A civil penalty under this chapter may be collected by bringing a civil action against the person subject to the penalty, a civil action in rem against an aircraft subject to a lien for a penalty, or both. The action shall conform as nearly as practicable to a civil action in admiralty, regardless of the place an aircraft in a civil action in rem is seized. However, a party may demand a jury trial of an issue of fact in an action involving a civil penalty under this chapter (except a penalty imposed by the Secretary of Transportation that formerly was imposed by the Civil Aeronautics Board) if the value of the matter in controversy is more than $20. Issues of fact tried by a jury may be reexamined only under common law rules.
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, § 903(b)(1), 72 Stat. 786; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, § 36, 92 Stat. 1741.
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, § 903(b)(4), 72 Stat. 787.
Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, § 3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
The text of 49 App.:1473(b)(4) is omitted because of 28:ch. 131. The words “imposed or assessed” are omitted as surplus. The words “bringing a civil action” are substituted for “proceedings in personam”, the words “civil action in rem” are substituted for “proceedings in rem”, and the words “civil action” are substituted for “civil suits”, for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code and the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.). The words “regardless of the place an aircraft in a civil action in rem is seized” are substituted for 49 App.:1473(b)(1) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words. The word “civil” is added after “involving a” for clarity. The words “(except a penalty imposed by the Secretary of Transportation that formerly was imposed by the Civil Aeronautics Board)” are substituted for “other than those assessed by the Board” because the Civil Aeronautics Board went out of existence and its duties and powers were transferred to the Secretary of Transportation.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.