50a U.S. Code Rule - Prisoners of war

(a) “Prisoner of war” defined
As used in subsection (b) of this section, the term “prisoner of war” means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted, or inducted member of the military or naval forces of the United States who was held as a prisoner of war for any period of time subsequent to December 7, 1941, by any government of any nation with which the United States has been at war subsequent to such date.
(b) Payment of claims; rate allowed; certification of claims
The Commission is authorized to receive, adjudicate according to law, and provide for the payment of any claim filed by any prisoner of war for compensation for the violation by the enemy government by which he was held as a prisoner of war, or its agents, of its obligation to furnish him the quantity or quality of food to which he was entitled as a prisoner of war under the terms of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929. The compensation allowed to any prisoner of war under the provisions of this subsection shall be at the rate of $1 for each day he was held as a prisoner of war on which the enemy government or its agents failed to furnish him such quantity or quality of food. Any claim allowed under the provisions of this subsection shall be certified to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment out of the War Claims Fund established by section 13 of this title [section 2012 of this Appendix].
(c) Persons entitled to payments
Claims pursuant to subsection (b) shall be paid to the person entitled thereto, and shall in case of death of the persons who are entitled be payable only to or for the benefit of the following persons:
(1) Widow or husband if there is no child or children of the deceased;
(2) Widow or husband and child or children of the deceased, one-half to the widow or husband and the other half to the child or children of the deceased in equal shares;
(3) Child or children of the deceased (in equal shares) if there is no widow or husband; and
(4) Parents (in equal shares) if there is no widow, husband, or child.
(d) Additional definition of “prisoner of war”; payment of claims; rate allowed; persons entitled to payments
(1) As used in this subsection the term “prisoner of war” means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted, or inducted member of the military or naval forces of the United States, who was held a prisoner of war for any period of time subsequent to December 7, 1941, by any government of any nation with which the United States has been at war subsequent to such date.
(2) The Commission is authorized to receive, adjudicate according to law, and to provide for the payment of any claim filed by any prisoner of war for compensation—
(A) for the violations by the enemy government by which he was held as a prisoner of war, or its agents, of such government’s obligations under title III, section III, of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929, relating to labor of prisoners of war; or
(B) for inhumane treatment by the enemy government by which he was held, or its agents. The term “inhumane treatment” as used herein shall include, but not be limited to, violation by such enemy government, or its agents, of one or more of the provisions of articles 2, 3, 7, 10, 12, 13, 21, 22, 54, 56, or 57, of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929.
(3) Compensation shall be allowed to any prisoner of war under this subsection at the rate of $1.50 per day for each day he was held as a prisoner of war on which he alleges and proves in a manner acceptable to the Commission—
(A) the violation by such enemy government or its agents of the provisions of title III, section III, of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929; or
(B) any inhumane treatment as defined herein.
Any claim allowed under the provisions of this subsection shall be certified to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment out of the War Claims Fund established by section 13 of this title [section 2012 of this Appendix]. In no event shall the compensation allowed to any prisoner of war under this subsection exceed the sum of $1.50 with respect to any one day.
(4) Claims pursuant to subsection (d)(2) shall be paid to the person entitled thereto, or to his legal or natural guardian if he has one, and shall, in case of death of the persons who are entitled be payable only to or for the benefit of the following persons:
(A) widow or husband if there is no child or children of the deceased;
(B) widow or husband and child or children of the deceased, one-half to the widow or husband and the other half to the child or children of the deceased in equal shares;
(C) child or children of the deceased (in equal shares) if there is no widow or husband; and
(D) parents (in equal shares) if there is no widow, husband, or child.
(e) Extension to Korean War prisoners
(1) As used in this subsection the term “prisoner of war” means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted, or inducted member of the Armed Forces of the United States who was held as a prisoner of war for any period of time subsequent to June 25, 1950, by any hostile force with which the Armed Forces of the United States were actually engaged in armed conflict subsequent to such date and prior to the date of enactment of this subsection [Aug. 21, 1954], or any person (military or civilian) assigned to duty in the U.S.S. Pueblo who was captured by the military forces of North Korea on January 23, 1968, and thereafter held prisoner by the Government of North Korea for any period of time ending on or before December 23, 1968, except any person who, at any time, voluntarily, knowingly, and without duress, gave aid to or collaborated with or in any manner served any such hostile force.
(2) The Commission is authorized to receive and to determine, according to law, the amount and validity, and provide for the payment of any claim filed by any prisoner of war for compensation for the failure of the hostile force by which he was held as a prisoner of war, or its agents, to furnish him the quantity or quality of food prescribed for prisoners of war under the terms of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929. The compensation allowed to any prisoner of war under the provisions of this paragraph shall be at the rate of $1 for each day on which he was held as a prisoner of war and on which such hostile force, or its agents, failed to furnish him such quantity or quality of food.
(3) The Commission is authorized to receive and to determine, according to law, the amount and validity and provide for the payment of any claim filed by any prisoner of war for compensation—
(A) for the failure of the hostile force by which he was held as a prisoner of war, or its agents, to meet the conditions and requirements prescribed under title III, section III, of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929, relating to labor of prisoners of war; or
(B) for inhumane treatment by the hostile force by which he was held, or its agents. The term “inhumane treatment” as used herein shall include, but not be limited to, failure of such hostile force, or its agents, to meet the conditions and requirements of one or more of the provisions of articles 2, 3, 7, 10, 12, 13, 21, 22, 54, 56, or 57 of the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929.
Compensation shall be allowed to any prisoner of war under this paragraph at the rate of $1.50 per day for each day on which he was held as a prisoner of war and with respect to which he alleges and proves in a manner acceptable to the Commission the failure to meet the conditions and requirements described in subparagraph (A) or the inhumane treatment described in subparagraph (B). In no event shall the compensation allowed to any prisoner of war under this paragraph exceed the sum of $1.50 with respect to any one day.
(4) Any claim allowed by the Commission under this subsection shall be certified to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment out of funds appropriated pursuant to this subsection and shall be paid by the Secretary of the Treasury to the person entitled thereto, and shall, in case of death or determination of death of the persons who are entitled, be paid only to or for the benefit of the persons specified, and in the order established, by paragraph (4) of subsection (d) of this section.
(5) Each claim filed under this subsection must be filed not later than one year from whichever of the following dates last occurs:
(A) The date of enactment of this subsection [Aug. 21, 1954];
(B) The date the prisoner of war by whom the claim is filed returned to the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces of the United States; or
(C) The date upon which the Department of Defense makes a determination that the prisoner of war has actually died or is presumed to be dead, in the case of any prisoner of war who has not returned to the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces of the United States;
(D) In the case of any person assigned to duty in the U.S.S. Pueblo referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, one year after the date of enactment of this subparagraph [June 24, 1970].
The Commission shall complete its determinations with respect to each claim filed under this subsection at the earliest practicable date, but in no event later than one year after the date on which such claim was filed.
(6) Any claim allowed under the provisions of this subsection shall be paid from funds appropriated pursuant to paragraph (7) of this subsection.
(7)
(A) There are authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including necessary administrative expenses.
(B) The Commission shall determine, from time to time, the share of its administrative expenses attributable to the performance of its functions under this subsection and make the appropriate adjustments in its accounts, and determinations and adjustments made pursuant to this subparagraph shall be final and conclusive.
(f) Vietnam conflict; definitions; authority of Commission; classes of claims; rate of compensation; certification for payment; persons entitled to payments; filing date; determination of claims; fund for payment; appropriations
(1) As used in this subsection—
(A) the term “Vietnam conflict” relates to the period beginning February 28, 1961, and ending on such date as shall thereafter be determined by Presidential proclamation or concurrent resolution of the Congress; and
(B) the term “prisoner of war” means any regularly appointed, enrolled, enlisted, or inducted member of the Armed Forces of the United States who was held as a prisoner of war for any period of time during the Vietnam conflict by any force hostile to the United States, except any such member who, at any time, voluntarily, knowingly, and without duress, gave aid to collaborated with, or in any manner served, such hostile force.
(2) The Commission is authorized to receive and to determine, according to law, the amount and validity, and provide for the payment of any claim filed by any prisoner of war for compensation for the failure of the hostile force by which he was held as a prisoner of war, or its agents, to furnish him the quantity or quality of food prescribed for prisoners of war under the terms of the Geneva Convention of August 12, 1949. The compensation allowed to any prisoner of war under the provisions of this paragraph shall be at the rate of $2 for each day on which he was held as a prisoner of war and on which such hostile force, or its agents, failed to furnish him such quantity or quality of food.
(3) The Commission is authorized to receive and to determine, according to law, the amount and validity and provide for the payment of any claim filed by any prisoner of war for compensation—
(A) for the failure of the hostile force by which he was held as a prisoner of war, or its agents, to meet the conditions and requirements prescribed under chapter VIII, section III, of the Geneva Convention of August 12, 1949, relating to labor of prisoners of war; or
(B) for inhumane treatment by the hostile force by which he was held, or its agents. The term “inhumane treatment” as used in this subparagraph shall include, but not be limited to, failure of such hostile force, or its agents, to meet the conditions and requirements of one or more of the provisions of articles 3, 12, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 97, or 98 of the Geneva Convention of August 12, 1949.
Compensation shall be allowed to any prisoner of war under this paragraph at the rate of $3 per day for each day on which he was held as a prisoner of war and with respect to which he alleges and proves in a manner acceptable to the Commission the failure to meet the conditions and requirements described in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph or the inhumane treatment described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph. In no event shall the compensation allowed to any prisoner of war under this paragraph exceed the sum of $3 with respect to any one day.
(4) Any claim allowed by the Commission under this subsection shall be certified to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment out of funds appropriated pursuant to this subsection and shall be paid by the Secretary of the Treasury to the person entitled thereto, and shall, in the case of death or determination of death of the persons who are entitled, be paid only to or for the benefit of the persons specified, and in the order established, by subsection (d)(4) of this section.
(5) Each claim filed under this subsection must be filed not later than three years from whichever of the following dates last occurs:
(A) the date of enactment of this subsection [June 24, 1970];
(B) the date the prisoner of war by whom the claim is filed returned to the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces of the United States; or
(C) the date upon which the Department of Defense makes a determination that the prisoner of war has actually died or is presumed to be dead, in the case of any prisoner of war who has not returned to the jurisdiction of the Armed Forces of the United States.
The Commission shall complete its determinations with respect to each claim filed under this subsection at the earliest practicable date, but in no event later than one year after the date on which such claim was filed.
(6) Any claim allowed under the provisions of this subsection shall be paid from funds appropriated pursuant to paragraph (7) of this subsection.
(7) There are authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including necessary administrative expenses.
(g) Manner of payment
Where any person entitled to payment under this section is under any legal disability, payment may be made in accordance with the provisions of subsection (e) ofsection 5 [section 2004 (e) of this Appendix].

Source

(July 3, 1948, ch. 826, title I, § 6,62 Stat. 1244; Sept. 30, 1950, ch. 1116, 64 Stat. 1090; Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, § 1,66 Stat. 47; Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 168, § 2,66 Stat. 49; Aug. 21, 1954, ch. 784, § 2,68 Stat. 761; Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, § 102(a)(1),68 Stat. 1034; Pub. L. 87–846, title I, § 102,Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1107; Pub. L. 91–289, §§ 1, 2,June 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 323.)
Amendments

1970—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 91–289, § 2(1), defined “prisoner of war” to include any person (military or civilian) assigned to duty in the U.S.S. Pueblo who was captured by the military forces of North Korea on January 23, 1968, and thereafter held prisoner by Government of North Korea for any period of time ending on or before December 23, 1968, and substituted “except any person” for “except any such member”.
Subsec. (e)(5)(D). Pub. L. 91–289, § 2(2), added subpar. (D).
Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 91–289, § 1, added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsec. (f) as (g).
1962—Pub. L. 87–846substituted “title” for “Act”.
1954—Subsecs. (c), (d)(4). Act Aug. 31, 1954, § 102(a), struck out “dependent” wherever appearing.
Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 21, 1954, § 2(b), added subsec. (e).
Subsec. (f). Act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 168, added subsec. as a second subsec. (d) which was redesignated “(f)” by act Aug. 21, 1954, § 2(a).
1952—Subsec. (a). Act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, inserted “subsection (b) of” after “As used in”.
Subsec. (c). Act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 168, struck out “or to his legal or natural guardian if he has one” after “person entitled thereto”.
Subsec. (d). Act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, added subsec. (d). Another subsec. (d), which was added by act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 168, was redesignated “(f)”. See 1954 Amendment note above.
1950—Subsec. (c)(4). Act Sept. 30, 1950, removed requirement of dependency upon which parents were entitled to benefits.
Transfer of Functions

For provisions transferring Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States to Department of Justice, as a separate agency, see section 1622a et seq. of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.
War Claims Commission, including offices of its members, abolished and functions transferred to Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1954, §§ 2, 4, eff. July 1, 1954, 19 F.R. 3985, 68 Stat. 1279, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. See, also, section 2001 of this Appendix and notes thereunder.
Compensation for Persons Awarded Prisoner of War Medal Who Did Not Previously Receive Compensation as Prisoner of War

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VI, § 656,Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2584, provided that:
“(a) Authority To Make Payments.—The Secretary of the military department concerned shall make payments in the manner provided in section 6 of the War Claims Act of 1948 (50 App. U.S.C. 2005) to (or on behalf of) any person described in subsection (b) who submits an application for such payment in accordance with subsection (d).
“(b) Eligible Persons.—This section applies with respect to a member or former member of the Armed Forces who—
“(1) has received the prisoner of war medal under section 1128 of title 10, United States Code; and
“(2) has not previously received a payment under section 6 of the War Claims Act of 1948 (50 App. U.S.C. 2005) with respect to the period of internment for which the person received the prisoner of war medal.
“(c) Amount of Payment.—The amount of the payment to any person under this section shall be determined based upon the provisions of section 6 of the War Claims Act of 1948 that are applicable with respect to the period of time during which the internment occurred for which the person received the prisoner of war medal.
“(d) One-Year Period for Submission of Applications.—A payment may be made by reason of this section only in the case of a person who submits an application to the Secretary concerned for such payment during the one-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1996]. Any such application shall be submitted in such form and manner as the Secretary may require.”
Filing Date for Claims of New Class of Beneficiaries

Persons entitled to benefits solely by reason of amendments made to this section by section 102(a) of act Aug. 31, 1954, were required to file claims within one year of Aug. 31, 1954, see section 102(c) of act Aug. 31, 1954.
Prior Benefits as Affecting Rights

Section 102(b) of act Aug. 31, 1954, provided that the amendments to sections 2004 (d) and 2005 (c), (d)(4) of this Appendix by section 102 of act Aug. 31, 1954, should not apply with respect to benefits paid prior to Aug. 31, 1954.
Time for Filing Claims

Section 3 of act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, as amended by act May 13, 1954, ch. 202, § 1,68 Stat. 97, provided that claims for compensation under subsec. (d) of this section were to be filed on or before Aug. 1, 1954.
Act May 13, 1954, ch. 202, §§ 2, 3,68 Stat. 98, provided:
“Sec. 2. The amendment made by this Act [amending section 3 of act Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, by extending the time for filing claims from one year after April 9, 1952 to August 1, 1954] shall not be construed to extend the life of the War Claims Commission for any period of time.
“Sec. 3. The amendment made by this Act shall take effect as of April 9, 1953.”

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50aa USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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