(a) General Penalty.— A person that violates section
32911(a) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for each violation. A separate violation occurs for each day the violation continues.
(b) Penalty for Manufacturer Violations of Fuel Economy Standards.— Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, a manufacturer that violates a standard prescribed for a model year under section
32902 of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $5 multiplied by each .1 of a mile a gallon by which the applicable average fuel economy standard under that section exceeds the average fuel economy—
(1)calculated under section
32904(a)(1)(A) or (B) of this title for automobiles to which the standard applies manufactured by the manufacturer during the model year;
(2)multiplied by the number of those automobiles; and
(3)reduced by the credits available to the manufacturer under section
32903 of this title for the model year.
(c) Higher Penalty Amounts.—
(A)The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe by regulation a higher amount for each .1 of a mile a gallon to be used in calculating a civil penalty under subsection (b) of this section, if the Secretary decides that the increase in the penalty—
(i)will result in, or substantially further, substantial energy conservation for automobiles in model years in which the increased penalty may be imposed; and
(ii)will not have a substantial deleterious impact on the economy of the United States, a State, or a region of a State.
(B)The amount prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph may not be more than $10 for each .1 of a mile a gallon.
(C)The Secretary may make a decision under subparagraph (A)(ii) of this paragraph only when the Secretary decides that it is likely that the increase in the penalty will not—
(i)cause a significant increase in unemployment in a State or a region of a State;
(ii)adversely affect competition; or
(iii)cause a significant increase in automobile imports.
(D)A higher amount prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph is effective for the model year beginning at least 18 months after the regulation stating the higher amount becomes final.
(2)The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a proposed regulation under this subsection and a statement of the basis for the regulation and provide each manufacturer of automobiles a copy of the proposed regulation and the statement. The Secretary shall provide a period of at least 45 days for written public comments on the proposed regulation. The Secretary shall submit a copy of the proposed regulation to the Federal Trade Commission and request the Commission to comment on the proposed regulation within that period. After that period, the Secretary shall give interested persons and the Commission an opportunity at a public hearing to present oral information, views, and arguments and to direct questions about disputed issues of material fact to—
(A)other interested persons making oral presentations;
(B)employees and contractors of the Government that made written comments or an oral presentation or participated in the development or consideration of the proposed regulation; and
(C)experts and consultants that provided information to a person that the person includes, or refers to, in an oral presentation.
(3)The Secretary may restrict the questions of an interested person and the Commission when the Secretary decides that the questions are duplicative or not likely to result in a timely and effective resolution of the issues. A transcript shall be kept of a public hearing under this subsection. A copy of the transcript and written comments shall be available to the public at the cost of reproduction.
(4)The Secretary shall publish a regulation prescribed under this subsection in the Federal Register with the decisions required under paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(5)An officer or employee of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government violates section
1905 of title
18 by disclosing, except in an in camera proceeding by the Secretary or a court, information—
(A)provided to the Secretary or the court during consideration or review of a regulation prescribed under this subsection; and
(B)decided by the Secretary to be confidential under section 11(d) of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 796(d)).
(d) Written Notice Requirement.— The Secretary shall impose a penalty under this section by written notice.
(e) Use of Civil Penalties.— For fiscal year 2008 and each fiscal year thereafter, from the total amount deposited in the general fund of the Treasury during the preceding fiscal year from fines, penalties, and other funds obtained through enforcement actions conducted pursuant to this section (including funds obtained under consent decrees), the Secretary of the Treasury, subject to the availability of appropriations, shall—
(1)transfer 50 percent of such total amount to the account providing appropriations to the Secretary of Transportation for the administration of this chapter, which shall be used by the Secretary to support rulemaking under this chapter; and
(2)transfer 50 percent of such total amount to the account providing appropriations to the Secretary of Transportation for the administration of this chapter, which shall be used by the Secretary to carry out a program to make grants to manufacturers for retooling, reequipping, or expanding existing manufacturing facilities in the United States to produce advanced technology vehicles and components.
In this section, the words “whom the Secretary determines under subsection (a) of this section” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (b), before clause (1)(A), the words “Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section” are added for clarity. The words “that violates a standard prescribed for a model year under section
32902 of this title” are substituted for “to have violated a provision of section
2007(a)(1) of this title with respect to any model year” and “to have violated section
2007(a)(2) of this title” to avoid referring, as in the source, to one provision that in turn refers to another provision. In clause (1), the words “calculated under” are substituted for “established under” for clarity. The reference to section
32904(a)(1)(A), which is a reference to the provision under which average fuel economy for nonpassenger automobiles is calculated, is added for clarity. The reference to section
32904(a)(1)(B), which is a reference to the provision under which average fuel economy for passenger automobiles is calculated, is substituted for the reference in the source to 15:2002(a) and (c), which is a reference to the provision under which the average fuel economy standard for those automobiles is established, for clarity. The words “in which the violation occurs” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(1)(A), before clause (i), the words “shall prescribe by regulation” are substituted for “shall, by rule . . . substitute” for consistency in the revised title and because “rule” and “regulation” are synonymous. The words “in accordance with the provisions of this subsection and subsection (e)” are omitted as surplus. The words “be less than $5.00” are omitted as surplus because under the subsection the Secretary may only raise the amount imposed to $10, or a $5 increase. The words “in the absence of such rule” are omitted as surplus. The words “increase in the penalty” are substituted for “additional amount of the civil penalty” for clarity. In clause (ii), the words “subject to subparagraph (B)” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(1)(C), the words “the later of” and the text of 15:2008(d)(3)(A) are omitted as obsolete.
In subsection (c)(2), before clause (A), the words “After the Secretary of Transportation develops a proposed rule pursuant to subsection (d) of this section” are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the words “written comments or an oral presentation” are substituted for “written or oral presentations” for consistency in the section. The text of 15:2008(e)(1)(B) (last sentence) and (C) is omitted as surplus because of 5:556(d).
In subsection (c)(5), before clause (A), the words “department, agency, or instrumentality” are substituted for “department or agency” for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.
Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 ofPub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section
1824 of Title
2, The Congress.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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