49 U.S. Code § 44309 - Civil actions

(a) Losses.—
(1) Actions against united states.— A person may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States or in the United States Court of Federal Claims against the United States Government when—
(A) a loss insured under this chapter is in dispute; or
(B)
(i) the person is subrogated under a contract between the person and a party insured under this chapter (other than section 44305 (b)) to the rights of the insured party against the United States Government; and
(ii) the person has paid to the insured party, with the approval of the Secretary of Transportation, an amount for a physical damage loss that the Secretary has determined is a loss covered by insurance issued under this chapter (other than section 44305 (b)).
(2) Limitation.— A civil action involving the same matter (except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be brought against an agent, officer, or employee of the Government carrying out this chapter.
(3) Procedure.— To the extent applicable, the procedure in an action brought under section 1346 (a)(2) of title 28, United States Code, applies to an action under this subsection.
(b) Venue and Joinder.—
(1) A civil action under subsection (a) of this section may be brought in the judicial district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which the plaintiff or the agent of the plaintiff resides if the plaintiff resides in the United States. If the plaintiff does not reside in the United States, the action may be brought in the judicial district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which the Attorney General agrees to accept service.
(2) An interested person may be joined as a party to a civil action brought under subsection (a) of this section initially or on motion of either party to the action.
(c) Time Requirements.— When an insurance claim is made under this chapter, the period during which, under section 2401 of title 28, a civil action must be brought under subsection (a) of this section is suspended until 60 days after the Secretary of Transportation denies the claim. The claim is deemed to be administratively denied if the Secretary does not act on the claim not later than 6 months after filing, unless the Secretary makes a different agreement with the claimant when there is good cause for an agreement.
(d) Interpleader.—
(1) If the Secretary admits the Government owes money under an insurance claim under this chapter and there is a dispute about the person that is entitled to payment, the Government may bring a civil action of interpleader in a district court of the United States against the persons that may be entitled to payment. The action may be brought in the judicial district for the District of Columbia or in the judicial district in which any party resides.
(2) The district court may order a party not residing or found in the judicial district in which the action is brought to appear in a civil action under this subsection. The order shall be served in a reasonable manner decided by the district court. If the court decides an unknown person might assert a claim under the insurance that is the subject of the action, the court may order service on that person by publication in the Federal Register.
(3) Judgment in a civil action under this subsection discharges the Government from further liability to the parties to the action and to all other persons served by publication under paragraph (2) of this subsection.

Source

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1172; Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, § 110(c)(1),Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–587.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
44309(a)
49 App.:1540 (1st sentence less 19th–70th words, 3d sentence).
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, § 1310, 72 Stat. 805.
44309(b)(1)
49 App.:1540 (1st sentence 19th–70th words, 2d sentence).
44309(b)(2)
49 App.:1540 (4th sentence).
44309(c)
49 App.:1540 (last sentence).
44309(d)
49 App.:1540 (5th–8th sentences).

In subsection (a), the words “A person may bring” are substituted for “may be maintained” for clarity. The words “a civil action” are substituted for “suit” because of rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “A civil action . . . (except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be brought” are substituted for “and this remedy shall be exclusive of any other action”, and the words “involving the” are substituted for “by reason of”, for clarity. The words “carrying out this chapter” are substituted for “employed or retained under this subchapter”, and the words “in an action” are substituted for “for suits in the district courts”, for consistency. The words “applies to” are substituted for “shall otherwise be the same as that provided for” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “an action under this subsection” are substituted for “such suits” for consistency.
In subsection (b)(1), the words “A civil action under subsection (a) of this section may be brought” are added for clarity. The words “the plaintiff or the agent of the plaintiff resides” are substituted for “the claimant or his agent resides” for consistency in the revised title. The words “if the plaintiff resides in the United States” are added for clarity. The words “notwithstanding the amount of the claim” are omitted as obsolete because jurisdiction under 28:1331 no longer depends on the amount of the claim. The words “and any provision of existing law as to the jurisdiction of United States district courts” are omitted as obsolete.
In subsection (b)(2), the words “interested person” are substituted for “All persons having or claiming or who might have an interest in such insurance” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “either” is omitted as surplus. The words “to a civil action brought under subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity.
In subsection (c), the words “during which, under section 2401 of title 28, a civil action must be brought under subsection (a) of this section” are substituted for “within which suits may be commenced contained in section 2401 of title 28 providing for bringing of suits against the United States” for clarity. The words “from such time of filing” are omitted as surplus. The words “60 days after the Secretary of Transportation denies the claim” are substituted for “the claim shall have been administratively denied by the Secretary and for sixty days thereafter” for clarity.
In subsection (d)(1), the words “a civil action of interpleader” are substituted for “an action in the nature of a bill of interpleader” because of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “persons that may be entitled to payment” are substituted for “such parties” for clarity.
In subsection (d)(2), the words “in which the action is brought” are added for clarity. The words “The order shall be” are added because of the restatement. The words “the court may order service on that person” are substituted for “it may direct service upon such persons unknown” as being more precise.
In subsection (d)(3), the words “in a civil action under this subsection” are substituted for “in any such suit” for clarity.
Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–277amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A person may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States against the United States Government when a loss insured under this chapter is in dispute. A civil action involving the same matter (except the action authorized by this subsection) may not be brought against an agent, officer, or employee of the Government carrying out this chapter. To the extent applicable, the procedure in an action brought under section 1346 (a)(2) of title 28 applies to an action under this subsection.”

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49 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

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