49 U.S. Code § 31306 - Alcohol and controlled substances testing

(a) Definition.— In this section and section 31306a, “controlled substance” means any substance under section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802) specified by the Secretary of Transportation.
(b) Testing Program for Operators of Commercial Motor Vehicles.—
(1)
(A) In the interest of commercial motor vehicle safety, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that establish a program requiring motor carriers to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of operators of commercial motor vehicles for the use of a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation and to conduct reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of such operators for the use of alcohol in violation of law or a United States Government regulation. The regulations shall permit such motor carriers to conduct preemployment testing of such employees for the use of alcohol.
(B) When the Secretary of Transportation considers it appropriate in the interest of safety, the Secretary may prescribe regulations for conducting periodic recurring testing of operators of commercial motor vehicles for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation.
(2) In prescribing regulations under this subsection, the Secretary of Transportation—
(A) shall require that post-accident testing of an operator of a commercial motor vehicle be conducted when loss of human life occurs in an accident involving a commercial motor vehicle; and
(B) may require that post-accident testing of such an operator be conducted when bodily injury or significant property damage occurs in any other serious accident involving a commercial motor vehicle.
(c) Testing and Laboratory Requirements.— In carrying out subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop requirements that shall—
(1) promote, to the maximum extent practicable, individual privacy in the collection of specimens;
(2) for laboratories and testing procedures for controlled substances, incorporate the Department of Health and Human Services scientific and technical guidelines dated April 11, 1988, and any amendments to those guidelines, including mandatory guidelines establishing—
(A) comprehensive standards for every aspect of laboratory controlled substances testing and laboratory procedures to be applied in carrying out this section, including standards requiring the use of the best available technology to ensure the complete reliability and accuracy of controlled substances tests and strict procedures governing the chain of custody of specimens collected for controlled substances testing;
(B) the minimum list of controlled substances for which individuals may be tested; and
(C) appropriate standards and procedures for periodic review of laboratories and criteria for certification and revocation of certification of laboratories to perform controlled substances testing in carrying out this section;
(3) require that a laboratory involved in testing under this section have the capability and facility, at the laboratory, of performing screening and confirmation tests;
(4) provide that any test indicating the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation be confirmed by a scientifically recognized method of testing capable of providing quantitative information about alcohol or a controlled substance;
(5) provide that each specimen be subdivided, secured, and labeled in the presence of the tested individual and that a part of the specimen be retained in a secure manner to prevent the possibility of tampering, so that if the individual’s confirmation test results are positive the individual has an opportunity to have the retained part tested by a 2d confirmation test done independently at another certified laboratory if the individual requests the 2d confirmation test not later than 3 days after being advised of the results of the first confirmation test;
(6) ensure appropriate safeguards for testing to detect and quantify alcohol in breath and body fluid samples, including urine and blood, through the development of regulations that may be necessary and in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services;
(7) provide for the confidentiality of test results and medical information (except information about alcohol or a controlled substance) of employees, except that this clause does not prevent the use of test results for the orderly imposition of appropriate sanctions under this section; and
(8) ensure that employees are selected for tests by nondiscriminatory and impartial methods, so that no employee is harassed by being treated differently from other employees in similar circumstances.
(d) Testing as Part of Medical Examination.— The Secretary of Transportation may provide that testing under subsection (a) of this section for operators subject to subpart E of part 391 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, be conducted as part of the medical examination required under that subpart.
(e) Rehabilitation.— The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations establishing requirements for rehabilitation programs that provide for the identification and opportunity for treatment of operators of commercial motor vehicles who are found to have used alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation. The Secretary shall decide on the circumstances under which those operators shall be required to participate in a program. This section does not prevent a motor carrier from establishing a program under this section in cooperation with another motor carrier.
(f) Sanctions.— The Secretary of Transportation shall decide on appropriate sanctions for a commercial motor vehicle operator who is found, based on tests conducted and confirmed under this section, to have used alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a Government regulation but who is not under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance as provided in this chapter.
(g) Effect on State and Local Government Regulations.— A State or local government may not prescribe or continue in effect a law, regulation, standard, or order that is inconsistent with regulations prescribed under this section. However, a regulation prescribed under this section may not be construed to preempt a State criminal law that imposes sanctions for reckless conduct leading to loss of life, injury, or damage to property.
(h) International Obligations and Foreign Laws.— In prescribing regulations under this section, the Secretary of Transportation—
(1) shall establish only requirements that are consistent with international obligations of the United States; and
(2) shall consider applicable laws and regulations of foreign countries.
(i) Other Regulations Allowed.— This section does not prevent the Secretary of Transportation from continuing in effect, amending, or further supplementing a regulation prescribed before October 28, 1991, governing the use of alcohol or a controlled substance by commercial motor vehicle employees.
(j) Application of Penalties.— This section does not supersede a penalty applicable to an operator of a commercial motor vehicle under this chapter or another law.

Source

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1017; Pub. L. 104–59, title III, § 342(c),Nov. 28, 1995, 109 Stat. 609; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, § 32402(a)(1),July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 795.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
31306(a)
49 App.:2717(g).
Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99–570, 100 Stat. 3207–170, § 12020; added Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, § 5(a)(1), 105 Stat. 959.
31306(b)(1)
49 App.:2717(a).
31306(b)(2)
49 App.:2717(b)(1).
31306(c)
49 App.:2717(d).
31306(d)
49 App.:2717(b)(2).
31306(e)
49 App.:2717(c).
31306(f)
49 App.:2717(f)(2).
31306(g)
49 App.:2717(e)(1).
31306(h)
49 App.:2717(e)(3).
31306(i)
49 App.:2717(e)(2).
31306(j)
49 App.:2717(f)(1).

In subsection (b)(2)(B), the words “may require” are substituted for “as determined by the Secretary” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.
In subsection (c)(2), before subclause (A), the word “subsequent” is omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(3), the words “of any individual” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(4), the words “by any individual” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(5), the word “tested” is substituted for “assayed” for consistency. The words “2d confirmation test” are substituted for “independent test” for clarity and consistency.
In subsection (c)(6), the word “Secretary” is substituted for “Department” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.
In subsection (d), the words “The Secretary of Transportation may provide” are substituted for “Nothing in subsection (a) of this section shall preclude the Secretary from providing” for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.
In subsection (g), the words “rule” and “ordinance” are omitted as being included in “law, regulation, standard, or order”. The words “whether the provisions apply specifically to commercial motor vehicle employees, or to the general public” are omitted as surplus.
Amendments

2012—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–141inserted “and section 31306a” after “this section”.
1995—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–59added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “In the interest of commercial motor vehicle safety, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations not later than October 28, 1992, that establish a program requiring motor carriers to conduct preemployment, reasonable suspicion, random, and post-accident testing of operators of commercial motor vehicles for the use of alcohol or a controlled substance in violation of law or a United States Government regulation.”
Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) ofPub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.
Drug Test Results Study

Pub. L. 106–159, title II, § 226,Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1771, provided that:
“(a) In General.—The Secretary shall conduct a study of the feasibility and merits of—
“(1) requiring medical review officers or employers to report all verified positive controlled substances test results on any driver subject to controlled substances testing under part 382 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, including the identity of each person tested and each controlled substance found, to the State that issued the driver’s commercial driver’s license; and
“(2) requiring all prospective employers, before hiring any driver, to query the State that issued the driver’s commercial driver’s license on whether the State has on record any verified positive controlled substances test on such driver.
“(b) Study Factors.—In carrying out the study under this section, the Secretary shall assess—
“(1) methods for safeguarding the confidentiality of verified positive controlled substances test results;
“(2) the costs, benefits, and safety impacts of requiring States to maintain records of verified positive controlled substances test results; and
“(3) whether a process should be established to allow drivers—
“(A) to correct errors in their records; and
“(B) to expunge information from their records after a reasonable period of time.
“(c) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 9, 1999], the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the study carried out under this section, together with such recommendations as the Secretary determines appropriate.”
Post-Accident Alcohol Testing

Pub. L. 105–178, title IV, § 4020,June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 414, provided that:
“(a) Study.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall conduct a study of the feasibility of utilizing law enforcement officers for conducting post-accident alcohol testing of commercial motor vehicle operators under section 31306 of title 49, United States Code, as a method of obtaining more timely information. The study shall also assess the impact of the current post-accident alcohol testing requirements on motor carrier employers, including any burden that employers may encounter in meeting the testing requirements of such section 31306.
“(b) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998], the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the study, together with such recommendations as the Secretary determines appropriate.”

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49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 40 - PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS

49 CFR Part 382 - CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING

49 CFR Part 383 - COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES

49 CFR Part 384 - STATE COMPLIANCE WITH COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM

49 CFR Part 389 - RULEMAKING PROCEDURES—FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS

 

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