42 U.S. Code § 7543 - State standards

(a) Prohibition
No State or any political subdivision thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No State shall require certification, inspection, or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition precedent to the initial retail sale, titling (if any), or registration of such motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or equipment.
(b) Waiver
(1) The Administrator shall, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, waive application of this section to any State which has adopted standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March 30, 1966, if the State determines that the State standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards. No such waiver shall be granted if the Administrator finds that—
(A) the determination of the State is arbitrary and capricious,
(B) such State does not need such State standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions, or
(C) such State standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with section 7521 (a) of this title.
(2) If each State standard is at least as stringent as the comparable applicable Federal standard, such State standard shall be deemed to be at least as protective of health and welfare as such Federal standards for purposes of paragraph (1).
(3) In the case of any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine to which State standards apply pursuant to a waiver granted under paragraph (1), compliance with such State standards shall be treated as compliance with applicable Federal standards for purposes of this subchapter.
(c) Certification of vehicle parts or engine parts
Whenever a regulation with respect to any motor vehicle part or motor vehicle engine part is in effect under section 7541 (a)(2) of this title, no State or political subdivision thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard or any requirement of certification, inspection, or approval which relates to motor vehicle emissions and is applicable to the same aspect of such part. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of a State with respect to which a waiver is in effect under subsection (b) of this section.
(d) Control, regulation, or restrictions on registered or licensed motor vehicles
Nothing in this part shall preclude or deny to any State or political subdivision thereof the right otherwise to control, regulate, or restrict the use, operation, or movement of registered or licensed motor vehicles.
(e) Nonroad engines or vehicles
(1) Prohibition on certain State standards
No State or any political subdivision thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard or other requirement relating to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to regulation under this chapter—
(A) New engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used in farm equipment or vehicles and which are smaller than 175 horsepower.
(B) New locomotives or new engines used in locomotives.
Subsection (b) of this section shall not apply for purposes of this paragraph.
(2) Other nonroad engines or vehicles
(A) In the case of any nonroad vehicles or engines other than those referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, authorize California to adopt and enforce standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if California determines that California standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards. No such authorization shall be granted if the Administrator finds that—
(i) the determination of California is arbitrary and capricious,
(ii) California does not need such California standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions, or
(iii) California standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with this section.
(B) Any State other than California which has plan provisions approved under part D of subchapter I of this chapter may adopt and enforce, after notice to the Administrator, for any period, standards relating to control of emissions from nonroad vehicles or engines (other than those referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1)) and take such other actions as are referred to in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph respecting such vehicles or engines if—
(i) such standards and implementation and enforcement are identical, for the period concerned, to the California standards authorized by the Administrator under subparagraph (A), and
(ii) California and such State adopt such standards at least 2 years before commencement of the period for which the standards take effect.
The Administrator shall issue regulations to implement this subsection.

Source

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, § 209, formerly § 208, as added Pub. L. 90–148, § 2,Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 501; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§ 8(a), 11 (a)(2)(A), 15 (c)(2),Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694, 1705, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§ 207, 221,Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 755, 762; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, § 222(b),Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2502.)
Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–6a of this title.
Prior Provisions

A prior section 209 of act July 14, 1955, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, § 2, 81 Stat. 502, was renumbered section 210 by Pub. L. 91–604and is classified to section 7544 of this title.
Another prior section 209 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, as added Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, § 101(8), 79 Stat. 995, related to appropriations for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1966, 1967, 1968, and 1969, and was classified to section 1857f–8 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–675, § 2(b),Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 954.
Amendments

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–549added subsec. (e).
1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–95, § 207, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted “March 30, 1966, if the State determines that the State standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards” for “March 30, 1966, unless he finds that such State does not require standards more stringent than applicable Federal standards to meet compelling the extraordinary conditions or that such State standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with section 7521 (a) of this title”, added subpars. (A), (B), and (C), and added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 95–95, § 221, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).
1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, § 11(a)(2)(A), substituted “part” for “subchapter”.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, § 15(c)(2), substituted “Administrator” for “Secretary”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, § 11(a)(2)(A), substituted “part” for “subchapter”.
Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) ofPub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.
Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95[Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95[this chapter], see section 406(b) ofPub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 6 - PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 51 - REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 60 - STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES

40 CFR Part 62 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 81 - DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES

40 CFR Part 85 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES

40 CFR Part 86 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES

40 CFR Part 89 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 90 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS

40 CFR Part 91 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 92 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES

40 CFR Part 93 - DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 94 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 451 - CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

40 CFR Part 1027 - FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1036 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1037 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1039 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1045 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS

40 CFR Part 1048 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1051 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1054 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1060 - CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1065 - ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1066 - VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1068 - GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1074 - PREEMPTION OF STATE STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR WAIVER OF FEDERAL PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES

 

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