49 U.S. Code § 44901 - Screening passengers and property

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(a) In General.— The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall provide for the screening of all passengers and property, including United States mail, cargo, carry-on and checked baggage, and other articles, that will be carried aboard a passenger aircraft operated by an air carrier or foreign air carrier in air transportation or intrastate air transportation. In the case of flights and flight segments originating in the United States, the screening shall take place before boarding and shall be carried out by a Federal Government employee (as defined in section 2105 of title 5, United States Code), except as otherwise provided in section 44919 or 44920 and except for identifying passengers and baggage for screening under the CAPPS and known shipper programs and conducting positive bag-match programs.
(b) Supervision of Screening.— All screening of passengers and property at airports in the United States where screening is required under this section shall be supervised by uniformed Federal personnel of the Transportation Security Administration who shall have the power to order the dismissal of any individual performing such screening.
(c) Checked Baggage.— A system must be in operation to screen all checked baggage at all airports in the United States as soon as practicable but not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act.
(d) Explosives Detection Systems.—
(1) In general.— The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall take all necessary action to ensure that—
(A) explosives detection systems are deployed as soon as possible to ensure that all United States airports described in section 44903 (c) have sufficient explosives detection systems to screen all checked baggage no later than December 31, 2002, and that as soon as such systems are in place at an airport, all checked baggage at the airport is screened by those systems; and
(B) all systems deployed under subparagraph (A) are fully utilized; and
(C) if explosives detection equipment at an airport is unavailable, all checked baggage is screened by an alternative means.
(2) Deadline.—
(A) In general.— If, in his discretion or at the request of an airport, the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security determines that the Transportation Security Administration is not able to deploy explosives detection systems required to be deployed under paragraph (1) at all airports where explosives detection systems are required by December 31, 2002, then with respect to each airport for which the Under Secretary makes that determination—
(i) the Under Secretary shall submit to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure a detailed plan (which may be submitted in classified form) for the deployment of the number of explosives detection systems at that airport necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) as soon as practicable at that airport but in no event later than December 31, 2003; and
(ii) the Under Secretary shall take all necessary action to ensure that alternative means of screening all checked baggage is implemented until the requirements of paragraph (1) have been met.
(B) Criteria for determination.— In making a determination under subparagraph (A), the Under Secretary shall take into account—
(i) the nature and extent of the required modifications to the airport’s terminal buildings, and the technical, engineering, design and construction issues;
(ii) the need to ensure that such installations and modifications are effective; and
(iii) the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of deploying explosives detection systems in the baggage sorting area or other non-public area rather than the lobby of an airport terminal building.
(C) Response.— The Under Secretary shall respond to the request of an airport under subparagraph (A) within 14 days of receiving the request. A denial of request shall create no right of appeal or judicial review.
(D) Airport effort required.— Each airport with respect to which the Under Secretary makes a determination under subparagraph (A) shall—
(i) cooperate fully with the Transportation Security Administration with respect to screening checked baggage and changes to accommodate explosives detection systems; and
(ii) make security projects a priority for the obligation or expenditure of funds made available under chapter 417 or 471 until explosives detection systems required to be deployed under paragraph (1) have been deployed at that airport.
(3) Reports.— Until the Transportation Security Administration has met the requirements of paragraph (1), the Under Secretary shall submit a classified report every 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure describing the progress made toward meeting such requirements at each airport.
(4) Preclearance airports.—
(A) In general.— For a flight or flight segment originating at an airport outside the United States and traveling to the United States with respect to which checked baggage has been screened in accordance with an aviation security preclearance agreement between the United States and the country in which such airport is located, the Assistant Secretary (Transportation Security Administration) may, in coordination with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, determine whether such baggage must be re-screened in the United States by an explosives detection system before such baggage continues on any additional flight or flight segment.
(B) Aviation security preclearance agreement defined.— In this paragraph, the term “aviation security preclearance agreement” means an agreement that delineates and implements security standards and protocols that are determined by the Assistant Secretary, in coordination with U.S. Customs and Border Protection, to be comparable to those of the United States and therefore sufficiently effective to enable passengers to deplane into sterile areas of airports in the United States.
(C) Report.— The Assistant Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate an annual report on the re-screening of baggage under this paragraph. Each such report shall include the following for the year covered by the report:
(i) A list of airports outside the United States from which a flight or flight segment traveled to the United States for which the Assistant Secretary determined, in accordance with the authority under subparagraph (A), that checked baggage was not required to be re-screened in the United States by an explosives detection system before such baggage continued on an additional flight or flight segment.
(ii) The amount of Federal savings generated from the exercise of such authority.
(e) Mandatory Screening Where EDS Not Yet Available.— As soon as practicable but not later than the 60th day following the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act and until the requirements of subsection (b)(1)(A) are met, the Under Secretary shall require alternative means for screening any piece of checked baggage that is not screened by an explosives detection system. Such alternative means may include 1 or more of the following:
(1) A bag-match program that ensures that no checked baggage is placed aboard an aircraft unless the passenger who checked the baggage is aboard the aircraft.
(2) Manual search.
(3) Search by canine explosives detection units in combination with other means.
(4) Other means or technology approved by the Under Secretary.
(f) Cargo Deadline.— A system must be in operation to screen, inspect, or otherwise ensure the security of all cargo that is to be transported in all-cargo aircraft in air transportation and intrastate air transportation as soon as practicable after the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act.
(g) Air Cargo on Passenger Aircraft.—
(1) In general.— Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall establish a system to screen 100 percent of cargo transported on passenger aircraft operated by an air carrier or foreign air carrier in air transportation or intrastate air transportation to ensure the security of all such passenger aircraft carrying cargo.
(2) Minimum standards.— The system referred to in paragraph (1) shall require, at a minimum, that equipment, technology, procedures, personnel, or other methods approved by the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, are used to screen cargo carried on passenger aircraft described in paragraph (1) to provide a level of security commensurate with the level of security for the screening of passenger checked baggage as follows:
(A) 50 percent of such cargo is so screened not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007.
(B) 100 percent of such cargo is so screened not later than 3 years after such date of enactment.
(3) Regulations.—
(A) Interim final rule.— The Secretary of Homeland Security may issue an interim final rule as a temporary regulation to implement this subsection without regard to the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5.
(B) Final rule.—
(i) In general.— If the Secretary issues an interim final rule under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall issue, not later than one year after the effective date of the interim final rule, a final rule as a permanent regulation to implement this subsection in accordance with the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5.
(ii) Failure to act.— If the Secretary does not issue a final rule in accordance with clause (i) on or before the last day of the one-year period referred to in clause (i), the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate a report explaining why the final rule was not timely issued and providing an estimate of the earliest date on which the final rule will be issued. The Secretary shall submit the first such report within 10 days after such last day and submit a report to the Committees containing updated information every 30 days thereafter until the final rule is issued.
(iii) Superceding 1 of interim final rule.— The final rule issued in accordance with this subparagraph shall supersede the interim final rule issued under subparagraph (A).
(4) Report.— Not later than 1 year after the date of establishment of the system under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the Committees referred to in paragraph (3)(B)(ii) a report that describes the system.
(5) Screening defined.— In this subsection the term “screening” means a physical examination or non-intrusive methods of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security. Methods of screening include x-ray systems, explosives detection systems, explosives trace detection, explosives detection canine teams certified by the Transportation Security Administration, or a physical search together with manifest verification. The Administrator may approve additional methods to ensure that the cargo does not pose a threat to transportation security and to assist in meeting the requirements of this subsection. Such additional cargo screening methods shall not include solely performing a review of information about the contents of cargo or verifying the identity of a shipper of the cargo that is not performed in conjunction with other security methods authorized under this subsection, including whether a known shipper is registered in the known shipper database. Such additional cargo screening methods may include a program to certify the security methods used by shippers pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) and alternative screening methods pursuant to exemptions referred to in subsection (b) ofsection 1602 of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007.
(h) Deployment of Armed Personnel.—
(1) In general.— The Under Secretary shall order the deployment of law enforcement personnel authorized to carry firearms at each airport security screening location to ensure passenger safety and national security.
(2) Minimum requirements.— Except at airports required to enter into agreements under subsection (c), the Under Secretary shall order the deployment of at least 1 law enforcement officer at each airport security screening location. At the 100 largest airports in the United States, in terms of annual passenger enplanements for the most recent calendar year for which data are available, the Under Secretary shall order the deployment of additional law enforcement personnel at airport security screening locations if the Under Secretary determines that the additional deployment is necessary to ensure passenger safety and national security.
(i) Exemptions and Advising Congress on Regulations.— The Under Secretary—
(1) may exempt from this section air transportation operations, except scheduled passenger operations of an air carrier providing air transportation under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title or a permit issued under section 41302 of this title; and
(2) shall advise Congress of a regulation to be prescribed under this section at least 30 days before the effective date of the regulation, unless the Under Secretary decides an emergency exists requiring the regulation to become effective in fewer than 30 days and notifies Congress of that decision.
(j) Blast-Resistant Cargo Containers.—
(1) In general.— Before January 1, 2008, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration shall—
(A) evaluate the results of the blast-resistant cargo container pilot program that was initiated before the date of enactment of this subsection; and
(B) prepare and distribute through the Aviation Security Advisory Committee to the appropriate Committees of Congress and air carriers a report on that evaluation which may contain nonclassified and classified sections.
(2) Acquisition, maintenance, and replacement.— Upon completion and consistent with the results of the evaluation that paragraph (1)(A) requires, the Administrator shall—
(A) develop and implement a program, as the Administrator determines appropriate, to acquire, maintain, and replace blast-resistant cargo containers;
(B) pay for the program; and
(C) make available blast-resistant cargo containers to air carriers pursuant to paragraph (3).
(3) Distribution to air carriers.— The Administrator shall make available, beginning not later than July 1, 2008, blast-resistant cargo containers to air carriers for use on a risk managed basis as determined by the Administrator.
(k) General Aviation Airport Security Program.—
(1) In general.— Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration shall—
(A) develop a standardized threat and vulnerability assessment program for general aviation airports (as defined in section 47134 (m)); and
(B) implement a program to perform such assessments on a risk-managed basis at general aviation airports.
(2) Grant program.— Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator shall initiate and complete a study of the feasibility of a program, based on a risk-managed approach, to provide grants to operators of general aviation airports (as defined in section 47134 (m)) for projects to upgrade security at such airports. If the Administrator determines that such a program is feasible, the Administrator shall establish such a program.
(3) Application to general aviation aircraft.— Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Administrator shall develop a risk-based system under which—
(A) general aviation aircraft, as identified by the Administrator, in coordination with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, are required to submit passenger information and advance notification requirements for United States Customs and Border Protection before entering United States airspace; and
(B) such information is checked against appropriate databases.
(4) Authorization of appropriations.— There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration such sums as may be necessary to carry out paragraphs (2) and (3).
(l) Limitations on Use of Advanced Imaging Technology for Screening Passengers.—
(1) Definitions.— In this subsection, the following definitions apply:
(A) Advanced imaging technology.— The term “advanced imaging technology”—
(i) means a device used in the screening of passengers that creates a visual image of an individual showing the surface of the skin and revealing other objects on the body; and
(ii) may include devices using backscatter x-rays or millimeter waves and devices referred to as “whole-body imaging technology” or “body scanning machines”.
(B) Appropriate congressional committees.— The term “appropriate congressional committees” means—
(i) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate; and
(ii) the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives.
(C) Automatic target recognition software.— The term “automatic target recognition software” means software installed on an advanced imaging technology that produces a generic image of the individual being screened that is the same as the images produced for all other screened individuals.
(2) Use of advanced imaging technology.— Beginning June 1, 2012, the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) shall ensure that any advanced imaging technology used for the screening of passengers under this section—
(A) is equipped with and employs automatic target recognition software; and
(B) complies with such other requirements as the Assistant Secretary determines necessary to address privacy considerations.
(3) Extension.—
(A) In general.— The Assistant Secretary may extend the deadline specified in paragraph (2), if the Assistant Secretary determines that—
(i) an advanced imaging technology equipped with automatic target recognition software is not substantially as effective at screening passengers as an advanced imaging technology without such software; or
(ii) additional testing of such software is necessary.
(B) Duration of extensions.— The Assistant Secretary may issue one or more extensions under subparagraph (A). The duration of each extension may not exceed one year.
(4) Reports.—
(A) In general.— Not later than 60 days after the deadline specified in paragraph (2), and not later than 60 days after the date on which the Assistant Secretary issues any extension under paragraph (3), the Assistant Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the implementation of this subsection.
(B) Elements.— A report submitted under subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
(i) A description of all matters the Assistant Secretary considers relevant to the implementation of the requirements of this subsection.
(ii) The status of compliance by the Transportation Security Administration with such requirements.
(iii) If the Administration is not in full compliance with such requirements—
(I) the reasons for the noncompliance; and
(II) a timeline depicting when the Assistant Secretary expects the Administration to achieve full compliance.
(C) Security classification.— To the greatest extent practicable, a report prepared under subparagraph (A) shall be submitted in an unclassified format. If necessary, the report may include a classified annex.


[1]  So in original.

Source

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1204; Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §§ 101(f)(7), 110 (b),Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 603, 614; Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, § 425,Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2185; Pub. L. 110–53, title XVI, §§ 1602(a), 1609, 1617,Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 477, 484, 488; Pub. L. 112–95, title VIII, § 826,Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 132; Pub. L. 112–218, § 2,Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1593.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
44901(a)
49 App.:1356(a) (1st sentence).
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 315(a) (1st, 2d sentences, 3d sentence 19th–last words); added Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, § 202, 88 Stat. 415; Aug. 8, 1985, Pub. L. 99–83, § 551(b)(1), 99 Stat. 225.
44901(b)
49 App.:1356(a) (2d sentence).
44901(c)(1)
49 App.:1356(c).
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 315(c); added Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, § 202, 88 Stat. 415; Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–604, § 102(a), 104 Stat. 3068.
44901(c)(2)
49 App.:1356(a) (3d sentence 19th–last words).

In subsection (a), the words “or continue in effect reasonable”, “intended”, and “the aircraft for such transportation” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (b), the words “Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section” are added for clarity. The words “One year after August 5, 1974, or after the effective date of such regulations, whichever is later” are omitted as executed. The words “alter or”, “a continuation of”, “the extent deemed necessary to”, and “acts of” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(1), the words “in whole or in part” and “those” are omitted as surplus. The word “providing” is substituted for “engaging in” for consistency in the revised title. The words “interstate, overseas, or foreign” are omitted because of the definition of “air transportation” in section 40102(a) of the revised title. The words “of public convenience and necessity”, “by the Civil Aeronautics Board”, “foreign air carrier”, and “by the Board” are omitted as surplus.
In subsection (c)(2), the words “or amendments thereto” and “or amendments” are omitted as surplus.
References in Text

The date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (c), (e), and (f), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–71, which was approved Nov. 19, 2001.
The date of enactment of this Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–296, which enacted subsec. (d)(2), (3) of this section and was approved Nov. 25, 2002.
The date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, such date of enactment, and the date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (g)(1), (2), (j)(1)(A), and (k)(1)–(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–53, which was approved Aug. 3, 2007.
Subsection (b) ofsection 1602 of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (g)(5), is section 1602(b) ofPub. L. 110–53, title XVI, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 479, which is not classified to the Code.
Amendments

2012—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–218, § 2(b), which directed substitution of “explosives” for “explosive” wherever appearing in this section, was executed in subsec. (d) by making such substitution wherever appearing in text as well as by substituting “Explosives” for “Explosive” in heading, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 112–218, § 2(a), added par. (4).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–218, § 2(b), substituted “explosives” for “explosive” in introductory provisions and in par. (3).
Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 112–95added subsec. (l).
2007—Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 110–53, § 1602(a), added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsecs. (g) and (h) as (h) and (i), respectively.
Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 110–53, § 1609, added subsec. (j).
Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 110–53, § 1617, added subsec. (k).
2002—Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 107–296added pars. (2) and (3).
2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: “The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations requiring screening of all passengers and property that will be carried in a cabin of an aircraft in air transportation or intrastate air transportation. The screening must take place before boarding and be carried out by a weapon-detecting facility or procedure used or operated by an employee or agent of an air carrier, intrastate air carrier, or foreign air carrier.”
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows: “Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, the Administrator may amend a regulation prescribed under subsection (a) to require screening only to ensure security against criminal violence and aircraft piracy in air transportation and intrastate air transportation.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (h).
Pub. L. 107–71, § 101(f)(7), substituted “Under Secretary” for “Administrator” in introductory provisions and par. (2).
Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(2), added subsecs. (d) to (g).
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–71, § 110(b)(1), redesignatedsubsec. (c) as (h).
Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 ofPub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.
Savings Provision

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 141,Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 643, provided that:
“(a) Transfer of Assets and Personnel.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification], those personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with a function transferred to the Transportation Security Administration by this Act shall be transferred to the Transportation Security Administration for use in connection with the functions transferred. Unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds made available to the Federal Aviation Administration to carry out such functions shall also be transferred to the Transportation Security Administration for use in connection with the functions transferred.
“(b) Legal Documents.—All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants, loans, contracts, settlements, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges—
“(1) that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective by the Federal Aviation Administration, any officer or employee thereof, or any other Government official, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the performance of any function that is transferred by this Act; and
“(2) that are in effect on the effective date of such transfer (or become effective after such date pursuant to their terms as in effect on such effective date), shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, any other authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or operation of law.
“(c) Proceedings.—
“(1) In general.—The provisions of this Act shall not affect any proceedings or any application for any license pending before the Federal Aviation Administration at the time this Act takes effect [Nov. 19, 2001], insofar as those functions are transferred by this Act; but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they relate to functions so transferred, shall be continued. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or revoked by a duly authorized official, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.
“(2) Statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the discontinuance or modification of any proceeding described in paragraph (1) under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had not been enacted.
“(3) Orderly transfer.—The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to provide for the orderly transfer of pending proceedings from the Federal Aviation Administration.
“(d) Suits.—
“(1) In general.—This Act shall not affect suits commenced before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). In all such suits, proceeding shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted.
“(2) Suits by or against faa.—Any suit by or against the Federal Aviation Administration begun before the date of the enactment of this Act shall be continued, insofar as it involves a function retained and transferred under this Act, with the Transportation Security Administration (to the extent the suit involves functions transferred to the Transportation Security Administration under this Act) substituted for the Federal Aviation Administration.
“(3) Remanded cases.—If the court in a suit described in paragraph (1) remands a case to the Transportation Security Administration, subsequent proceedings related to such case shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations as in effect at the time of such subsequent proceedings.
“(e) Continuance of Actions Against Officers.—No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his official capacity as an officer of the Federal Aviation Administration shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or against the Federal Aviation Administration, or by or against any officer thereof in his official capacity, shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act.
“(f) Exercise of Authorities.—Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer or employee of the Transportation Security Administration may, for purposes of performing a function transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date of the transfer of the function under this Act.
“(g) Act Defined.—In this section, the term ‘Act’ includes the amendments made by this Act.”
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Transportation Security Administration of the Department of Transportation, including the functions of the Secretary of Transportation, and of the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203 (2), 551 (d), 552 (d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.
Transition Provisions

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 101(g),Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 603, provided that:
“(1) Schedule for assumption of civil aviation security functions.—Not later than 3 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall assume civil aviation security functions and responsibilities under chapter 449 of title 49, United States Code, as amended by this Act, in accordance with a schedule to be developed by the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with air carriers, foreign air carriers, and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. The Under Secretary shall publish an appropriate notice of the transfer of such security functions and responsibilities before assuming the functions and responsibilities.
“(2) Assumption of contracts.—As of the date specified in paragraph (1), the Under Secretary may assume the rights and responsibilities of an air carrier or foreign air carrier contract for provision of passenger screening services at airports in the United States described in section 44903 (c), subject to payment of adequate compensation to parties to the contract, if any.
“(3) Assignment of contracts.—
“(A) In general.—Upon request of the Under Secretary, an air carrier or foreign air carrier carrying out a screening or security function under chapter 449 of title 49, United States Code, may enter into an agreement with the Under Secretary to transfer any contract the carrier has entered into with respect to carrying out the function, before the Under Secretary assumes responsibility for the function.
“(B) Schedule.—The Under Secretary may enter into an agreement under subparagraph (A) as soon as possible, but not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001]. The Under Secretary may enter into such an agreement for one 180-day period and may extend such agreement for one 90-day period if the Under Secretary determines it necessary.
“(4) Transfer of ownership.—In recognition of the assumption of the financial costs of security screening of passengers and property at airports, and as soon as practical after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], air carriers may enter into agreements with the Under Secretary to transfer the ownership, at no cost to the United States Government, of any personal property, equipment, supplies, or other material associated with such screening, regardless of the source of funds used to acquire the property, that the Secretary determines to be useful for the performance of security screening of passengers and property at airports.
“(5) Performance of under secretary’s functions during interim period.—Until the Under Secretary takes office, the functions of the Under Secretary that relate to aviation security may be carried out by the Secretary or the Secretary’s designee.”
Protection of Passenger Planes From Explosives

Pub. L. 110–53, title XVI, § 1610,Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 484, provided that:
“(a) Technology Research and Pilot Projects.—
“(1) Research and development.—The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration, shall expedite research and development programs for technologies that can disrupt or prevent an explosive device from being introduced onto a passenger plane or from damaging a passenger plane while in flight or on the ground. The research shall be used in support of implementation of section 44901 of title 49, United States Code.
“(2) Pilot projects.—The Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Transportation, shall establish a grant program to fund pilot projects—
“(A) to deploy technologies described in paragraph (1); and
“(B) to test technologies to expedite the recovery, development, and analysis of information from aircraft accidents to determine the cause of the accident, including deployable flight deck and voice recorders and remote location recording devices.
“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for fiscal year 2008 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended.”
Standards for Increasing the Use of Explosive Detection Equipment

Pub. L. 109–295, title V, § 518,Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1380, provided that: “The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with industry stakeholders, shall develop standards and protocols for increasing the use of explosive detection equipment to screen air cargo when appropriate.”
Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:
Pub. L. 109–90, title V, § 524,Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2086.
Use of Existing Equipment To Screen Passenger Cargo; Reports

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, § 525,Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2086, provided that: “The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) shall utilize existing checked baggage explosive detection equipment and screeners to screen cargo carried on passenger aircraft to the greatest extent practicable at each airport: Provided, That beginning with November 2005, TSA shall provide a monthly report to the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives detailing, by airport, the amount of cargo carried on passenger aircraft that was screened by TSA in August 2005 and each month thereafter.”
In-Line Checked Baggage Screening

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4019(a), (b),Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3721, provided that:
“(a) In-Line Baggage Screening Equipment.—The Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) shall take such action as may be necessary to expedite the installation and use of in-line baggage screening equipment at airports at which screening is required by section 44901 of title 49, United States Code.
“(b) Schedule.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Assistant Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a schedule to expedite the installation and use of in-line baggage screening equipment at such airports, with an estimate of the impact that such equipment, facility modification, and baggage conveyor placement will have on staffing needs and levels related to aviation security.”
Checked Baggage Screening Area Monitoring

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4020,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3722, provided that:
“(a) In General.—The Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security of the Department of Homeland Security shall provide, subject to the availability of funds, assistance to airports at which screening is required by section 44901 of title 49, United States Code, and that have checked baggage screening areas that are not open to public view in the acquisition and installation of security monitoring cameras for surveillance of such areas in order to deter theft from checked baggage and to aid in the speedy resolution of liability claims against the Transportation Security Administration.
“(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for fiscal year 2005 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended.”
Pilot Program To Evaluate Use of Blast Resistant Cargo and Baggage Containers

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4051,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3728, directed the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), beginning not later than 180 days after Dec. 17, 2004, to carry out a pilot program to evaluate the use of blast-resistant containers for cargo and baggage on passenger aircraft to minimize the potential effects of detonation of an explosive device, and directed the Assistant Secretary to provide incentives to air carriers to volunteer to participate in such program.
Air Cargo Security

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4052,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3728, provided that:
“(a) Air Cargo Screening Technology.—The Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) shall develop technology to better identify, track, and screen air cargo.
“(b) Improved Air Cargo and Airport Security.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for the use of the Transportation Security Administration, in addition to any amounts otherwise authorized by law, for the purpose of improving aviation security related to the transportation of cargo on both passenger aircraft and all-cargo aircraft—
“(1) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
“(2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
“(3) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.
Such sums shall remain available until expended.
“(c) Research, Development, and Deployment.—To carry out subsection (a), there is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary, in addition to any amounts otherwise authorized by law, for research and development related to enhanced air cargo security technology as well as for deployment and installation of enhanced air cargo security technology—
“(1) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2005;
“(2) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and
“(3) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.
Such sums shall remain available until expended.
“(d) Advanced Cargo Security Grants.—
“(1) In general.—The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program to issue competitive grants to encourage the development of advanced air cargo security technology, including use of innovative financing or other means of funding such activities. The Secretary may make available funding for this purpose from amounts appropriated pursuant to subsection (c).
“(2) Eligibility criteria, etc.—The Secretary shall establish such eligibility criteria, establish such application and administrative procedures, and provide for such matching funding requirements, if any, as may be necessary and appropriate to ensure that the technology is deployed as fully and rapidly as possible.”
Identification Standards

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, § 7220,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3835, provided that:
“(a) Proposed Standards.—
“(1) In general.—The Secretary of Homeland Security—
“(A) shall propose minimum standards for identification documents required of domestic commercial airline passengers for boarding an aircraft; and
“(B) may, from time to time, propose minimum standards amending or replacing standards previously proposed and transmitted to Congress and approved under this section.
“(2) Submission to congress.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Secretary shall submit the standards under paragraph (1)(A) to the Senate and the House of Representatives on the same day while each House is in session.
“(3) Effective date.—Any proposed standards submitted to Congress under this subsection shall take effect when an approval resolution is passed by the House and the Senate under the procedures described in subsection (b) and becomes law.
“(b) Congressional Approval Procedures.—
“(1) Rulemaking power.—This subsection is enacted by Congress—
“(A) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively, and as such they are deemed a part of the rules of each House, respectively, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in that House in the case of such approval resolutions; and it supersedes other rules only to the extent that they are inconsistent therewith; and
“(B) with full recognition of the constitutional right of either House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of that House) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of that House.
“(2) Approval resolution.—For the purpose of this subsection, the term ‘approval resolution’ means a joint resolution of Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: ‘That the Congress approves the proposed standards issued under section 7220 of the 9/11 Commission Implementation Act of 2004, transmitted by the President to the Congress on XXXXXX’, the blank space being filled in with the appropriate date.
“(3) Introduction.—Not later than the first day of session following the day on which proposed standards are transmitted to the House of Representatives and the Senate under subsection (a), an approval resolution—
“(A) shall be introduced (by request) in the House by the Majority Leader of the House of Representatives, for himself or herself and the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, or by Members of the House of Representatives designated by the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of the House; and
“(B) shall be introduced (by request) in the Senate by the Majority Leader of the Senate, for himself or herself and the Minority Leader of the Senate, or by Members of the Senate designated by the Majority Leader and Minority Leader of the Senate.
“(4) Prohibitions.—
“(A) Amendments.—No amendment to an approval resolution shall be in order in either the House of Representatives or the Senate.
“(B) Motions to suspend.—No motion to suspend the application of this paragraph shall be in order in either House, nor shall it be in order in either House for the Presiding Officer to entertain a request to suspend the application of this paragraph by unanimous consent.
“(5) Referral.—
“(A) In general.—An approval resolution shall be referred to the committees of the House of Representatives and of the Senate with jurisdiction. Each committee shall make its recommendations to the House of Representatives or the Senate, as the case may be, within 45 days after its introduction. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), if a committee to which an approval resolution has been referred has not reported it at the close of the 45th day after its introduction, such committee shall be automatically discharged from further consideration of the resolution and it shall be placed on the appropriate calendar.
“(B) Final passage.—A vote on final passage of the resolution shall be taken in each House on or before the close of the 15th day after the resolution is reported by the committee or committees of that House to which it was referred, or after such committee or committees have been discharged from further consideration of the resolution.
“(C) Computation of days.—For purposes of this paragraph, in computing a number of days in either House, there shall be excluded any day on which that House is not in session.
“(6) Coordination with action of other house.—If prior to the passage by one House of an approval resolution of that House, that House receives the same approval resolution from the other House, then the procedure in that House shall be the same as if no approval resolution has been received from the other House, but the vote on final passage shall be on the approval resolution of the other House.
“(7) Floor consideration in the house of representatives.—
“(A) Motion to proceed.—A motion in the House of Representatives to proceed to the consideration of an approval resolution shall be highly privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, not shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.
“(B) Debate.—Debate in the House of Representatives on an implementing bill or approval resolution shall be limited to not more than 4 hours, which shall be divided equally between those favoring and those opposing the resolution. A motion to further limit debate shall not be debatable. It shall not be in order to move to recommit an approval resolution or to move to reconsider the vote by which an approval resolution is agreed to or disagreed to.
“(C) Motion to postpone.—Motions to postpone made in the House of Representatives with respect to the consideration of an approval resolution and motions to proceed to the consideration of other business shall be decided without debate.
“(D) Appeals.—All appeals from the decisions of the Chair relating to the application of the Rules of the House of Representatives to the procedure relating to an approval resolution shall be decided without debate.
“(E) Rules of the house of representatives.—Except to the extent specifically provided in subparagraphs (A) through (D), consideration of an approval resolution shall be governed by the Rules of the House of Representatives applicable to other resolutions in similar circumstances.
“(8) Floor consideration in the Senate.—
“(A) Motion to proceed.—A motion in the Senate to proceed to the consideration of an approval resolution shall be privileged and not debatable. An amendment to the motion shall not be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which the motion is agreed to or disagreed to.
“(B) Debate on resolution.—Debate in the Senate on an approval resolution, and appeals in connection therewith, shall be limited to not more than 10 hours, which shall be equally divided between, and controlled by, the Majority Leader and the Minority Leader, or their designees.
“(C) Debate on motions and appeals.—Debate in the Senate on any debatable motion or appeal in connection with an approval resolution shall be limited to not more than 1 hour, which shall be equally divided between, and controlled by, the mover and the manager of the resolution, except that in the event the manager of the resolution is in favor of any such motion or appeal, the time in opposition thereto, shall be controlled by the Minority Leader or designee. Such leaders, or either of them, may, from time under their control on the passage of an approval resolution, allot additional time to any Senator during the consideration of any debatable motion or appeal.
“(D) Limit on debate.—A motion in the Senate to further limit debate is not debatable. A motion to recommit an approval resolution is not in order.
“(c) Default Standards.—
“(1) In general.—If the standards proposed under subsection (a)(1)(A) are not approved pursuant to the procedures described in subsection (b), then not later than 1 year after rejection by a vote of either House of Congress, domestic commercial airline passengers seeking to board an aircraft shall present, for identification purposes—
“(A) a valid, unexpired passport;
“(B) domestically issued documents that the Secretary of Homeland Security designates as reliable for identification purposes;
“(C) any document issued by the Attorney General or the Secretary of Homeland Security under the authority of 1 of the immigration laws (as defined under section 101(a)(17) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(17))[)]; or
“(D) a document issued by the country of nationality of any alien not required to possess a passport for admission to the United States that the Secretary designates as reliable for identifications purposes
“(2) Exception.—The documentary requirements described in paragraph (1)—
“(A) shall not apply to individuals below the age of 17, or such other age as determined by the Secretary of Homeland Security;
“(B) may be waived by the Secretary of Homeland Security in the case of an unforeseen medical emergency.
“(d) Recommendation to Congress.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004], the Secretary of Homeland Security shall recommend to Congress—
“(1) categories of Federal facilities that the Secretary determines to be at risk for terrorist attack and requiring minimum identification standards for access to such facilities; and
“(2) appropriate minimum identification standards to gain access to those facilities.”
Deadline for Deployment of Federal Screeners

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 110(c),Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 616, provided that:
“(1) In general.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall deploy at all airports in the United States where screening is required under section 44901 of title 49, United States Code, a sufficient number of Federal screeners, Federal Security Managers, Federal security personnel, and Federal law enforcement officers to conduct the screening of all passengers and property under section 44901 of such title at such airports.
“(2) Certification to congress.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary shall transmit to Congress a certification that the requirement of paragraph (1) has been met.”
Reports

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, § 110(d),Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 616, provided that:
“(1) Deployment.—Within 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the deployment of the systems required by section 44901 (c) of title 49, United States Code. The Under Secretary shall include in the report—
“(A) an installation schedule;
“(B) the dates of installation of each system; and
“(C) the date on which each system installed is operational.
“(2) Screening of small aircraft.—Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security shall transmit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives on the screening requirements applicable to passengers boarding, and property being carried aboard, aircraft with 60 seats or less used in scheduled passenger service with recommendations for any necessary changes in those requirements.”
Installation of Advanced Security Equipment; Agreements

Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 305(b),Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3252, provided that: “The Administrator is authorized to use noncompetitive or cooperative agreements with air carriers and airport authorities that provide for the Administrator to purchase and assist in installing advanced security equipment for the use of such entities.”
Passenger Profiling

Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 307,Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3253, provided that: “The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, the Secretary of Transportation, the intelligence community, and the law enforcement community should continue to assist air carriers in developing computer-assisted passenger profiling programs and other appropriate passenger profiling programs which should be used in conjunction with other security measures and technologies.”
Authority To Use Certain Funds for Airport Security Programs and Activities

Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 308,Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3253, which provided that funds from project grants made under subchapter I of chapter 471 of this title and passenger facility fees collected under section 40117 of this title could be used for the improvement of facilities and the purchase and deployment of equipment to enhance and ensure safe air travel, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–176, title I, § 143,Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2503.
Installation and Use of Explosive Detection Equipment

Pub. L. 101–45, title I, June 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 110, provided in part that: “Not later than thirty days after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 30, 1989], the Federal Aviation Administrator shall initiate action, including such rulemaking or other actions as necessary, to require the use of explosive detection equipment that meets minimum performance standards requiring application of technology equivalent to or better than thermal neutron analysis technology at such airports (whether located within or outside the United States) as the Administrator determines that the installation and use of such equipment is necessary to ensure the safety of air commerce. The Administrator shall complete these actions within sixty days of enactment of this Act”.
Research and Development of Improved Airport Security Systems

Pub. L. 100–649, § 2(d),Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3817, provided that: “The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct such research and development as may be necessary to improve the effectiveness of airport security metal detectors and airport security x-ray systems in detecting firearms that, during the 10-year period beginning on the effective date of this Act [see Effective Date of 1988 Amendment; Sunset Provision note set out under section 922 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure], are subject to the prohibitions of section 922 (p) of title 18, United States Code.”
Definitions of Terms in Title IV of Pub. L. 108–458

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, § 4081,Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3731, provided that: “In this title [enacting section 44925 of this title, amending sections 114, 44903, 44904, 44909, 44917, 44923, 46301 to 46303, and 48301 of this title and sections 70102 and 70103 of Title 46, Shipping, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 114, 44703, 44913, 44917, 44923, 44925, and 44935 of this title, section 2751 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 70101 of Title 46] (other than in sections 4001 and 4026 [amending sections 114 and 44904 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2751 of Title 22]), the following definitions apply:
“(1) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term ‘appropriate congressional committees’ means the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.
“(2) Aviation definitions.—The terms ‘air carrier’, ‘air transportation’, ‘aircraft’, ‘airport’, ‘cargo’, ‘foreign air carrier’, and ‘intrastate air transportation’ have the meanings given such terms in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.
“(3) Secure area of an airport.—The term ‘secure area of an airport’ means the sterile area and the Secure Identification Display Area of an airport (as such terms are defined in section 1540.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor regulations).”
Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 107–71

For definitions of terms used in sections 101(g) and 110(c), (d), ofPub. L. 107–71, set out above, see section 133 ofPub. L. 107–71, set out as a note under section 40102 of this title.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


14 CFR - Aeronautics and Space

14 CFR Part 110 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

14 CFR Part 119 - CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS

14 CFR Part 136 - COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT

14 CFR Part 300 - RULES OF CONDUCT IN DOT PROCEEDINGS UNDER THIS CHAPTER

49 CFR - Transportation

49 CFR Part 1500 - APPLICABILITY, TERMS, AND ABBREVIATIONS

49 CFR Part 1502 - ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES

49 CFR Part 1503 - INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES

49 CFR Part 1511 - AVIATION SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE FEE

49 CFR Part 1520 - PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE SECURITY INFORMATION

49 CFR Part 1540 - CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY: GENERAL RULES

49 CFR Part 1542 - AIRPORT SECURITY

49 CFR Part 1544 - AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS

49 CFR Part 1546 - FOREIGN AIR CARRIER SECURITY

49 CFR Part 1548 - INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY

49 CFR Part 1549 - CERTIFIED CARGO SCREENING PROGRAM

49 CFR Part 1550 - AIRCRAFT SECURITY UNDER GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES

49 CFR Part 1560 - SECURE FLIGHT PROGRAM

 

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