42 U.S. Code § 7554 - Urban bus standards

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(a) Standards for model years after 1993
Not later than January 1, 1992, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under section 7521 (a) of this title applicable to urban buses for the model year 1994 and thereafter. Such standards shall be based on the best technology that can reasonably be anticipated to be available at the time such measures are to be implemented, taking costs, safety, energy, lead time, and other relevant factors into account. Such regulations shall require that such urban buses comply with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section (and subsection (c) of this subsection, [1] if applicable) in addition to compliance with the standards applicable under section 7521 (a) of this title for heavy-duty vehicles of the same type and model year.
(b) PM standard
(1) 50 percent reduction
The standards under section 7521 (a) of this title applicable to urban buses shall require that, effective for the model year 1994 and thereafter, emissions of particulate matter (PM) from urban buses shall not exceed 50 percent of the emissions of particulate matter (PM) allowed under the emission standard applicable under section 7521 (a) of this title as of November 15, 1990, for particulate matter (PM) in the case of heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1994.
(2) Revised reduction
The Administrator shall increase the level of emissions of particulate matter allowed under the standard referred to in paragraph (1) if the Administrator determines that the 50 percent reduction referred to in paragraph (1) is not technologically achievable, taking into account durability, costs, lead time, safety, and other relevant factors. The Administrator may not increase such level of emissions above 70 percent of the emissions of particulate matter (PM) allowed under the emission standard applicable under section 7521 (a) of this title as of November 15, 1990, for particulate matter (PM) in the case of heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1994.
(3) Determination as part of rule
As part of the rulemaking under subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator shall make a determination as to whether the 50 percent reduction referred to in paragraph (1) is technologically achievable, taking into account durability, costs, lead time, safety, and other relevant factors.
(c) Low-polluting fuel requirement
(1) Annual testing
Beginning with model year 1994 buses, the Administrator shall conduct annual tests of a representative sample of operating urban buses subject to the particulate matter (PM) standard applicable pursuant to subsection (b) of this section to determine whether such buses comply with such standard in use over their full useful life.
(2) Promulgation of additional low-polluting fuel requirement
(A) If the Administrator determines, based on the testing under paragraph (1), that urban buses subject to the particulate matter (PM) standard applicable pursuant to subsection (b) of this section do not comply with such standard in use over their full useful life, he shall revise the standards applicable to such buses to require (in addition to compliance with the PM standard applicable pursuant to subsection (b) of this section) that all new urban buses purchased or placed into service by owners or operators of urban buses in all metropolitan statistical areas or consolidated metropolitan statistical areas with a 1980 population of 750,000 or more shall be capable of operating, and shall be exclusively operated, on low-polluting fuels. The Administrator shall establish the pass-fail rate for purposes of testing under this subparagraph.
(B) The Administrator shall promulgate a schedule phasing in any low-polluting fuel requirement established pursuant to this paragraph to an increasing percentage of new urban buses purchased or placed into service in each of the first 5 model years commencing 3 years after the determination under subparagraph (A). Under such schedule 100 percent of new urban buses placed into service in the fifth model year commencing 3 years after the determination under subparagraph (A) shall comply with the low-polluting fuel requirement established pursuant to this paragraph.
(C) The Administrator may extend the requirements of this paragraph to metropolitan statistical areas or consolidated metropolitan statistical areas with a 1980 population of less than 750,000, if the Administrator determines that a significant benefit to public health could be expected to result from such extension.
(d) Retrofit requirements
Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under section 7521 (a) of this title requiring that urban buses which—
(1) are operating in areas referred to in subparagraph (A) of subsection (c)(2) of this section (or subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2) of this section if the Administrator has taken action under that subparagraph);
(2) were not subject to standards in effect under the regulations under subsection (a) of this section; and
(3) have their engines replaced or rebuilt after January 1, 1995,
shall comply with an emissions standard or emissions control technology requirement established by the Administrator in such regulations. Such emissions standard or emissions control technology requirement shall reflect the best retrofit technology and maintenance practices reasonably achievable.
(e) Procedures for administration and enforcement
The Administrator shall establish, within 18 months after November 15, 1990, and in accordance with section 7525 (h) of this title, procedures for the administration and enforcement of standards for buses subject to standards under this section, testing procedures, sampling protocols, in-use compliance requirements, and criteria governing evaluation of buses. Procedures for testing (including, but not limited to, certification testing) shall reflect actual operating conditions.
(f) Definitions
For purposes of this section—
(1) Urban bus
The term “urban bus” has the meaning provided under regulations of the Administrator promulgated under section 7521 (a) of this title.
(2) Low-polluting fuel
The term “low-polluting fuel” means methanol, ethanol, propane, or natural gas, or any comparably low-polluting fuel. In determining whether a fuel is comparably low-polluting, the Administrator shall consider both the level of emissions of air pollutants from vehicles using the fuel and the contribution of such emissions to ambient levels of air pollutants. For purposes of this paragraph, the term “methanol” includes any fuel which contains at least 85 percent methanol unless the Administrator increases such percentage as he deems appropriate to protect public health and welfare.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “section,”.

Source

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, § 219, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, § 227[(a)], Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2505.)

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40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 6 - PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ABROAD OF EPA ACTIONS

40 CFR Part 9 - OMB APPROVALS UNDER THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT

40 CFR Part 51 - REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 60 - STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES

40 CFR Part 62 - APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS

40 CFR Part 81 - DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES

40 CFR Part 85 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES

40 CFR Part 86 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES

40 CFR Part 89 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 90 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS

40 CFR Part 91 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 92 - CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES

40 CFR Part 93 - DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS

40 CFR Part 94 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 451 - CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY

40 CFR Part 1027 - FEES FOR ENGINE, VEHICLE, AND EQUIPMENT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1036 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1037 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1039 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1045 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS

40 CFR Part 1048 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

40 CFR Part 1051 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES

40 CFR Part 1054 - CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1060 - CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT

40 CFR Part 1065 - ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1066 - VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES

40 CFR Part 1068 - GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS

40 CFR Part 1074 - PREEMPTION OF STATE STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR WAIVER OF FEDERAL PREEMPTION FOR NONROAD ENGINES AND NONROAD VEHICLES

 

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