(a) Violation and Amount of Damages.— A person that violates this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter, with intent to defraud, is liable for 3 times the actual damages or $10,000, whichever is greater.
(b) Civil Actions.— A person may bring a civil action to enforce a claim under this section in an appropriate United States district court or in another court of competent jurisdiction. The action must be brought not later than 2 years after the claim accrues. The court shall award costs and a reasonable attorney’s fee to the person when a judgment is entered for that person.
In subsection (a), the words “this chapter or a regulation prescribed or order issued under this chapter” are substituted for “requirement imposed under this subchapter” for consistency.
In subsection (b), the words “A person may bring a civil action to enforce a claim” are substituted for “An action to enforce any liability created . . . may be brought” for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The word “appropriate” is added for clarity. The words “without regard to the amount in controversy” are omitted because jurisdiction is now allowed under 28:1331 without regard to the amount in controversy. The words “after the claim accrues” are substituted for “from the date on which the liability arises” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “The court shall award . . . to the person when a judgment is entered for that person” are substituted for “in the case of any successful action to enforce the foregoing liability . . . as determined by the court” for clarity.
Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) ofPub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section
101 of Title
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.