48 U.S. Code § 1904 - Interpretation of and United States policy regarding Compact of Free Association

(a) Human rights
In approving the Compact, the Congress notes the conclusion in the Statement of Intent of the Report of The Future Political Status Commission of the Congress of Micronesia in July, 1969, that “our recommendation of a free associated state is indissolubly linked to our desire for such a democratic, representative, constitutional government” and notes that such desire and intention are reaffirmed and embodied in the Constitutions of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands. The Congress also notes and specifically endorses the preamble to the Compact, which affirms that the governments of the parties to the Compact are founded upon respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all. The Secretary of State shall include in the annual reports on the status of internationally recognized human rights in foreign countries, which are submitted to the Congress pursuant to sections 116 and 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2151n, 2304], a full and complete report regarding the status of internationally recognized human rights in the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands.
(b) Immigration
The rights of a bona fide naturalized citizen of the Marshall Islands or the Federated States of Micronesia to enter the United States, to lawfully engage therein in occupations, and to establish residence therein as a non-immigrant, pursuant to the provisions of section 141(a)(3) of the Compact, shall not extend to any such naturalized citizen with respect to whom circumstances associated with the acquisition of the status of a naturalized citizen are such as to allow a reasonable inference, on the part of appropriate officials of the United States and subject to United States procedural requirements, that such naturalized status was acquired primarily in order to obtain such rights.
(c) Nonalienation of lands
The Congress endorses and encourages the maintenance of the policies of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Government of the Marshall Islands to regulate, in accordance with their Constitutions and laws, the alienation of permanent and long-term interests in real property so as to restrict the acquisition of such interests to persons of Federated States of Micronesia citizenship and Marshall Islands citizenship, respectively.
(d) Nuclear waste disposal
In approving the Compact, the Congress understands that the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Government of the Marshall Islands will not permit any other government or any nongovernmental party to conduct, in the Marshall Islands or in the Federated States of Micronesia, any of the activities specified in subsection (a) ofsection 314 of the Compact.
(e) Impact of Compact on U.S. areas
(1) Statement of congressional intent
In approving the Compact, it is not the intent of the Congress to cause any adverse consequences for the United States territories and commonwealths or the State of Hawaii.
(2) Annual reports and recommendations
One year after January 14, 1986, and at one year intervals thereafter, the Governor of any of the United States territories or commonwealths or the State of Hawaii may report to the Secretary of the Interior by February 1 of each year with respect to the impacts of the compacts of free association on the Governor’s respective jurisdiction. The Secretary of the Interior shall review and forward any such reports to the Congress with the comments of the Administration. The Secretary of the Interior shall, either directly or, subject to available technical assistance funds, through a grant to the affected jurisdiction, provide for a census of Micronesians at intervals no greater than 5 years from each decennial United States census using generally acceptable statistical methodologies for each of the impact jurisdictions where the Governor requests such assistance, except that the total expenditures to carry out this sentence may not exceed $300,000 in any year. Reports submitted pursuant to this paragraph (hereafter in this subsection referred to as “reports”) shall identify any adverse consequences resulting from the Compact and shall make recommendations for corrective action to eliminate those consequences. The reports shall pay particular attention to matters relating to trade, taxation, immigration, labor laws, minimum wages, social systems and infrastructure, and environmental regulation. With regard to immigration, the reports shall include statistics concerning the number of persons availing themselves of the rights described in section 141(a) of the Compact during the year covered by each report. With regard to trade, the reports shall include an analysis of the impact on the economy of American Samoa resulting from imports of canned tuna into the United States from the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands.
(3) Other views
In preparing the reports, the President shall request the views of the Government of the State of Hawaii, and the governments of each of the United States territories and commonwealths, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau, and shall transmit the full text of any such views to the Congress as part of such reports.
(4) Commitment of Congress to redress adverse consequences
The Congress hereby declares that, if any adverse consequences to United States territories and commonwealths or the State of Hawaii result from implementation of the Compact of Free Association, the Congress will act sympathetically and expeditiously to redress those adverse consequences.
(5) “United States territories and commonwealths” defined
As used in this subsection, the term “United States territories and commonwealths” means the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
(6) Impact costs
There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1985, such sums as may be necessary to cover the costs, if any, incurred by the State of Hawaii, the territories of Guam and American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands resulting from any increased demands placed on educational and social services by immigrants from the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia.
(f) Fisheries management
In clarification of Title One, Article II, section 121(b)(1) of the Compact:
(1) Nothing in the Compact or this joint resolution shall be interpreted as recognition by the United States of any claim by the Federated States of Micronesia or by the Marshall Islands to jurisdiction or authority over highly migratory species of fish during the time such species of fish are found outside the territorial sea of the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands.
(2) It is the understanding of Congress that none of the monies made available pursuant to the Compact or this joint resolution will be used by either the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands for enforcement actions against any vessel of the United States on the basis of fishing by any such vessel for highly migratory species of fish outside the territorial sea of the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands, respectively, in the absence of a licensing agreement.
(3) Appropriate United States officials shall apply the policies and provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) and the Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967 (22 U.S.C. 1971 et seq.) with regard to any action taken by the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands affecting any vessel of the United States engaged in fishing for highly migratory species of fish in waters outside the territorial seas of the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands, respectively. For the purpose of applying the provisions of section 5 of the Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967 (22 U.S.C. 1975), monies made available to either the Federated States of Micronesia or the Marshall Islands pursuant to the provisions of the Compact or this joint resolution shall be treated as “assistance to the government of such country under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961” [22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.]. For purposes of this Act only, certification by the President in accordance with such section 5 shall be accompanied by a report to Congress on the basis for such certification, and such certification shall have no effect if by law Congress so directs prior to the expiration of 60 days during which Congress is in continuous session following the date of such certification.
(4) For the purpose of paragraphs (1) and (3) of this subsection—
(A) The term “vessel of the United States” has the same meaning as provided in the first section of the Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967 (22 U.S.C. 1971).
(B) The terms “fishing” and “highly migratory species” have the same meanings as provided in paragraphs (10) and (14), [1] respectively, of section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802 (10) and (14)).
(5)
(A) It is the policy of the United States of America—
(i) to negotiate and conclude with the governments of the Central, Western, and South Pacific Ocean, including the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands, a regional licensing agreement setting forth agreed terms of access for United States tuna vessels fishing in the region; and
(ii) that such an agreement should overcome existing jurisdictional differences and provide for a mutually beneficial relationship between the United States and the Pacific Island States that will promote the development of the tuna and other latent fisheries resources of the Central, Western, and South Pacific Ocean and the economic development of the region.
(B) At such time as an agreement referred to in subparagraph (A) is submitted to the Senate for advice and consent to ratification, the Secretary of State, after consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and other interested agencies and concerned governments, shall submit to the Congress a proposed long term regional fisheries development program which may include, but not be limited to—
(i) exploration for, and stock assessment of, tuna and other fish;
(ii) improvement of harvesting techniques;
(iii) gear development;
(iv) biological resource monitoring;
(v) education and training in the field of fisheries; and
(vi) regional and direct bilateral assistance in the field of fisheries.
(g) Foreign loans
The Congress hereby reaffirms the United States position that the United States Government is not responsible for foreign loans or debt obtained by the Governments of the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(Pub. L. 99–239, title I, § 104,Jan. 14, 1986, 99 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(a) [title II, § 211(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009–41; Pub. L. 106–504, § 2,Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2311.)
References in Text

The Compact, referred to in text, is the Compact of Free Association between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia, which is contained in section 201 ofPub. L. 99–239, as amended, set out as a note under section 1901 of this title.
This joint resolution and this Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(1) to (3), is Pub. L. 99–239, Jan. 14, 1986, 99 Stat. 1770, as amended, known as the Compact of Free Association Act of 1985, which is classified principally to this part and chapter 19 (§ 2001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of this title and Tables.
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 38 (§ 1801 et seq.) of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of Title 16 and Tables.
The Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is act Aug. 27, 1954, ch. 1018, 68 Stat. 883, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 25 (§ 1971 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1971 of Title 22 and Tables.
The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (f)(3), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§ 2151 et seq.) of Title 22. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of Title 22 and Tables.
Section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act [16 U.S.C. 1802], referred to in subsec. (f)(4)(B), was subsequently amended, and section 3 (10) and (14) no longer define the terms “fishing” and “highly migratory species”. However, such terms are defined elsewhere in that section.
Codification

Section was formerly set out as a note under section 1681 of this title.
Amendments

2000—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 106–504substituted “Governor of any of the United States territories or commonwealths or the State of Hawaii may report to the Secretary of the Interior by February 1 of each year with respect to the impacts of the compacts of free association on the Governor’s respective jurisdiction. The Secretary of the Interior shall review and forward any such reports to the Congress with the comments of the Administration. The Secretary of the Interior shall, either directly or, subject to available technical assistance funds, through a grant to the affected jurisdiction, provide for a census of Micronesians at intervals no greater than 5 years from each decennial United States census using generally acceptable statistical methodologies for each of the impact jurisdictions where the Governor requests such assistance, except that the total expenditures to carry out this sentence may not exceed $300,000 in any year.” for “President shall report to the Congress with respect to the impact of the Compact on the United States territories and commonwealths and on the State of Hawaii.”.
1996—Subsec. (f)(3), (4)(B). Pub. L. 104–208substituted “Magnuson-Stevens Fishery” for “Magnuson Fishery”.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(a) [title II, § 211(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009–41, provided that the amendment made by section 101 (a) [§ 211(b)] is effective 15 days after Oct. 11, 1996.

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.