(1)The Administrator or his delegate shall have the authority to issue and enforce orders during proceedings brought under this chapter. Such authority shall include the authority to issue subpenas, administer oaths, compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, documents, and other evidence, to take depositions before any designated individual competent to administer oaths, and to examine witnesses.
(2)Whenever on the basis of any information available to him the Administrator finds that any person subject to section
9151 of this title is in violation of any provision of this chapter or any rule, regulation, order, license, or term or condition thereof, or other requirements under this chapter, he may issue an order requiring such person to comply with such provision or requirement, or bring a civil action in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.
(3)Any compliance order issued under this subsection shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation and a time for compliance, not to exceed 30 days, which the Administrator determines is reasonable, taking into account the seriousness of the violation and any good faith efforts to comply with applicable requirements.
(b) Civil actions by Attorney General; equitable relief
(1)Upon a request by the Administrator, the Attorney General shall commence a civil action for appropriate relief, including a permanent or temporary injunction, to halt any violation for which the Administrator is authorized to issue a compliance order under subsection (a)(2) of this section.
(2)Upon a request by the Administrator, the Attorney General shall bring an action in an appropriate district court of the United States for equitable relief to redress a violation, by any person subject to section
9151 of this title, of any provision of this chapter, any regulation issued pursuant to this chapter, or any license condition.
(c) Civil penalties
(1)Any person who is found by the Administrator, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with section
554 of title
5, to have committed an act prohibited by section
9151 of this title shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty, not to exceed $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation. The amount of such civil penalty shall be assessed by the Administrator, or his designee, by written notice. In determining the amount of such penalty, the Administrator shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and such other matters as justice may require.
(2)Any person against whom a civil penalty is assessed under paragraph (1) of this subsection may obtain a review thereof in the appropriate court of the United States by filing a notice of appeal in such court within 30 days from the date of such order and by simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the Administrator. The Administrator shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record upon which such violation was found or such penalty imposed, as provided in section
2112 of title
28. The findings and order of the Administrator shall be set aside by such court if they are not found to be supported by substantial evidence, as provided in section
706(2) of title
(3)If any person subject to section
9151 of this title fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty against him after it has become final, or after the appropriate court has entered final judgment in favor of the Administrator, the Administrator shall refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United States, who shall recover the amount assessed in any appropriate court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing the civil penalty shall not be subject to review.
(4)The Administrator may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which is subject to imposition or which has been imposed under this subsection.
(d) Criminal penalties
(1)Any person subject to section
9151 of this title is guilty of an offense if he willfully commits any act prohibited by such section.
(2)Any offense, other than an offense for which the punishment is prescribed by section
9113 of this title, is punishable by a fine of not more than $75,000 for each day during which the violation continues. Any offense described in paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of section
9151 of this title is punishable by the fine or imprisonment for not more than 6 months, or both. If, in the commission of any offense, the person subject to section
9151 of this title uses a dangerous weapon, engages in conduct that causes bodily injury to any Federal officer or employee, or places any Federal officer or employee in fear of imminent bodily injury, the offense is punishable by a fine of not more than $100,000 or imprisonment for not more than 10 years, or both.
(e) In rem liability of vessels
Any ocean thermal energy conversion facility or plantship licensed pursuant to this chapter and any other vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States, except a public vessel engaged in noncommercial activities, used in any violation of this chapter or of any rule, regulation, order, license, or term or condition thereof, or other requirements of this chapter, shall be liable in rem for any civil penalty assessed or criminal fine imposed and may be proceeded against in any district court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, whenever it shall appear that one or more of the owners, or bareboat charterers, was at the time of the violation a consenting party or privy to such violation.
This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (2), (b)(2), and (e), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–320, Aug. 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 974, known as the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
9101 of this title and Tables.
1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–623substituted “to halt any violation” for “any violation”.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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