42 U.S. Code § 9659 - Citizens suits

(a) Authority to bring civil actions
Except as provided in subsections (d) and (e) of this section and in section 9613 (h) of this title (relating to timing of judicial review), any person may commence a civil action on his own behalf—
(1) against any person (including the United States and any other governmental instrumentality or agency, to the extent permitted by the eleventh amendment to the Constitution) who is alleged to be in violation of any standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order which has become effective pursuant to this chapter (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title, relating to Federal facilities); or
(2) against the President or any other officer of the United States (including the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Administrator of the ATSDR) where there is alleged a failure of the President or of such other officer to perform any act or duty under this chapter, including an act or duty under section 9620 of this title (relating to Federal facilities), which is not discretionary with the President or such other officer.
Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any act or duty under the provisions of section 9660 of this title (relating to research, development, and demonstration).
(b) Venue
(1) Actions under subsection (a)(1)
Any action under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be brought in the district court for the district in which the alleged violation occurred.
(2) Actions under subsection (a)(2)
Any action brought under subsection (a)(2) of this section may be brought in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.
(c) Relief
The district court shall have jurisdiction in actions brought under subsection (a)(1) of this section to enforce the standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order concerned (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title), to order such action as may be necessary to correct the violation, and to impose any civil penalty provided for the violation. The district court shall have jurisdiction in actions brought under subsection (a)(2) of this section to order the President or other officer to perform the act or duty concerned.
(d) Rules applicable to subsection (a)(1) actions
(1) Notice
No action may be commenced under subsection (a)(1) of this section before 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of the violation to each of the following:
(A) The President.
(B) The State in which the alleged violation occurs.
(C) Any alleged violator of the standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order concerned (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title).
Notice under this paragraph shall be given in such manner as the President shall prescribe by regulation.
(2) Diligent prosecution
No action may be commenced under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this section if the President has commenced and is diligently prosecuting an action under this chapter, or under the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.] to require compliance with the standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order concerned (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title).
(e) Rules applicable to subsection (a)(2) actions
No action may be commenced under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section before the 60th day following the date on which the plaintiff gives notice to the Administrator or other department, agency, or instrumentality that the plaintiff will commence such action. Notice under this subsection shall be given in such manner as the President shall prescribe by regulation.
(f) Costs
The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to the prevailing or the substantially prevailing party whenever the court determines such an award is appropriate. The court may, if a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought, require the filing of a bond or equivalent security in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
(g) Intervention
In any action under this section, the United States or the State, or both, if not a party may intervene as a matter of right. For other provisions regarding intervention, see section 9613 of this title.
(h) Other rights
This chapter does not affect or otherwise impair the rights of any person under Federal, State, or common law, except with respect to the timing of review as provided in section 9613 (h) of this title or as otherwise provided in section 9658 of this title (relating to actions under State law).
(i) Definitions
The terms used in this section shall have the same meanings as when used in subchapter I of this chapter.

Source

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, § 310, as added Pub. L. 99–499, title II, § 206,Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1703.)
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d)(2), and (h), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.
The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, § 2,Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§ 6901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (f), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

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42 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

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40 CFR - Protection of Environment

40 CFR Part 3 - CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING

40 CFR Part 374 - PRIOR NOTICE OF CITIZEN SUITS

 

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