48 U.S. Code § 1614 - Judges of District Court
(a) Appointment; tenure; removal; chief judge; compensation
The President shall, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint two judges for the District Court of the Virgin Islands, who shall hold office for terms of ten years and until their successors are chosen and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President for cause. The judge of the district court who is senior in continuous service and who otherwise qualifies under section 136 (a) of title 28 shall be the chief judge of the court. The salary of a judge of the district court shall be at the rate prescribed for judges of the United States district courts. Whenever it is made to appear that such an assignment is necessary for the proper dispatch of the business of the district court, the chief judge of the Third Judicial Circuit of the United States may assign a judge of a court of record of the Virgin Islands established by local law, or a circuit or district judge of the Third Judicial Circuit, or a recalled senior judge of the District Court of the Virgin Islands, or the Chief Justice of the United States may assign any other United States circuit or district judge with the consent of the judge so assigned and of the chief judge of his circuit, to serve temporarily as a judge of the District Court of the Virgin Islands. The compensation of the judges of the district court and the administrative expenses of the court shall be paid from appropriations made for the judiciary of the United States.
(b) Criminal offenses; procedure; definitions; indictment and information
Where appropriate, the provisions of part II of title 18 and of title 28 and, notwithstanding the provisions of rule 7(a) and of rule 54(a) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure relating to the requirement of indictment and to the prosecution of criminal offenses in the Virgin Islands by information, respectively, the rules of practice heretofore or hereafter promulgated and made effective by the Congress or the Supreme Court of the United States pursuant to titles 11, 18, and 28 shall apply to the district court and appeals therefrom: Provided, That the terms “Attorney for the government” and “United States attorney” as used in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, shall, when applicable to causes arising under the income tax laws applicable to the Virgin Islands, mean the Attorney General of the Virgin Islands or such other person or persons as may be authorized by the laws of the Virgin Islands to act therein: Provided further, That in the district court all criminal prosecutions under the laws of the United States, under local law under section 1612 (c) of this title, and under the income tax laws applicable to the Virgin Islands may be had by indictment by grand jury or by information: Provided further, That an offense which has been investigated by or presented to a grand jury may be prosecuted by information only by leave of court or with the consent of the defendant. All criminal prosecutions arising under local law which are tried in the district court pursuant to section 1612 (b) of this title shall continue to be had by information, except such as may be required by the local law to be prosecuted by indictment by grand jury.
Source(July 22, 1954, ch. 558, § 24,68 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 85–851, § 7,Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1095; Pub. L. 91–272, § 3(b),June 2, 1970, 84 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 98–454, title VII, § 706(a), (b),Oct. 5, 1984, 98 Stat. 1740.)
References in Text
The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.
In subsec. (c), “chapter 37 of title 28” substituted for “chapter 33 of title 28” on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, § 7(b),Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, section 4(c) of which revised part II of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–454, § 706(a), substituted provisions extending the term of a judge of the district court from eight to ten years, further substituted “of a court of the Virgin Islands established by local law,” for “a judge of the municipal court of the Virgin Islands,” in third sentence, and inserted provisions regarding the designation of the chief judge.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–454, § 706(b), substituted provisions relating to criminal procedure in the district courts for former provisions which related to the chief judge of the district court and which are now set out in subsec. (a).
1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–272designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), increased from one to two the number of district judges, added judges of the municipal court of the Virgin Islands to the list of judges from which may be drawn temporary judges for the district court, and transferred to subsec. (c) provisions covering the appointment of a United States marshal for the Virgin Islands.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–272added subsec. (b).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–272added subsec. (c), the substance of which was formerly contained in subsec. (a).
1958—Pub. L. 85–851substituted “the Attorney General shall appoint a United States marshal” for “the Attorney General shall, as heretofore, appoint a marshal and one deputy marshal”.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment
Amendment by Pub. L. 98–454effective on ninetieth day following Oct. 5, 1984, see section 1005 ofPub. L. 98–454, set out as a note under section 1424 of this title.
Chief Judge; District Court; Determination and Qualifications
Pub. L. 98–454, title VII, § 706(c),Oct. 5, 1984, 98 Stat. 1741, provided that: “The provisions of subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] regarding the determination and qualifications of the chief judge of the District Court of the Virgin Islands shall not apply to a person serving as chief judge of said court on the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note set out under section 1424 of this title].”
Extension of Term of District Judges
Extension of term of district court judges to ten years applicable to judges holding office on Oct. 5, 1984, see section 1004 ofPub. L. 98–454, set out as a note under section 1424b of this title.
Enactment of this chapter as not affecting term of office of judge of the District Court of the Virgin Islands in office on the date of its enactment, see Effective Date note set out under section 1541 of this title.
Resignation and Retirement of Judges