver for a source or portion thereof to extend beyond the date—
(i) seven years after the date on which any waiver is granted to such source or portion thereof, or
(ii) four years after the date on which such source or portion thereof commences operation,
whichever is earlier.
(F) No waiver under this subsection shall apply to any portion of a source other than the portion on which the innovative technological system or systems of continuous emission reduction is used.
(2)
(A) If a waiver under paragraph (1) is terminated under clause (ii) of paragraph (1)(D), the Administrator shall grant an extension of the requirements of this section for such source for such minimum period as may be necessary to comply with the applicable standard of performance under this section. Such period shall not extend beyond the date three years from the time such waiver is terminated.
(B) An extension granted under this paragraph shall set forth emission limits and a compliance schedule containing increments of progress which require compliance with the applicable standards of performance as expeditiously as practicable and include such measures as are necessary and practicable in the interim to minimize emissions. Such schedule shall be treated as a standard of performance for purposes of subsection (e) of this section and section 7413 of this title.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 111, as added Pub. L. 91–604, § 4(a),Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1683; amended Pub. L. 92–157, title III, § 302(f),Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 109(a)–(d)(1), (e), (f), title IV, § 401(b),Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 697–703, 791; Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(7)–(9), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1399; Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(a),Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3457; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, § 108(e)–(g), title III, § 302(a), (b), title IV, § 403(a),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2467, 2574, 2631.)
References in Text

Such Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), means Pub. L. 93–319, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 246, as amended, known as the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, which is classified principally to chapter 16C (§ 791 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 791 of Title 15 and Tables.
Section 7413 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(8), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 701,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, subsec. (d) ofsection 7413 no longer relates to final compliance orders.
Subsection (a)(1) of this section, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 403(a),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2631, and, as so amended, no longer contains subpars.
Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857c–6 of this title.
Prior Provisions

A prior section 111 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 118 by Pub. L. 91–604and is classified to section 7418 of this title.
Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, § 403(a), amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions defining “standard of performance” with respect to any air pollutant for provisions defining such term with respect to subsec. (b) fossil fuel fired and other stationary sources and subsec. (d) particular sources.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, § 108(f), inserted at end “Nothing in subchapter II of this chapter relating to nonroad engines shall be construed to apply to stationary internal combustion engines.”
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–549, § 108(e)(1), substituted “Within one year” for “Within 120 days”, “within one year” for “within 90 days”, and “every 8 years” for “every four years”, inserted before last sentence “Notwithstanding the requirements of the previous sentence, the Administrator need not review any such standard if the Administrator determines that such review is not appropriate in light of readily available information on the efficacy of such standard.”, and inserted at end “When implementation and enforcement of any requirement of this chapter indicate that emission limitations and percent reductions beyond those required by the standards promulgated under this section are achieved in practice, the Administrator shall, when revising standards promulgated under this section, consider the emission limitations and percent reductions achieved in practice.”
Subsec. (d)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 101–549, § 302(a), which directed the substitution of “7412(b)” for “7412(b)(1)(A)”, could not be executed, because of the prior amendment by Pub. L. 101–549, § 108(g), see below.
Pub. L. 101–549, § 108(g), substituted “or emitted from a source category which is regulated under section 7412 of this title” for “or 7412(b)(1)(A)”.
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, § 108(e)(2), amended par. (1) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring the Administrator to promulgate regulations listing the categories of major stationary sources not on the required list by Aug. 7, 1977, and regulations establishing standards of performance for such categories.
Subsec. (g)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 101–549, § 302(b), redesignated par. (7) as (5) and struck out “or section 7412 of this title” after “this section”, redesignated par. (8) as (6), and struck out former pars. (5) and (6) which read as follows:
“(5) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that the Administrator has failed to list any air pollutant which causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness as a hazardous air pollutant under section 7412 of this title the Administrator shall revise the list of hazardous air pollutants under such section to include such pollutant.
“(6) Upon application by the Governor of a State showing that any category of stationary sources of a hazardous air pollutant listed under section 7412 of this title is not subject to emission standards under such section, the Administrator shall propose and promulgate such emission standards applicable to such category of sources.”
1978—Subsecs. (d)(1)(A)(ii), (g)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(a)(2), substituted “under this section” for “under subsection (b) of this section”.
Subsec. (h)(5). Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(a)(1), added par. (5).
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 95–623, § 13(a)(3), substituted in pars. (1)(A) and (2)(A) “standards under this section” and “under this section” for “standards under subsection (b) of this section” and “under subsection (b) of this section”, respectively.
1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(c)(1)(A), added subpars. (A), (B), and (C), substituted “For the purpose of subparagraphs (A)(i) and (ii) and (B), a standard of performance shall reflect” for “a standard for emissions of air pollutants which reflects”, “and the percentage reduction achievable” for “achievable”, and “technological system of continuous emission reduction which (taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction, and any nonair quality health and environment impact and energy requirements)” for “system of emission reduction which (taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction)” in existing provisions, and inserted provision that, for the purpose of subparagraph (1)(A)(ii), any cleaning of the fuel or reduction in the pollution characteristics of the fuel after extraction and prior to combustion may be credited, as determined under regulations promulgated by the Administrator, to a source which burns such fuel.
Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(c)(1)(B), added par. (7) defining “technological system of continuous emission reduction”.
Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(f), added par. (7) directing that under certain circumstances a conversion to coal not be deemed a modification for purposes of pars. (2) and (4).
Subsec. (a)(7), (8). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(7), redesignated second par. (7) as (8).
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–95, § 401(b), substituted “such list if in his judgment it causes, or contributes significantly to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger” for “such list if he determines it may contribute significantly to air pollution which causes or contributes to the endangerment of”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(c)(2), substituted “shall, at least every four years, review and, if appropriate,” for “may, from time to time,”.
Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(c)(3), added pars. (5) and (6).
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(d)(1), struck out “(except with respect to new sources owned or operated by the United States)” after “implement and enforce such standards”.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(b)(1), substituted “standards of performance” for “emission standards” and inserted provisions directing that regulations of the Administrator permit the State, in applying a standard of performance to any particular source under a submitted plan, to take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful life of the existing source to which the standard applies.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(b)(2), provided that, in promulgating a standard of performance under a plan, the Administrator take into consideration, among other factors, the remaining useful lives of the sources in the category of sources to which the standard applies.
Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(a), added subsecs. (f) to (i).
Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(8), (9), redesignatedsubsec. (k) as (j) and, as so redesignated, substituted “(B)” for “(8)” as designation for second subpar. in par. (2). Former subsec. (j), added by Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(e), which related to compliance with applicable standards of performance, was struck out.
Pub. L. 95–95, § 109(e), added subsec. (k).
1971—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 92–157substituted in first sentence “publish proposed” for “propose”.
Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) ofPub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.
Regulations

Pub. L. 101–549, title IV, § 403(b), (c),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2631, provided that:
“(b) Revised Regulations.—Not later than three years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall promulgate revised regulations for standards of performance for new fossil fuel fired electric utility units commencing construction after the date on which such regulations are proposed that, at a minimum, require any source subject to such revised standards to emit sulfur dioxide at a rate not greater than would have resulted from compliance by such source with the applicable standards of performance under this section [amending sections 7411 and 7479 of this title] prior to such revision.
“(c) Applicability.—The provisions of subsections (a) [amending this section] and (b) apply only so long as the provisions of section 403(e) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7651b (e)] remain in effect.”
Transfer of Functions

Enforcement functions of Administrator or other official in Environmental Protection Agency related to compliance with new source performance standards under this section with respect to pre-construction, construction, and initial operation of transportation system for Canadian and Alaskan natural gas transferred to Federal Inspector, Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, until first anniversary of date of initial operation of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System, see Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1979, eff. July 1, 1979, §§ 102(a), 203 (a),44 F.R. 33663, 33666, 93 Stat. 1373, 1376, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Office of Federal Inspector for the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System abolished and functions and authority vested in Inspector transferred to Secretary of Energy by section 3012(b) ofPub. L. 102–486, set out as an Abolition of Office of Federal Inspector note under section 719e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Functions and authority vested in Secretary of Energy subsequently transferred to Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects by section 720d (f) of Title 15.
Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95[Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) ofPub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.
Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95[Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95[this chapter], see section 406(b) ofPub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.
Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

Memorandum of President of the United States, June 25, 2013, 78 F.R. 39535, provided:
Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
With every passing day, the urgency of addressing climate change intensifies. I made clear in my State of the Union address that my Administration is committed to reducing carbon pollution that causes climate change, preparing our communities for the consequences of climate change, and speeding the transition to more sustainable sources of energy.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has already undertaken such action with regard to carbon pollution from the transportation sector, issuing Clean Air Act standards limiting the greenhouse gas emissions of new cars and light trucks through 2025 and heavy duty trucks through 2018. The EPA standards were promulgated in conjunction with the Department of Transportation, which, at the same time, established fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks as part of a harmonized national program. Both agencies engaged constructively with auto manufacturers, labor unions, States, and other stakeholders, and the resulting standards have received broad support. These standards will reduce the Nation’s carbon pollution and dependence on oil, and also lead to greater innovation, economic growth, and cost savings for American families.
The United States now has the opportunity to address carbon pollution from the power sector, which produces nearly 40 percent of such pollution. As a country, we can continue our progress in reducing power plant pollution, thereby improving public health and protecting the environment, while supplying the reliable, affordable power needed for economic growth and advancing cleaner energy technologies, such as efficient natural gas, nuclear power, renewables such as wind and solar energy, and clean coal technology.
Investments in these technologies will also strengthen our economy, as the clean and efficient production and use of electricity will ensure that it remains reliable and affordable for American businesses and families.
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to reduce power plant carbon pollution, building on actions already underway in States and the power sector, I hereby direct the following:
Section 1. Flexible Carbon Pollution Standards for Power Plants. (a) Carbon Pollution Standards for Future Power Plants. On April 13, 2012, the EPA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking entitled “Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions for New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units,” 77 Fed. Reg. 22392. In light of the information conveyed in more than two million comments on that proposal and ongoing developments in the industry, you have indicated EPA’s intention to issue a new proposal. I therefore direct you to issue a new proposal by no later than September 20, 2013. I further direct you to issue a final rule in a timely fashion after considering all public comments, as appropriate.
(b) Carbon Pollution Regulation for Modified, Reconstructed, and Existing Power Plants. To ensure continued progress in reducing harmful carbon pollution, I direct you to use your authority under sections 111(b) and 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to issue standards, regulations, or guidelines, as appropriate, that address carbon pollution from modified, reconstructed, and existing power plants and build on State efforts to move toward a cleaner power sector. In addition, I request that you:
(i) issue proposed carbon pollution standards, regulations, or guidelines, as appropriate, for modified, reconstructed, and existing power plants by no later than June 1, 2014;
(ii) issue final standards, regulations, or guidelines, as appropriate, for modified, reconstructed, and existing power plants by no later than June 1, 2015; and
(iii) include in the guidelines addressing existing power plants a requirement that States submit to EPA the implementation plans required under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act and its implementing regulations by no later than June 30, 2016.
(c) Development of Standards, Regulations, or Guidelines for Power Plants. In developing standards, regulations, or guidelines pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, and consistent with Executive Orders 12866 of September 30, 1993, as amended, and 13563 of January 18, 2011, you shall ensure, to the greatest extent possible, that you:
(i) launch this effort through direct engagement with States, as they will play a central role in establishing and implementing standards for existing power plants, and, at the same time, with leaders in the power sector, labor leaders, non-governmental organizations, other experts, tribal officials, other stakeholders, and members of the public, on issues informing the design of the program;
(ii) consistent with achieving regulatory objectives and taking into account other relevant environmental regulations and policies that affect the power sector, tailor regulations and guidelines to reduce costs;
(iii) develop approaches that allow the use of market-based instruments, performance standards, and other regulatory flexibilities;
(iv) ensure that the standards enable continued reliance on a range of energy sources and technologies;
(v) ensure that the standards are developed and implemented in a manner consistent with the continued provision of reliable and affordable electric power for consumers and businesses; and
(vi) work with the Department of Energy and other Federal and State agencies to promote the reliable and affordable provision of electric power through the continued development and deployment of cleaner technologies and by increasing energy efficiency, including through stronger appliance efficiency standards and other measures.
Sec. 2. General Provisions. (a) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law, including international trade obligations, and subject to the availability of appropriations.
(b) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:
(i) the authority granted by law to a department, agency, or the head thereof; or
(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.
(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.
(d) You are hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
Barack Obama.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


2 CFR - Grants and Agreements

2 CFR Part 1532 - NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION

23 CFR - Highways

23 CFR Part 450 - PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS

23 CFR Part 970 - NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

23 CFR Part 971 - FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

23 CFR Part 972 - FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

23 CFR Part 973 - MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM

30 CFR - Mineral Resources

30 CFR Part 913 - ILLINOIS

40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 6 - PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 30 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

40 CFR Part 31 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

40 CFR Part 32

40 CFR Part 34 - NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING

40 CFR Part 35 - STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE

40 CFR Part 49 - INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

40 CFR Part 50 - NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

40 CFR Part 51 - REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 52 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 55 - OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS

40 CFR Part 58 - AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE

40 CFR Part 60 - STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES

40 CFR Part 61 - NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 62 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 63 - NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES

40 CFR Part 65 - CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE

40 CFR Part 70 - STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 72 - PERMITS REGULATION

40 CFR Part 78 - APPEAL PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 81 - DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES

40 CFR Part 85 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES

40 CFR Part 86 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES

40 CFR Part 87 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES

40 CFR Part 89 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 90 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS

40 CFR Part 91 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 92 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES

40 CFR Part 93 - DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 94 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 98 - MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING

40 CFR Part 122 - EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM

40 CFR Part 123 - STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

40 CFR Part 124 - PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING

40 CFR Part 144 - UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 145 - STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

40 CFR Part 233 - 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS

40 CFR Part 270 - EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 271 - REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 451 - CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

40 CFR Part 1027 - FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1036 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1037 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1039 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1045 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS

40 CFR Part 1048 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1051 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1054 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1060 - CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1065 - ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1066 - VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1068 - GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1074 - PREEMPTION OF STATE STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR WAIVER OF FEDERAL PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES

49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 613 - PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS

 

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