49 U.S. Code § 44704 - Type certificates, production certificates, airworthiness certificates,,

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(a) Type Certificates.—
(1) Issuance, investigations, and tests.— The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue a type certificate for an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller, or for an appliance specified under paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection when the Administrator finds that the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is properly designed and manufactured, performs properly, and meets the regulations and minimum standards prescribed under section 44701 (a) of this title. On receiving an application for a type certificate, the Administrator shall investigate the application and may conduct a hearing. The Administrator shall make, or require the applicant to make, tests the Administrator considers necessary in the interest of safety.
(2) Specifications.— The Administrator may—
(A) specify in regulations those appliances that reasonably require a type certificate in the interest of safety;
(B) include in a type certificate terms required in the interest of safety; and
(C) record on the certificate a numerical specification of the essential factors related to the performance of the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller for which the certificate is issued.
(3) Special rules for new aircraft and appliances.— Except as provided in paragraph (4), if the holder of a type certificate agrees to permit another person to use the certificate to manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, the holder shall provide the other person with written evidence, in a form acceptable to the Administrator, of that agreement. Such other person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance based on a type certificate only if such other person is the holder of the type certificate or has permission from the holder.
(4) Limitation for aircraft manufactured before august 5, 2004.— Paragraph (3) shall not apply to a person who began the manufacture of an aircraft before August 5, 2004, and who demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administrator that such manufacture began before August 5, 2004, if the name of the holder of the type certificate for the aircraft does not appear on the airworthiness certificate or identification plate of the aircraft. The holder of the type certificate for the aircraft shall not be responsible for the continued airworthiness of the aircraft. A person may invoke the exception provided by this paragraph with regard to the manufacture of only one aircraft.
(5) Release of data.—
(A) In general.— Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator may make available upon request, to a person seeking to maintain the airworthiness or develop product improvements of an aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance, engineering data in the possession of the Administration relating to a type certificate or a supplemental type certificate for such aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance, without the consent of the owner of record, if the Administrator determines that—
(i) the certificate containing the requested data has been inactive for 3 or more years, except that the Administrator may reduce this time if required to address an unsafe condition associated with the product;
(ii) after using due diligence, the Administrator is unable to find the owner of record, or the owner of record’s heir, of the type certificate or supplemental type certificate; and
(iii) making such data available will enhance aviation safety.
(B) Engineering data defined.— In this section, the term “engineering data” as used with respect to an aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance means type design drawing and specifications for the entire aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance or change to the aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance, including the original design data, and any associated supplier data for individual parts or components approved as part of the particular certificate for the aircraft, engine, propeller, or appliance.
(C) Requirement to maintain data.— The Administrator shall maintain engineering data in the possession of the Administration relating to a type certificate or a supplemental type certificate that has been inactive for 3 or more years.
(b) Supplemental Type Certificates.—
(1) Issuance.— The Administrator may issue a type certificate designated as a supplemental type certificate for a change to an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.
(2) Contents.— A supplemental type certificate issued under paragraph (1) shall consist of the change to the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance with respect to the previously issued type certificate for the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance.
(3) Requirement.— If the holder of a supplemental type certificate agrees to permit another person to use the certificate to modify an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance, the holder shall provide the other person with written evidence, in a form acceptable to the Administrator, of that agreement. A person may change an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance based on a supplemental type certificate only if the person requesting the change is the holder of the supplemental type certificate or has permission from the holder to make the change.
(c) Production Certificates.— The Administrator shall issue a production certificate authorizing the production of a duplicate of an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance for which a type certificate has been issued when the Administrator finds the duplicate will conform to the certificate. On receiving an application, the Administrator shall inspect, and may require testing of, a duplicate to ensure that it conforms to the requirements of the certificate. The Administrator may include in a production certificate terms required in the interest of safety.
(d) Airworthiness Certificates.—
(1) The registered owner of an aircraft may apply to the Administrator for an airworthiness certificate for the aircraft. The Administrator shall issue an airworthiness certificate when the Administrator finds that the aircraft conforms to its type certificate and, after inspection, is in condition for safe operation. The Administrator shall register each airworthiness certificate and may include appropriate information in the certificate. The certificate number or other individual designation the Administrator requires shall be displayed on the aircraft. The Administrator may include in an airworthiness certificate terms required in the interest of safety.
(2) A person applying for the issuance or renewal of an airworthiness certificate for an aircraft for which ownership has not been recorded under section 44107 or 44110 of this title must submit with the application information related to the ownership of the aircraft the Administrator decides is necessary to identify each person having a property interest in the aircraft and the kind and extent of the interest.
(e) Design and Production Organization Certificates.—
(1) Issuance.— Beginning January 1, 2013, the Administrator may issue a certificate to a design organization, production organization, or design and production organization to authorize the organization to certify compliance of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances with the requirements and minimum standards prescribed under section 44701 (a). An organization holding a certificate issued under this subsection shall be known as a certified design and production organization (in this subsection referred to as a “CDPO”).
(2) Applications.— On receiving an application for a CDPO certificate, the Administrator shall examine and rate the organization submitting the application, in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the Administrator, to determine whether the organization has adequate engineering, design, and production capabilities, standards, and safeguards to make certifications of compliance as described in paragraph (1).
(3) Issuance of certificates based on cdpo findings.— The Administrator may rely on certifications of compliance by a CDPO when making determinations under this section.
(4) Public safety.— The Administrator shall include in a CDPO certificate terms required in the interest of safety.
(5) No effect on power of revocation.— Nothing in this subsection affects the authority of the Secretary of Transportation to revoke a certificate.


[1]  So in original.

Source

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1188; Pub. L. 104–264, title IV, § 403,Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3256; Pub. L. 108–176, title II, § 227(b)(2), (e)(1), title VIII, § 811,Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2531, 2532, 2590; Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, § 4405,Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1776; Pub. L. 112–95, title III, §§ 302, 303 (a), (c)(1),Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 56, 57.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
44704(a)(1)
49 App.:1423(a)(2) (1st–4th sentences).
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§ 503(h), 603(a)(1) (related to regulations for appliances), (2), (b) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates), (c) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates), 72 Stat. 774, 776.
49 App.:1655(c)(1).
Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, § 6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, § 7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
44704(a)(2)
49 App.:1423(a)(1) (related to regulations for appliances), (2) (5th, last sentences).
49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44704(b)
49 App.:1423(b) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates).
49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44704(c)(1)
49 App.:1423(c) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates).
49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44704(c)(2)
49 App.:1403(h).
49 App.:1655(c)(1).

In subsections (a)–(c)(1), the word “Administrator” in section 603 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 776) is retained on authority of 49:106(g).
In subsection (a)(1), the text of 49 App.:1423(a)(2) (1st sentence 1st–16th words) and the words “in regulations” are omitted as surplus. The words “properly designed and manufactured, performs properly” are substituted for “of proper design, material, specification, construction, and performance for safe operation” to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “rules” is omitted as being synonymous with “regulations”. The words “under section 44701 (a) of this title” and “for a type certificate” are added for clarity. The words “including flight tests and tests of raw materials or any part or appurtenance of such aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (a)(2)(A), the words “issuance of” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (a)(2)(B), the words “the duration thereof and such other” are omitted as surplus. The words “conditions, and limitations” are omitted as being included in “terms”.
In subsection (a)(2)(C), the words “issued for aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers” and “all of” are omitted as surplus. The word “specification” is substituted for “determination” for clarity.
In subsection (b), the word “satisfactorily” is omitted as surplus. The words “shall inspect, and may require testing of, a duplicate to ensure that it conforms to the requirements of the certificate” are substituted for “shall make such inspection and may require such tests of any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance manufactured under a production certificate as may be necessary to assure manufacture of each unit in conformity with the type certificate or any amendment or modification thereof” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “the duration thereof and such other . . . conditions, and limitations” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(1), the words “may apply to” are substituted for “may file with . . . an application” to eliminate unnecessary words. The words “in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation” are omitted because of 49:322(a). The words “the duration of such certificate, the type of service for which the aircraft may be used, and such other . . . conditions, and limitations” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(2), the words “having a property interest” are substituted for “who are holders of property interests” to eliminate unnecessary words.
Amendments

2012—Pub. L. 112–95, § 303(c)(1), substituted “, and design and production organization certificates” for “and design organization certificates” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 112–95, § 302, added par. (5).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–95, § 303(a), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) related to design organization certificates.
2005—Subsec. (a)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 109–59, § 4405(1)–(3), (5), (6), inserted par. headings, realigned margins, and substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (4), if” for “If” in par. (3).
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109–59, § 4405(4), added par. (4).
2003—Pub. L. 108–176, § 227(e)(1), added section catchline and struck out former section catchline which read as follows: “Type certificates, production certificates, and airworthiness certificates”.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–176, § 811, added par. (3).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–176, § 227(b)(2), added subsec. (e).
1996—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 104–264added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.
Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 ofPub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 ofPub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.
Small Airplane Revitalization

Pub. L. 113–53, Nov. 27, 2013, 127 Stat. 584, provided that:
“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
“This Act may be cited as the ‘Small Airplane Revitalization Act of 2013’.
“SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
“Congress makes the following findings:
“(1) A healthy small aircraft industry is integral to economic growth and to maintaining an effective transportation infrastructure for communities and countries around the world.
“(2) Small airplanes comprise nearly 90 percent of general aviation aircraft certified by the Federal Aviation Administration.
“(3) General aviation provides for the cultivation of a workforce of engineers, manufacturing and maintenance professionals, and pilots who secure the economic success and defense of the United States.
“(4) General aviation contributes to well-paying jobs in the manufacturing and technology sectors in the United States and products produced by those sectors are exported in great numbers.
“(5) Technology developed and proven in general aviation aids in the success and safety of all sectors of aviation and scientific competence.
“(6) The average small airplane in the United States is now 40 years old and the regulatory barriers to bringing new designs to the market are resulting in a lack of innovation and investment in small airplane design.
“(7) Since 2003, the United States lost 10,000 active private pilots per year on average, partially due to a lack of cost-effective, new small airplanes.
“(8) General aviation safety can be improved by modernizing and revamping the regulations relating to small airplanes to clear the path for technology adoption and cost-effective means to retrofit the existing fleet with new safety technologies.
“SEC. 3. SAFETY AND REGULATORY IMPROVEMENTS FOR GENERAL AVIATION.
“(a) In General.—Not later than December 15, 2015, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue a final rule—
“(1) to advance the safety and continued development of small airplanes by reorganizing the certification requirements for such airplanes under part 23 to streamline the approval of safety advancements; and
“(2) that meets the objectives described in subsection (b).
“(b) Objectives Described.—The objectives described in this subsection are based on the recommendations of the Part 23 Reorganization Aviation Rulemaking Committee:
“(1) The establishment of a regulatory regime for small airplanes that will improve safety and reduce the regulatory cost burden for the Federal Aviation Administration and the aviation industry.
“(2) The establishment of broad, outcome-driven safety objectives that will spur innovation and technology adoption.
“(3) The replacement of current, prescriptive requirements under part 23 with performance-based regulations.
“(4) The use of consensus standards accepted by the Federal Aviation Administration to clarify how the safety objectives of part 23 may be met using specific designs and technologies.
“(c) Consensus-Based Standards.—In prescribing regulations under this section, the Administrator shall use consensus standards, as described in section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1996 [1995] (15 U.S.C. 272 note), to the extent practicable while continuing traditional methods for meeting part 23.
“(d) Safety Cooperation.—The Administrator shall lead the effort to improve general aviation safety by working with leading aviation regulators to assist them in adopting a complementary regulatory approach for small airplanes.
“(e) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1) Consensus standards.—
“(A) In general.—The term ‘consensus standards’ means standards developed by an organization described in subparagraph (B) that may include provisions requiring that owners of relevant intellectual property have agreed to make that intellectual property available on a nondiscriminatory, royalty-free, or reasonable royalty basis to all interested persons.
“(B) Organizations described.—An organization described in this subparagraph is a domestic or international organization that—
“(i) plans, develops, establishes, or coordinates, through a process based on consensus and using agreed-upon procedures, voluntary standards; and
“(ii) operates in a transparent manner, considers a balanced set of interests with respect to such standards, and provides for due process and an appeals process with respect to such standards.
“(2) Part 23.—The term ‘part 23’ means part 23 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.
“(3) Part 23 reorganization aviation rulemaking committee.—The term ‘Part 23 Reorganization Aviation Rulemaking Committee’ means the aviation rulemaking committee established by the Federal Aviation Administration in August 2011 to consider the reorganization of the regulations under part 23.
“(4) Small airplane.—The term ‘small airplane’ means an airplane which is certified to part 23 standards.”
Applicability

Pub. L. 112–95, title III, § 303(b),Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 57, provided that: “Before January 1, 2013, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may continue to issue certificates under section 44704 (e) of title 49, United States Code, as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012].”
Aircraft Certification Process Review and Reform

Pub. L. 112–95, title III, § 312,Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 66, provided that:
“(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, in consultation with representatives of the aviation industry, shall conduct an assessment of the certification and approval process under section 44704 of title 49, United States Code.
“(b) Contents.—In conducting the assessment, the Administrator shall consider—
“(1) the expected number of applications for product certifications and approvals the Administrator will receive under section 44704 of such title in the 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year periods following the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012];
“(2) process reforms and improvements necessary to allow the Administrator to review and approve the applications in a fair and timely fashion;
“(3) the status of recommendations made in previous reports on the Administration’s certification process;
“(4) methods for enhancing the effective use of delegation systems, including organizational designation authorization;
“(5) methods for training the Administration’s field office employees in the safety management system and auditing; and
“(6) the status of updating airworthiness requirements, including implementing recommendations in the Administration’s report entitled ‘Part 23—Small Airplane Certification Process Study’ (OK–09–3468, dated July 2009).
“(c) Recommendations.—In conducting the assessment, the Administrator shall make recommendations to improve efficiency and reduce costs through streamlining and reengineering the certification process under section 44704 of such title to ensure that the Administrator can conduct certifications and approvals under such section in a manner that supports and enables the development of new products and technologies and the global competitiveness of the United States aviation industry.
“(d) Report to Congress.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the assessment, together with an explanation of how the Administrator will implement recommendations made under subsection (c) and measure the effectiveness of the recommendations.
“(e) Implementation of Recommendations.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator shall begin to implement the recommendations made under subsection (c).”
Historical Aircraft Documents

Pub. L. 112–95, title VIII, § 816,Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 126, provided that:
“(a) Preservation of Documents.—
“(1) In general.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall take such actions as the Administrator determines necessary to preserve original aircraft type certificate engineering and technical data in the possession of the Federal Aviation Administration related to—
“(A) approved aircraft type certificate numbers ATC 1 through ATC 713; and
“(B) Group-2 approved aircraft type certificate numbers 2–1 through 2–544.
“(2) Revision of order.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator shall revise FAA Order 1350.15C, Item Number 8110. Such revision shall prohibit the destruction of the historical aircraft documents identified in paragraph (1).
“(3) Consultation.—The Administrator may carry out paragraph (1) in consultation with the Archivist of the United States and the Administrator of General Services.
“(b) Availability of Documents.—
“(1) Freedom of information act requests.—The Administrator shall make the documents to be preserved under subsection (a)(1) available to a person—
“(A) upon receipt of a request made by the person pursuant to section 552 of title 5, United States Code; and
“(B) subject to a prohibition on use of the documents for commercial purposes.
“(2) Trade secrets, commercial, and financial information.—Section 552(b)(4) of such title shall not apply to requests for documents to be made available pursuant to paragraph (1).
“(c) Holder of Type Certificate.—
“(1) Rights of holder.—Nothing in this section shall affect the rights of a holder or owner of a type certificate identified in subsection (a)(1), nor require the holder or owner to provide, surrender, or preserve any original or duplicate engineering or technical data to or for the Federal Aviation Administration, a person, or the public.
“(2) Liability.—There shall be no liability on the part of, and no cause of action of any nature shall arise against, a holder of a type certificate, its authorized representative, its agents, or its employees, or any firm, person, corporation, or insurer related to the type certificate data and documents identified in subsection (a)(1).
“(3) Airworthiness.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the holder of a type certificate identified in subsection (a)(1) shall only be responsible for Federal Aviation Administration regulation requirements related to type certificate data and documents identified in subsection (a)(1) for aircraft having a standard airworthiness certificate issued prior to the date the documents are released to a person by the Federal Aviation Administration under subsection (b)(1).”
Plan for Development and Oversight of System for Certification of Design Organizations

Pub. L. 108–176, title II, § 227(b)(1),Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2531, provided that: “Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a plan for the development and oversight of a system for certification of design organizations to certify compliance with the requirements and minimum standards prescribed under section 44701 (a) of title 49, United States Code, for the type certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or appliances.”

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

49 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large
§ 44704nt new2013113-53 [Sec.] 127 Stat. 584
§ 44704nt new2012112-95 [Sec.] 816126 Stat. 126
§ 44704nt new2012112-95 [Sec.] 312126 Stat. 66
§ 44704nt new2012112-95 [Sec.] 303(b)126 Stat. 57
§ 447042012112-95 [Sec.] 303(c)(1)126 Stat. 57
§ 447042012112-95 [Sec.] 302, 303(a)126 Stat. 56

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


14 CFR - Aeronautics and Space

14 CFR Part 3 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

14 CFR Part 14 - RULES IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980

14 CFR Part 21 - CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS

14 CFR Part 23 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES

14 CFR Part 25 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES

14 CFR Part 26 - CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES

14 CFR Part 27 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT

14 CFR Part 29 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT

14 CFR Part 31 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS

14 CFR Part 33 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES

14 CFR Part 34 - FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES

14 CFR Part 35 - AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS

14 CFR Part 36 - NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION

14 CFR Part 47 - AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION

14 CFR Part 49 - RECORDING OF AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS

14 CFR Part 91 - GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES

14 CFR Part 110 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

14 CFR Part 119 - CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS

14 CFR Part 139 - CERTIFICATION OF AIRPORTS

49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 821 - RULES OF PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS

 

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