42 U.S. Code § 7420 - Noncompliance penalty

(a) Assessment and collection
(1)
(A) Not later than 6 months after August 7, 1977, and after notice and opportunity for a public hearing, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations requiring the assessment and collection of a noncompliance penalty against persons referred to in paragraph (2)(A).
(B)
(i) Each State may develop and submit to the Administrator a plan for carrying out this section in such State. If the Administrator finds that the State plan meets the requirements of this section, he may delegate to such State any authority he has to carry out this section.
(ii) Notwithstanding a delegation to a State under clause (i), the Administrator may carry out this section in such State under the circumstances described in subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B) or (C) of this paragraph, the State or the Administrator shall assess and collect a noncompliance penalty against every person who owns or operates—
(i) a major stationary source (other than a primary nonferrous smelter which has received a primary nonferrous smelter order under section 7419 of this title), which is not in compliance with any emission limitation, emission standard or compliance schedule under any applicable implementation plan (whether or not such source is subject to a Federal or State consent decree), or
(ii) a stationary source which is not in compliance with an emission limitation, emission standard, standard of performance, or other requirement established under section 7411, 7477, 7603, or 7412 of this title, or
(iii) a stationary source which is not in compliance with any requirement of subchapter IV–A, V, or VI of this chapter, or
(iv) any source referred to in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) (for which an extension, order, or suspension referred to in subparagraph (B), or Federal or State consent decree is in effect), or a primary nonferrous smelter which has received a primary nonferrous smelter order under section 7419 of this title which is not in compliance with any interim emission control requirement or schedule of compliance under such extension, order, suspension, or consent decree.
For purposes of subsection (d)(2) of this section, in the case of a penalty assessed with respect to a source referred to in clause (iii) of this subparagraph, the costs referred to in such subsection (d)(2) shall be the economic value of noncompliance with the interim emission control requirement or the remaining steps in the schedule of compliance referred to in such clause.
(B) Notwithstanding the requirements of subparagraph (A)(i) and (ii), the owner or operator of any source shall be exempted from the duty to pay a noncompliance penalty under such requirements with respect to that source if, in accordance with the procedures in subsection (b)(5) of this section, the owner or operator demonstrates that the failure of such source to comply with any such requirement is due solely to—
(i) a conversion by such source from the burning of petroleum products or natural gas, or both, as the permanent primary energy source to the burning of coal pursuant to an order under section 7413 (d)(5)  [1] of this title or section 1857c–10  [1] of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977);
(ii) in the case of a coal-burning source granted an extension under the second sentence of section 1857c–10 (c)(1)  [1] of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977), a prohibition from using petroleum products or natural gas or both, by reason of an order under the provisions of section 792 (a) and (b) of title 15 or under any legislation which amends or supersedes such provisions;
(iii) the use of innovative technology sanctioned by an enforcement order under section 7413 (d)(4)  [1] of this title;
(iv) an inability to comply with any such requirement, for which inability the source has received an order under section 7413 (d)  [1] of this title (or an order under section 7413 of this title issued before August 7, 1977) which has the effect of permitting a delay or violation of any requirement of this chapter (including a requirement of an applicable implementation plan) which inability results from reasons entirely beyond the control of the owner or operator of such source or of any entity controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the owner or operator of such source; or
(v) the conditions by reason of which a temporary emergency suspension is authorized under section 7410 (f) or (g) of this title.
An exemption under this subparagraph shall cease to be effective if the source fails to comply with the interim emission control requirements or schedules of compliance (including increments of progress) under any such extension, order, or suspension.
(C) The Administrator may, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, exempt any source from the requirements of this section with respect to a particular instance of noncompliance if he finds that such instance of noncompliance is de minimis in nature and in duration.
(b) Regulations
Regulations under subsection (a) of this section shall—
(1) permit the assessment and collection of such penalty by the State if the State has a delegation of authority in effect under subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) of this section;
(2) provide for the assessment and collection of such penalty by the Administrator, if—
(A) the State does not have a delegation of authority in effect under subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) of this section, or
(B) the State has such a delegation in effect but fails with respect to any particular person or source to assess or collect the penalty in accordance with the requirements of this section;
(3) require the States, or in the event the States fail to do so, the Administrator, to give a brief but reasonably specific notice of noncompliance under this section to each person referred to in subsection (a)(2)(A) of this section with respect to each source owned or operated by such person which is not in compliance as provided in such subsection, not later than July 1, 1979, or thirty days after the discovery of such noncompliance, whichever is later;
(4) require each person to whom notice is given under paragraph (3) to—
(A) calculate the amount of the penalty owed (determined in accordance with subsection (d)(2) of this section) and the schedule of payments (determined in accordance with subsection (d)(3) of this section) for each such source and, within forty-five days after the issuance of such notice or after the denial of a petition under subparagraph (B), to submit that calculation and proposed schedule, together with the information necessary for an independent verification thereof, to the State and to the Administrator, or
(B) submit a petition, within forty–five days after the issuance of such notice, challenging such notice of noncompliance or alleging entitlement to an exemption under subsection (a)(2)(B) of this section with respect to a particular source;
(5) require the Administrator to provide a hearing on the record (within the meaning of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5) and to make a decision on such petition (including findings of fact and conclusions of law) not later than ninety days after the receipt of any petition under paragraph (4)(B), unless the State agrees to provide a hearing which is substantially similar to such a hearing on the record and to make a decision on such petition (including such findings and conclusions) within such ninety-day period;
(6)
(A) authorize the Administrator on his own initiative to review the decision of the State under paragraph (5) and disapprove it if it is not in accordance with the requirements of this section, and
(B) require the Administrator to do so not later than sixty days after receipt of a petition under this subparagraph, notice, and public hearing and a showing by such petitioner that the State decision under paragraph (5) is not in accordance with the requirements of this section;
(7) require payment, in accordance with subsection (d) of this section, of the penalty by each person to whom notice of noncompliance is given under paragraph (3) with respect to each noncomplying source for which such notice is given unless there has been a final determination granting a petition under paragraph (4)(B) with respect to such source;
(8) authorize the State or the Administrator to adjust (and from time to time to readjust) the amount of the penalty assessment calculated or the payment schedule proposed by such owner or operator under paragraph (4), if the Administrator finds after notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record that the penalty or schedule does not meet the requirements of this section; and
(9) require a final adjustment of the penalty within 180 days after such source comes into compliance in accordance with subsection (d)(4) of this section.
In any case in which the State establishes a noncompliance penalty under this section, the State shall provide notice thereof to the Administrator. A noncompliance penalty established by a State under this section shall apply unless the Administrator, within ninety days after the date of receipt of notice of the State penalty assessment under this section, objects in writing to the amount of the penalty as less than would be required to comply with guidelines established by the Administrator. If the Administrator objects, he shall immediately establish a substitute noncompliance penalty applicable to such source.
(c) Contract to assist in determining amount of penalty assessment or payment schedule
If the owner or operator of any stationary source to whom a notice is issued under subsection (b)(3) of this section—
(1) does not submit a timely petition under subsection (b)(4)(B) of this section, or
(2) submits a petition under subsection (b)(4)(B) of this section which is denied, and
fails to submit a calculation of the penalty assessment, a schedule for payment, and the information necessary for independent verification thereof, the State (or the Administrator, as the case may be) may enter into a contract with any person who has no financial interest in the owner or operator of the source (or in any person controlling, controlled by or under common control with such source) to assist in determining the amount of the penalty assessment or payment schedule with respect to such source. The cost of carrying out such contract may be added to the penalty to be assessed against the owner or operator of such source.
(d) Payment
(1) All penalties assessed by the Administrator under this section shall be paid to the United States Treasury. All penalties assessed by the State under this section shall be paid to such State.
(2) The amount of the penalty which shall be assessed and collected with respect to any source under this section shall be equal to—
(A) the amount determined in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Administrator under subsection (a) of this section, which is no less than the economic value which a delay in compliance beyond July 1, 1979, may have for the owner of such source, including the quarterly equivalent of the capital costs of compliance and debt service over a normal amortization period, not to exceed ten years, operation and maintenance costs foregone as a result of noncompliance, and any additional economic value which such a delay may have for the owner or operator of such source, minus
(B) the amount of any expenditure made by the owner or operator of that source during any such quarter for the purpose of bringing that source into, and maintaining compliance with, such requirement, to the extent that such expenditures have not been taken into account in the calculation of the penalty under subparagraph (A).
To the extent that any expenditure under subparagraph (B) made during any quarter is not subtracted for such quarter from the costs under subparagraph (A), such expenditure may be subtracted for any subsequent quarter from such costs. In no event shall the amount paid be less than the quarterly payment minus the amount attributed to actual cost of construction.
(3)
(A) The assessed penalty required under this section shall be paid in quarterly installments for the period of covered noncompliance. All quarterly payments (determined without regard to any adjustment or any subtraction under paragraph (2)(B)) after the first payment shall be equal.
(B) The first payment shall be due on the date six months after the date of issuance of the notice of noncompliance under subsection (b)(3) of this section with respect to any source or on January 1, 1980, whichever is later. Such first payment shall be in the amount of the quarterly installment for the upcoming quarter, plus the amount owed for any preceding period within the period of covered noncompliance for such source.
(C) For the purpose of this section, the term “period of covered noncompliance” means the period which begins—
(i) two years after August 7, 1977, in the case of a source for which notice of noncompliance under subsection (b)(3) of this section is issued on or before the date two years after August 7, 1977, or
(ii) on the date of issuance of the notice of noncompliance under subsection (b)(3) of this section, in the case of a source for which such notice is issued after July 1, 1979,
and ending on the date on which such source comes into (or for the purpose of establishing the schedule of payments, is estimated to come into) compliance with such requirement.
(4) Upon making a determination that a source with respect to which a penalty has been paid under this section is in compliance and is maintaining compliance with the applicable requirement, the State (or the Administrator as the case may be) shall review the actual expenditures made by the owner or operator of such source for the purpose of attaining and maintaining compliance, and shall within 180 days after such source comes into compliance—
(A) provide reimbursement with interest (to be paid by the State or Secretary of the Treasury, as the case may be) at appropriate prevailing rates (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) for any overpayment by such person, or
(B) assess and collect an additional payment with interest at appropriate prevailing rates (as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury) for any underpayment by such person.
(5) Any person who fails to pay the amount of any penalty with respect to any source under this section on a timely basis shall be required to pay in addition a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. Such nonpayment penalty shall be in an amount equal to 20 percent of the aggregate amount of such person’s penalties and nonpayment penalties with respect to such source which are unpaid as of the beginning of such quarter.
(e) Judicial review
Any action pursuant to this section, including any objection of the Administrator under the last sentence of subsection (b) of this section, shall be considered a final action for purposes of judicial review of any penalty under section 7607 of this title.
(f) Other orders, payments, sanctions, or requirements
Any orders, payments, sanctions, or other requirements under this section shall be in addition to any other permits, orders, payments, sanctions, or other requirements established under this chapter, and shall in no way affect any civil or criminal enforcement proceedings brought under any provision of this chapter or State or local law.
(g) More stringent emission limitations or other requirements
In the case of any emission limitation or other requirement approved or promulgated by the Administrator under this chapter after August 7, 1977, which is more stringent than the emission limitation or requirement for the source in effect prior to such approval or promulgation, if any, or where there was no emission limitation or requirement approved or promulgated before August 7, 1977, the date for imposition of the non-compliance penalty under this section, shall be either July 1, 1979, or the date on which the source is required to be in full compliance with such emission limitation or requirement, whichever is later, but in no event later than three years after the approval or promulgation of such emission limitation or requirement.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, § 120, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title I, § 118,Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 714; amended Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(28)–(38), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 710(a),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2684.)
References in Text

Section 7413 (d) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 701,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, no longer relates to final compliance orders.
Section 1857c–10 of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977), referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i), was in the original “section 119 (as in effect before the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977)”, meaning section 119 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, as added June 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–319, § 3, 88 Stat. 248, (which was classified to section 1857c–10 of this title) as in effect prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691, effective Aug. 7, 1977. Section 112(b)(1) ofPub. L. 95–95repealed section 119 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, as added by Pub. L. 93–319, and provided that all references to such section 119 in any subsequent enactment which supersedes Pub. L. 93–319shall be construed to refer to section 113(d) of the Clean Air Act and to paragraph (5) thereof in particular which is classified to subsec. (d)(5) ofsection 7413 of this title. Section 7413 (d) of this title was subsequently amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, § 701,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, no longer relates to final compliance orders. Section 117(b) ofPub. L. 95–95added a new section 119 of act July 14, 1955, which is classified to section 7419 of this title.
Section 1857c–10 (c)(1) of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977), referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii), was in the original “section 119(c)(1) (as in effect before the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977).” See paragraph set out above for explanation of codification.
Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–549inserted reference to sections 7477 and 7603 of this title in cl. (ii), added cl. (iii), and redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv) and inserted reference to cl. (iii).
1977—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(28), (29), in cls. (i) and (iii) inserted provisions relating to consent decrees wherever appearing.
Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(30), (31), in cl. (i) inserted reference to section 7413 (d)(5) of this title, and in cls. (i) and (ii) inserted provision relating to orders in effect under section 1857c–10 of this title before Aug. 7, 1977, wherever appearing.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(34)–(36), in closing provisions inserted provisions relating to notice to the Administrator when a noncompliance penalty is established by a State, and substituted references to noncompliance for references to delayed compliance in two places, “source” for “facility”, and “receipt of notice of the State penalty assessment” for “publication of the proposed penalty”.
Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(33), substituted “(a)(1)(B)(i)” for “(e)”.
Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(32), substituted “(4)” for “(6)”.
Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(37), inserted provisions relating to inclusion of the economic value of a delay in compliance, and substituted “such a delay” for “a delay in compliance beyond July 1, 1979,”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–190, § 14(a)(38), substituted “subsection, shall” for “subsection shall”.
Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) ofPub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

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42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


2 CFR - Grants and Agreements

2 CFR Part 1532 - NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION

23 CFR - Highways

23 CFR Part 450 - PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS

23 CFR Part 970 - NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

23 CFR Part 971 - FOREST SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

23 CFR Part 972 - FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

23 CFR Part 973 - MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM

30 CFR - Mineral Resources

30 CFR Part 913 - ILLINOIS

40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 6 - PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 30 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

40 CFR Part 31 - UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

40 CFR Part 32

40 CFR Part 34 - NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING

40 CFR Part 35 - STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE

40 CFR Part 49 - INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

40 CFR Part 50 - NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

40 CFR Part 51 - REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 52 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 55 - OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS

40 CFR Part 58 - AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE

40 CFR Part 60 - STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES

40 CFR Part 61 - NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 62 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 63 - NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES

40 CFR Part 65 - CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE

40 CFR Part 66 - ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA

40 CFR Part 67 - EPA APPROVAL OF STATE NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTY PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 70 - STATE OPERATING PERMIT PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 81 - DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES

40 CFR Part 85 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES

40 CFR Part 86 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES

40 CFR Part 87 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES

40 CFR Part 89 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 90 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS

40 CFR Part 91 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 92 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES

40 CFR Part 93 - DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 94 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 98 - MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING

40 CFR Part 122 - EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM

40 CFR Part 123 - STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

40 CFR Part 124 - PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING

40 CFR Part 144 - UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 145 - STATE UIC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

40 CFR Part 233 - 404 STATE PROGRAM REGULATIONS

40 CFR Part 270 - EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM

40 CFR Part 271 - REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 451 - CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

40 CFR Part 1027 - FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1036 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1037 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1039 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1045 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS

40 CFR Part 1048 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1051 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1054 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1060 - CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1065 - ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1066 - VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1068 - GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1074 - PREEMPTION OF STATE STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR WAIVER OF FEDERAL PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1602 - PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND ACCESS TO INDIVIDUAL RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974

49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 613 - PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS

 

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