50a U.S. Code Rule - National security controls

(a) Authority
(1) In order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix], the President may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, prohibit or curtail the export of any goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States or exported by any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. The authority contained in this subsection includes the authority to prohibit or curtail the transfer of goods or technology within the United States to embassies and affiliates of controlled countries. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “affiliates” includes both governmental entities and commercial entities that are controlled in fact by controlled countries. The authority contained in this subsection shall be exercised by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, and such other departments and agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate, and shall be implemented by means of export licenses described in section 4(a) of this Act [section 2403 (a) of this Appendix].
(2) Whenever the Secretary makes any revision with respect to any goods or technology, or with respect to the countries or destinations, affected by export controls imposed under this section, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of such revision and shall specify in such notice that the revision relates to controls imposed under the authority contained in this section.
(3) In issuing regulations to carry out this section, particular attention shall be given to the difficulty of devising effective safeguards to prevent a country that poses a threat to the security of the United States from diverting critical technologies to military use, the difficulty of devising effective safeguards to protect critical goods, and the need to take effective measures to prevent the reexport of critical technologies from other countries to countries that pose a threat to the security of the United States.
(4)
(A) No authority or permission may be required under this section to reexport any goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States to any country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee, or pursuant to an agreement described in subsection (k) of this section. The Secretary may require any person reexporting any goods or technology under this subparagraph to notify the Secretary of such reexports.
(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Secretary may require authority or permission to reexport the following:
(i) supercomputers;
(ii) goods or technology for sensitive nuclear uses (as defined by the Secretary);
(iii) devices for surreptitious interception of wire or oral communications; and
(iv) goods or technology intended for such end users as the Secretary may specify by regulation.
(5)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no authority or permission may be required under this section to reexport any goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States from any country when the goods or technology to be reexported are incorporated in another good and—
(i) the value of the controlled United States content of that other good is 25 percent or less of the total value of the good; or
(ii) the export of the goods or technology to a controlled country would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.
For purposes of this paragraph, the “controlled United States content” of a good means those goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States which are incorporated in the good, if the export of those goods or technology from the United States to a country, at the time that the good is exported to that country, would require a validated license.
(B) The Secretary may by regulation provide that subparagraph (A) does not apply to the reexport of a supercomputer which contains goods or technology subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(6) Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Aug. 23, 1988], the Secretary shall issue regulations to carry out paragraphs (4) and (5). Such regulations shall define the term “supercomputer” for purposes of those paragraphs.
(b) Policy toward individual countries
(1) In administering export controls for national security purposes under this section, the President shall establish as a list of controlled countries those countries set forth in section 620(f) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2370 (f)], except that the President may add any country to or remove any country from such list of controlled countries if he determines that the export of goods or technology to such country would or would not (as the case may be) make a significant contribution to the military potential of such country or a combination of countries which would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In determining whether a country is added to or removed from the list of controlled countries, the President shall take into account—
(A) the extent to which the country’s policies are adverse to the national security interests of the United States;
(B) the country’s Communist or non-Communist status;
(C) the present and potential relationship of the country with the United States;
(D) the present and potential relationships of the country with countries friendly or hostile to the United States;
(E) the country’s nuclear weapons capability and the country’s compliance record with respect to multilateral nuclear weapons agreements to which the United States is a party; and
(F) such other factors as the President considers appropriate.
Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be interpreted to limit the authority of the President provided in this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] to prohibit or curtail the export of any goods or technology to any country to which exports are controlled for national security purposes other than countries on the list of controlled countries specified in this paragraph. The President shall review not less frequently than every three years in the case of controls maintained cooperatively with other nations, and annually in the case of all other controls, United States policy toward individual countries to determine whether such policy is appropriate in light of the factors set forth in this paragraph.
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no authority or permission may be required under this section to export goods or technology to a country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee or pursuant to an agreement described in subsection (k) of this section, if the export of such goods or technology to the People’s Republic of China or a controlled country on the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [Aug. 23, 1988] would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.
(B)
(i) The Secretary may require a license for the export of goods or technology described in subparagraph (A) to such end users as the Secretary may specify by regulation.
(ii) The Secretary may require any person exporting goods or technology under this paragraph to notify the Secretary of those exports.
(C) The Secretary shall, within 3 months after the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [Aug. 23, 1988], determine which countries referred to in subparagraph (A) are implementing an effective export control system consistent with principles agreed to in the Coordinating Committee, including the following:
(i) national laws providing appropriate civil and criminal penalties and statutes of limitations sufficient to deter potential violations;
(ii) a program to evaluate export license applications that includes sufficient technical expertise to assess the licensing status of exports and ensure the reliability of end-users;
(iii) an enforcement mechanism that provides authority for trained enforcement officers to investigate and prevent illegal exports;
(iv) a system of export control documentation to verify the movement of goods and technology; and
(v) procedures for the coordination and exchange of information concerning violations of the agreement of the Coordinating Committee.
The Secretary shall, at least once each year, review the determinations made under the preceding sentence with respect to all countries referred to in subparagraph (A). The Secretary may, as appropriate, add countries to, or remove countries from, the list of countries that are implementing an effective export control system in accordance with this subparagraph. No authority or permission to export may be required for the export of goods or technology to a country on such list.
(3)
(A) No authority or permission may be required under this section to export to any country, other than a controlled country, any goods or technology if the export of the goods or technology to controlled countries would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.
(B) The Secretary may require any person exporting any goods or technology under subparagraph (A) to notify the Secretary of those exports.
(c) Control list
(1) The Secretary shall establish and maintain, as part of the control list, a list of all goods and technology subject to export controls under this section. Such goods and technology shall be clearly identified as being subject to controls under this section.
(2) The Secretary of Defense and other appropriate departments and agencies shall identify goods and technology for inclusion on the list referred to in paragraph (1). Those items which the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense concur shall be subject to export controls under this section shall comprise such list. If the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense are unable to concur on such items, as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense may, within 20 days after receiving notification of the Secretary’s determination, refer the matter to the President for resolution. The Secretary of Defense shall notify the Secretary of any such referral. The President shall, not later than 20 days after such referral, notify the Secretary of his determination with respect to the inclusion of such items on the list. Failure of the Secretary of Defense to notify the President or the Secretary, or failure of the President to notify the Secretary, in accordance with this paragraph, shall be deemed by the Secretary to constitute concurrence in the implementation of the actions proposed by the Secretary regarding the inclusion of such items on the list.
(3) The Secretary shall conduct partial reviews of the list established pursuant to this subsection at least once each calendar quarter in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix] and the provisions of this section, and shall promptly make such revisions of the list as may be necessary after each such review. Before beginning each quarterly review, the Secretary shall publish notice of that review in the Federal Register. The Secretary shall provide a 30-day period during each review for comment and the submission of data, with or without oral presentation, by interested Government agencies and other affected or potentially affected parties. After consultation with appropriate Government agencies, the Secretary shall make a determination of any revisions in the list within 30 days after the end of the review period. The concurrence or approval of any other department or agency is not required before any such revision is made. The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register any revisions in the list, with an explanation of the reasons for the revisions. The Secretary shall use the data developed from each review in formulating United States proposals relating to multilateral export controls in the group known as the Coordinating Committee. The Secretary shall further assess, as part of each review, the availability from sources outside the United States of goods and technology comparable to those subject to export controls imposed under this section. All goods and technology on the list shall be reviewed at least once each year. The provisions of this paragraph apply to revisions of the list which consist of removing items from the list or making changes in categories of, or other specifications in, items on the list.
(4) The appropriate technical advisory committee appointed under subsection (h) of this section shall be consulted by the Secretary with respect to changes, pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3), in the list established pursuant to this subsection, and such technical advisory committee may submit recommendations to the Secretary with respect to such changes. The Secretary shall consider the recommendations of the technical advisory committee and shall inform the committee of the disposition of its recommendations.
(5)
(A) Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Aug. 23, 1988], the following shall no longer be subject to export controls under this section:
(i) All goods or technology the export of which to controlled countries on the date of the enactment of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 [Aug. 23, 1988] would require only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee, except for those goods or technology on which the Coordinating Committee agrees to maintain such notification requirement.
(ii) All medical instruments and equipment, subject to the provisions of subsection (m) of this section.
(B) The Secretary shall submit to the Congress annually a report setting forth the goods and technology from which export controls have been removed under this paragraph.
(6)
(A) Notwithstanding subsection (f) or (h)(6) of this section, any export control imposed under this section which is maintained unilaterally by the United States shall expire 6 months after the date of the enactment of this paragraph [Aug. 23, 1988], or 6 months after the export control is imposed, whichever date is later, except that—
(i) any such export controls on those goods or technology for which a determination of the Secretary that there is no foreign availability has been made under subsection (f) or (h)(6) of this section before the end of the applicable 6-month period and is in effect may be renewed for periods of not more than 6 months each, and
(ii) any such export controls on those goods or technology with respect to which the President, by the end of the applicable 6-month period, is actively pursuing negotiations with other countries to achieve multilateral export controls on those goods or technology may be renewed for 2 periods of not more than 6 months each.
(B) Export controls on goods or technology described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (A) may be renewed only if, before each renewal, the President submits to the Congress a report setting forth all the controls being renewed and stating the specific reasons for such renewal.
(7) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, after 1 year has elapsed since the last review in the Federal Register on any item within a category on the control list the export of which to the People’s Republic of China would require only notification of the members of the group known as the Coordinating Committee, an export license applicant may file an allegation with the Secretary that such item has not been so reviewed within such 1-year period. Within 90 days after receipt of such allegation, the Secretary—
(A) shall determine the truth of the allegation;
(B) shall, if the allegation is confirmed, commence and complete the review of the item; and
(C) shall, pursuant to such review, submit a finding for publication in the Federal Register.
In such finding, the Secretary shall identify those goods or technology which shall remain on the control list and those goods or technology which shall be removed from the control list. If such review and submission for publication are not completed within that 90-day period, the goods or technology encompassed by such item shall immediately be removed from the control list.
(d) Militarily critical technologies
(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall review and revise the list established pursuant to subsection (c), as prescribed in paragraph (3) of such subsection, for the purpose of insuring that export controls imposed under this section cover and (to the maximum extent consistent with the purposes of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]) are limited to militarily critical goods and technologies and the mechanisms through which such goods and technologies may be effectively transferred.
(2) The Secretary of Defense shall bear primary responsibility for developing a list of militarily critical technologies. In developing such list, primary emphasis shall be given to—
(A) arrays of design and manufacturing know-how,
(B) keystone manufacturing, inspection, and test equipment,
(C) goods accompanied by sophisticated operation, application, or maintenance know-how, and
(D) keystone equipment which would reveal or give insight into the design and manufacture of a United States military system,
which are not possessed by, or available in fact from sources outside the United States to, controlled countries and which, if exported, would permit a significant advance in a military system of any such country.
(3) The list referred to in paragraph (2) shall be sufficiently specific to guide the determinations of any official exercising export licensing responsibilities under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix].
(4) The Secretary and the Secretary of Defense shall integrate items on the list of militarily critical technologies into the control list in accordance with the requirements of subsection (c) of this section. The integration of items on the list of militarily critical technologies into the control list shall proceed with all deliberate speed. Any disagreement between the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense regarding the integration of an item on the list of militarily critical technologies into the control list shall be resolved by the President. Except in the case of a good or technology for which a validated license may be required under subsection (f)(4) or (h)(6) of this section, a good or technology shall be included on the control list only if the Secretary finds that controlled countries do not possess that good or technology, or a functionally equivalent good or technology, and the good or technology or functionally equivalent good or technology is not available in fact to a controlled country from sources outside the United States in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that the requirement of a validated license for the export of such good or technology is or would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary and the Secretary of Defense shall jointly submit a report to the Congress, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 [July 12, 1985], on actions taken to carry out this paragraph. For the purposes of this paragraph, assessment of whether a good or technology is functionally equivalent shall include consideration of the factors described in subsection (f)(3) of this section.
(5) The Secretary of Defense shall establish a procedure for reviewing the goods and technology on the list of militarily critical technologies on an ongoing basis for the purpose of removing from the list of militarily critical technologies any goods or technology that are no longer militarily critical. The Secretary of Defense may add to the list of militarily critical technologies any good or technology that the Secretary of Defense determines is militarily critical, consistent with the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection. If the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense disagree as to whether any change in the list of militarily critical technologies by the addition or removal of a good or technology should also be made in the control list, consistent with the provisions of the fourth sentence of paragraph (4) of this subsection, the President shall resolve the disagreement.
(6) The establishment of adequate export controls for militarily critical technology and keystone equipment shall be accompanied by suitable reductions in the controls on the products of that technology and equipment.
(7) The Secretary of Defense shall, not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of the Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 [July 12, 1985], report to the Congress on efforts by the Department of Defense to assess the impact that the transfer of goods or technology on the list of militarily critical technologies to controlled countries has had or will have on the military capabilities of those countries.
(e) Export licenses
(1) The Congress finds that the effectiveness and efficiency of the process of making export licensing determinations under this section is severely hampered by the large volume of validated export license applications required to be submitted under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. Accordingly, it is the intent of Congress in this subsection to encourage the use of the multiple validated export licenses described in section 4(a)(2) of this Act [section 2403 (a)(2) of this Appendix] in lieu of individual validated licenses.
(2) To the maximum extent practicable, consistent with the national security of the United States, the Secretary shall require a validated license under this section for the export of goods or technology only if—
(A) the export of such goods or technology is restricted pursuant to a multilateral agreement, formal or informal, to which the United States is a party and, under the terms of such multilateral agreement, such export requires the specific approval of the parties to such multilateral agreement;
(B) with respect to such goods or technology, other nations do not possess capabilities comparable to those possessed by the United States; or
(C) the United States is seeking the agreement of other suppliers to apply comparable controls to such goods or technology and, in the judgment of the Secretary, United States export controls on such goods or technology, by means of such license, are necessary pending the conclusion of such agreement.
(3) The Secretary, subject to the provisions of subsection (l) of this section, shall not require an individual validated export license for replacement parts which are exported to replace on a one-for-one basis parts that were in a good that has been lawfully exported from the United States.
(4) The Secretary shall periodically review the procedures with respect to the multiple validated export licenses, taking appropriate action to increase their utilization by reducing qualification requirements or lowering minimum thresholds, to combine procedures which overlap, and to eliminate those procedures which appear to be of marginal utility.
(5) The export of goods subject to export controls under this section shall be eligible, at the discretion of the Secretary, for a distribution license and other licenses authorizing multiple exports of goods, in accordance with section 4(a)(2) of this Act [section 2403 (a)(2) of this Appendix]. The export of technology and related goods subject to export controls under this section shall be eligible for a comprehensive operations license in accordance with section 4(a)(2)(B) of this Act [section 2403 (a)(2)(B) of this Appendix].
(6) Any application for a license for the export to the People’s Republic of China of any good on which export controls are in effect under this section, without regard to the technical specifications of the good, for the purpose of demonstration or exhibition at a trade show shall carry a presumption of approval if—
(A) the United States exporter retains title to the good during the entire period in which the good is in the People’s Republic of China; and
(B) the exporter removes the good from the People’s Republic of China no later than at the conclusion of the trade show.
(f) Foreign availability
(1) Foreign availability to controlled countries
(A) The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense and other appropriate Government agencies and with appropriate technical advisory committees established pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, shall review, on a continuing basis, the availability to controlled countries, from sources outside the United States, including countries which participate with the United States in multilateral export controls, of any goods or technology the export of which requires a validated license under this section. In any case in which the Secretary determines, in accordance with procedures and criteria which the Secretary shall by regulation establish, that any such goods or technology are available in fact to controlled countries from such sources in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that the requirement of a validated license for the export of such goods or technology is or would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary may not, after the determination is made, require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology during the period of such foreign availability, unless the President determines that the absence of export controls under this section on the goods or technology would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the President determines under this paragraph that export controls under this section must be maintained notwithstanding foreign availability, the Secretary shall publish that determination, together with a concise statement of its basis and the estimated economic impact of the decision.
(B) The Secretary shall approve any application for a validated license which is required under this section for the export of any goods or technology to a controlled country and which meets all other requirements for such an application, if the Secretary determines that such goods or technology will, if the license is denied, be available in fact to such country from sources outside the United States, including countries which participate with the United States in multilateral export controls, in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that denial of the license would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section, unless the President determines that approving the license application would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the Secretary makes a determination of foreign availability under this subparagraph with respect to any goods or technology, the Secretary shall determine whether a determination of foreign availability under subparagraph (A) with respect to such goods or technology is warranted.
(2) Foreign availability to other than controlled countries
(A) The Secretary shall review, on a continuing basis, the availability to countries other than controlled countries, from sources outside the United States, of any goods or technology the export of which requires a validated license under this section. If the Secretary determines, in accordance with procedures which the Secretary shall establish, that any goods or technology in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality are available in fact from sources outside the United States (other than availability under license from a country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee or pursuant to an agreement described in subsection (k) of this section), the Secretary may not, after the determination is made and during the period of such foreign availability, require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to any country (other than a controlled country) to which the country from which the goods or technology is available does not place controls on the export of such goods or technology. The requirement with respect to a validated license in the preceding sentence shall not apply if the President determines that the absence of export controls under this section on the goods or technology would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the President determines under this paragraph that export controls under this section must be maintained notwithstanding foreign availability, the Secretary shall publish that determination, together with a concise statement of its basis and the estimated economic impact of the decision.
(B) The Secretary shall approve any application for a validated license which is required under this section for the export of any goods or technology to a country (other than a controlled country) and which meets all other requirements for such an application, if the Secretary determines that such goods or technology are available from foreign sources to that country under the criteria established in subparagraph (A), unless the President determines that approving the license application would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. In any case in which the Secretary makes a determination of foreign availability under this subparagraph with respect to any goods or technology, the Secretary shall determine whether a determination of foreign availability under subparagraph (A) with respect to such goods or technology is warranted.
(3) Procedures for making determinations
(A) The Secretary shall make a foreign availability determination under paragraph (1) or (2) on the Secretary’s own initiative or upon receipt of an allegation from an export license applicant that such availability exists. In making any such determination, the Secretary shall accept the representations of applicants made in writing and supported by reasonable evidence, unless such representations are contradicted by reliable evidence, including scientific or physical examination, expert opinion based upon adequate factual information, or intelligence information. In making determinations of foreign availability, the Secretary may consider such factors as cost, reliability, the availability and reliability of spare parts and the cost and quality thereof, maintenance programs, durability, quality of end products produced by the item proposed for export, and scale of production. For purposes of this subparagraph, “evidence” may include such items as foreign manufacturers’ catalogues, brochures, or operations or maintenance manuals, articles from reputable trade publications, photographs, and depositions based upon eyewitness accounts.
(B) In a case in which an allegation is received from an export license applicant, the Secretary shall, upon receipt of the allegation, submit for publication in the Federal Register notice of such receipt. Within 4 months after receipt of the allegation, the Secretary shall determine whether the foreign availability exists, and shall so notify the applicant. If the Secretary has determined that the foreign availability exists, the Secretary shall, upon making such determination, submit the determination for review to other departments and agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary’s determination of foreign availability does not require the concurrence or approval of any official, department, or agency to which such a determination is submitted. Not later than 1 month after the Secretary makes the determination, the Secretary shall respond in writing to the applicant and submit for publication in the Federal Register, that—
(i) the foreign availability does exist and—
(I) the requirement of a validated license has been removed,
(II) the President has determined that export controls under this section must be maintained notwithstanding the foreign availability and the applicable steps are being taken under paragraph (4), or
(III) in the case of a foreign availability determination under paragraph (1), the foreign availability determination will be submitted to a multilateral review process in accordance with the agreement of the Coordinating Committee for a period of not more than 4 months beginning on the date of the publication; or
(ii) the foreign availability does not exist.
In any case in which the submission for publication is not made within the time period specified in the preceding sentence, the Secretary may not thereafter require a license for the export of the goods or technology with respect to which the foreign availability allegation was made. In the case of a foreign availability determination under paragraph (1) to which clause (i)(III) applies, no license for such export may be required after the end of the 9-month period beginning on the date on which the allegation is received.
(4) Negotiations to eliminate foreign availability
(A) In any case in which export controls are maintained under this section notwithstanding foreign availability, on account of a determination by the President that the absence of the controls would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States, the President shall actively pursue negotiations with the governments of the appropriate foreign countries for the purpose of eliminating such availability. No later than the commencement of such negotiations, the President shall notify in writing the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives that he has begun such negotiations and why he believes it is important to national security that export controls on the goods or technology involved be maintained.
(B) If, within 6 months after the President’s determination that export controls be maintained, the foreign availability has not been eliminated, the Secretary may not, after the end of that 6-month period, require a validated license for the export of the goods or technology involved. The President may extend the 6-month period described in the preceding sentence for an additional period of 12 months if the President certifies to the Congress that the negotiations involved are progressing and that the absence of the export controls involved would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. Whenever the President has reason to believe that goods or technology subject to export controls for national security purposes by the United States may become available from other countries to controlled countries and that such availability can be prevented or eliminated by means of negotiations with such other countries, the President shall promptly initiate negotiations with the governments of such other countries to prevent such foreign availability.
(C) After an agreement is reached with a country pursuant to negotiations under this paragraph to eliminate or prevent foreign availability of goods or technology, the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to that country.
(5) Expedited licenses for items available to countries other than controlled countries
(A) In any case in which the Secretary finds that any goods or technology from foreign sources is of similar quality to goods or technology the export of which requires a validated license under this section and is available to a country other than a controlled country without effective restrictions, the Secretary shall designate such goods or technology as eligible for export to such country under this paragraph.
(B) In the case of goods or technology designated under subparagraph (A), then 20 working days after the date of formal filing with the Secretary of an individual validated license application for the export of those goods or technology to an eligible country, a license for the transaction specified in the application shall become valid and effective and the goods or technology are authorized for export pursuant to such license unless the license has been denied by the Secretary on account of an inappropriate end user. The Secretary may extend the 20-day period provided in the preceding sentence for an additional period of 15 days if the Secretary requires additional time to consider the application and so notifies the applicant.
(C) The Secretary may make a foreign availability determination under subparagraph (A) on the Secretary’s own initiative, upon receipt of an allegation from an export license applicant that such availability exists, or upon the submission of a certification by a technical advisory committee of appropriate jurisdiction that such availability exists. Upon receipt of such an allegation or certification, the Secretary shall publish notice of such allegation or certification in the Federal Register and shall make the foreign availability determination within 30 days after such receipt and publish the determination in the Federal Register. In the case of the failure of the Secretary to make and publish such determination within that 30-day period, the goods or technology involved shall be deemed to be designated as eligible for export to the country or countries involved, for purposes of subparagraph (B).
(D) The provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) do not apply with respect to determinations of foreign availability under this paragraph.
(6) Office of Foreign Availability
The Secretary shall establish in the Department of Commerce an Office of Foreign Availability, which shall be under the direction of the Under Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration. The Office shall be responsible for gathering and analyzing all the necessary information in order for the Secretary to make determinations of foreign availability under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. The Secretary shall make available to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate at the end of each 6-month period during a fiscal year information on the operations of the Office, and on improvements in the Government’s ability to assess foreign availability, during that 6-month period, including information on the training of personnel, the use of computers, and the use of Commercial Service Officers of the United States and Foreign Commercial Service. Such information shall also include a description of representative determinations made under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] during that 6-month period that foreign availability did or did not exist (as the case may be), together with an explanation of such determinations.
(7) Sharing of information
Each department or agency of the United States, including any intelligence agency, and all contractors with any such department or agency, shall, upon the request of the Secretary and consistent with the protection of intelligence sources and methods, furnish information to the Office of Foreign Availability concerning foreign availability of goods and technology subject to export controls under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix]. Each such department or agency shall allow the Office of Foreign Availability access to any information from a laboratory or other facility within such department or agency.
(8) Removal of controls on less sophisticated goods or technology
In any case in which  [1] Secretary may not, pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of this subsection or paragraph (6) of subsection (h) of this section, require a validated license for the export of goods or technology, then the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of any similar goods or technology whose function, technological approach, performance thresholds, and other attributes that form the basis for export controls under this section do not exceed the technical parameters of the goods or technology from which the validated license requirement is removed under the applicable paragraph.
(9) Notice of all foreign availability assessments
Whenever the Secretary undertakes a foreign availability assessment under this subsection or subsection (h)(6), the Secretary shall publish notice of such assessment in the Federal Register.
(10) Availability defined
For purposes of this subsection and subsections (f) and (h), the term “available in fact to controlled countries” includes production or availability of any goods or technology in any country—
(A) from which the goods or technology is not restricted for export to any controlled country; or
(B) in which such export restrictions are determined by the Secretary to be ineffective.
For purposes of subparagraph (B), the mere inclusion of goods or technology on a list of goods or technology subject to bilateral or multilateral national security export controls shall not alone constitute credible evidence that a country provides an effective means of controlling the export of such goods or technology to controlled countries.
(g) Indexing
(1) In order to ensure that requirements for validated licenses and other licenses authorizing multiple exports are periodically removed as goods or technology subject to such requirements becomes obsolete with respect to the national security of the United States, regulations issued by the Secretary may, where appropriate, provide for annual increases in the performance levels of goods or technology subject to any such licensing requirement. The regulations issued by the Secretary shall establish as one criterion for the removal of goods or technology from such license requirements the anticipated needs of the military of controlled countries. Any such goods or technology which no longer meets the performance levels established by the regulations shall be removed from the list established pursuant to subsection (c) of this section unless, under such exceptions and under such procedures as the Secretary shall prescribe, any other department or agency of the United States objects to such removal and the Secretary determines, on the basis of such objection, that the goods or technology shall not be removed from the list. The Secretary shall also consider, where appropriate, removing site visitation requirements for goods and technology which are removed from the list unless objections described in this subsection are raised.
(2)
(A) In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall conduct annual reviews of the performance levels of goods or technology—
(i) which are eligible for export under a distribution license,
(ii) below which exports to the People’s Republic of China require only notification of the governments participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee, and
(iii) below which no authority or permission to export may be required under subsection (b)(2) or (b)(3) of this section.
The Secretary shall make appropriate adjustments to such performance levels based on these reviews.
(B) In any case in which the Secretary receives a request which—
(i) is to revise the qualification requirements or minimum thresholds of any goods eligible for export under a distribution license, and
(ii) is made by an exporter of such goods, representatives of an industry which produces such goods, or a technical advisory committee established under subsection (h) of this section,
the Secretary, after consulting with other appropriate Government agencies and technical advisory committees established under subsection (h) of this section, shall determine whether to make such revision, or some other appropriate revision, in such qualification requirements or minimum thresholds. In making this determination, the Secretary shall take into account the availability of the goods from sources outside the United States. The Secretary shall make a determination on a request made under this subparagraph within 90 days after the date on which the request is filed. If the Secretary’s determination pursuant to such a request is to make a revision, such revision shall be implemented within 120 days after the date on which the request is filed and shall be published in the Federal Register.
(h) Technical advisory committees
(1) Upon written request by representatives of a substantial segment of any industry which produces any goods or technology subject to export controls under this section or being considered for such controls because of their significance to the national security of the United States, the Secretary shall appoint a technical advisory committee for any such goods or technology which the Secretary determines are difficult to evaluate because of questions concerning technical matters, worldwide availability, and actual utilization of production and technology, or licensing procedures. Each such committee shall consist of representatives of United States industry and Government, including the Departments of Commerce, Defense, and State, the intelligence community, and, in the discretion of the Secretary, other Government departments and agencies. No person serving on any such committee who is a representative of industry shall serve on such committee for more than four consecutive years.
(2) Technical advisory committees established under paragraph (1) shall advise and assist the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, and any other department, agency, or official of the Government of the United States to which the President delegates authority under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], with respect to actions designed to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix]. Such committees, where they have expertise in such matters, shall be consulted with respect to questions involving
(A) technical matters,
(B) worldwide availability and actual utilization of production technology,
(C) licensing procedures which affect the level of export controls applicable to any goods or technology,
(D) revisions of the control list (as provided in subsection (c)(4)), including proposed revisions of multilateral controls in which the United States participates,
(E) the issuance of regulations, and
(F) any other questions relating to actions designed to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act [section 2402 (2)(A) of this Appendix]. Nothing in this subsection shall prevent the Secretary or the Secretary of Defense from consulting, at any time, with any person representing industry or the general public, regardless of whether such person is a member of a technical advisory committee. Members of the public shall be given a reasonable opportunity, pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary, to present evidence to such committees.
(3) Upon request of any member of any such committee, the Secretary may, if the Secretary determines it appropriate, reimburse such member for travel, subsistence, and other necessary expenses incurred by such member in connection with the duties of such member.
(4) Each such committee shall elect a chairman, and shall meet at least every three months at the call of the chairman, unless the chairman determines, in consultation with the other members of the committee, that such a meeting is not necessary to achieve the purposes of this subsection. Each such committee shall be terminated after a period of 2 years, unless extended by the Secretary for additional periods of 2 years. The Secretary shall consult each such committee with respect to such termination or extension of that committee.
(5) To facilitate the work of the technical advisory committees, the Secretary, in conjunction with other departments and agencies participating in the administration of this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], shall disclose to each such committee adequate information, consistent with national security, pertaining to the reasons for the export controls which are in effect or contemplated for the goods or technology with respect to which that committee furnishes advice.
(6) Whenever a technical advisory committee certifies to the Secretary that goods or technology with respect to which such committee was appointed have become available in fact, to controlled countries, from sources outside the United States, including countries which participate with the United States in multilateral export controls, in sufficient quantity and of comparable quality so that requiring a validated license for the export of such goods or technology would be ineffective in achieving the purpose set forth in subsection (a) of this section, the technical advisory committee shall submit that certification to the Congress at the same time the certification is made to the Secretary, together with the documentation for the certification. The Secretary shall investigate the foreign availability so certified and, not later than 90 days after the certification is made, shall submit a report to the technical advisory committee and the Congress stating that—
(A) the Secretary has removed the requirement of a validated license for the export of the goods or technology, on account of the foreign availability,
(B) the Secretary has recommended to the President that negotiations be conducted to eliminate the foreign availability, or
(C) the Secretary has determined on the basis of the investigation that the foreign availability does not exist.
To the extent necessary, the report may be submitted on a classified basis. In any case in which the Secretary has recommended to the President that negotiations be conducted to eliminate the foreign availability, the President shall actively pursue such negotiations with the governments of the appropriate foreign countries. If, within 6 months after the Secretary submits such report to the Congress, the foreign availability has not been eliminated, the Secretary may not, after the end of that 6-month period, require a validated license for the export of the goods or technology involved. The President may extend the 6-month period described in the preceding sentence for an additional period of 12 months if the President certifies to the Congress that the negotiations involved are progressing and that the absence of the export control involved would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States. After an agreement is reached with a country pursuant to negotiations under this paragraph to eliminate foreign availability of goods or technology, the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to that country.
(i) Multilateral export controls
Recognizing the ineffectiveness of unilateral controls and the importance of uniform enforcement measures to the effectiveness of multilateral controls, the President shall enter into negotiations with the governments participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the “Committee”) with a view toward accomplishing the following objectives:
(1) Enhanced public understanding of the Committee’s purpose and procedures, including publication of the list of items controlled for export by agreement of the Committee, together with all notes, understandings, and other aspects of such agreement of the Committee, and all changes thereto.
(2) Periodic meetings of high-level representatives of participating governments for the purpose of coordinating export control policies and issuing policy guidance to the Committee.
(3) Strengthened legal basis for each government’s export control system, including, as appropriate, increased penalties and statutes of limitations.
(4) Harmonization of export control documentation by the participating governments to verify the movement of goods and technology subject to controls by the Committee.
(5) Improved procedures for coordination and exchange of information concerning violations of the agreement of the Committee.
(6) Procedures for effective implementation of the agreement through uniform and consistent interpretations of export controls agreed to by the governments participating in the Committee.
(7) Coordination of national licensing and enforcement efforts by governments participating in the Committee, including sufficient technical expertise to assess the licensing status of exports and to ensure end-use verification.
(8) More effective procedures for enforcing export controls, including adequate training, resources, and authority for enforcement officers to investigate and prevent illegal exports.
(9) Agreement to provide adequate resources to enhance the functioning of individual national export control systems and of the Committee.
(10) Improved enforcement and compliance with the agreement through elimination of unnecessary export controls and maintenance of an effective control list.
(11) Agreement to enhance cooperation among members of the Committee in obtaining the agreement of governments outside the Committee to restrict the export of goods and technology on the International Control List, to establish an ongoing mechanism in the Committee to coordinate planning and implementation of export control measures related to such agreements, and to remove items from the International Control List if such items continue to be available to controlled countries or if the control of the items no longer serves the common strategic objectives of the members of the Committee.
For purposes of reviews of the International Control List, the President may include as advisors to the United States delegation to the Committee representatives of industry who are knowledgeable with respect to the items being reviewed.
(j) Commercial agreements with certain countries
(1) Any United States firm, enterprise, or other nongovernmental entity which enters into an agreement with any agency of the government of a controlled country, that calls for the encouragement of technical cooperation and that is intended to result in the export from the United States to the other party of unpublished technical data of United States origin, shall report to the Secretary the agreement with such agency in sufficient detail.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply to colleges, universities, or other educational institutions.
(k) Negotiations with other countries
The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Commerce, and the heads of other appropriate departments and agencies, shall be responsible for conducting negotiations with other countries, including those countries not participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee, regarding their cooperation in restricting the export of goods and technology in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(9) of this Act [section 2402 (9) of this Appendix], as authorized by subsection (a) of this section, including negotiations with respect to which goods and technology should be subject to multilaterally agreed export restrictions and what conditions should apply for exceptions from those restrictions. In cases where such negotiations produce agreements on export restrictions comparable in practice to those maintained by the Coordinating Committee, the Secretary shall treat exports, whether by individual or multiple licenses, to countries party to such agreements in the same manner as exports to members of the Coordinating Committee are treated, including the same manner as exports are treated under subsection (b)(2) of this section and section 10(o) of this Act [section 2409 (o) of this Appendix].
(l) Diversion of controlled goods or technology
(1) Whenever there is reliable evidence, as determined by the Secretary, that goods or technology which were exported subject to national security controls under this section to a controlled country have been diverted to an unauthorized use or consignee in violation of the conditions of an export license, the Secretary for as long as that diversion continues—
(A) shall deny all further exports, to or by the party or parties responsible for that diversion or who conspired in that diversion, of any goods or technology subject to national security controls under this section, regardless of whether such goods or technology are available from sources outside the United States; and
(B) may take such additional actions under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] with respect to the party or parties referred to in subparagraph (A) as the Secretary determines are appropriate in the circumstances to deter the further unauthorized use of the previously exported goods or technology.
(2) As used in this subsection, the term “unauthorized use” means the use of United States goods or technology in the design, production, or maintenance of any item on the United States Munitions List, or the military use of any item on the International Control List of the Coordinating Committee.
(m) Goods containing controlled parts and components
Export controls may not be imposed under this section, or under any other provision of law, on a good solely on the basis that the good contains parts or components subject to export controls under this section if such parts or components—
(1) are essential to the functioning of the good,
(2) are customarily included in sales of the good in countries other than controlled countries, and
(3) comprise 25 percent or less of the total value of the good,
unless the good itself, if exported, would by virtue of the functional characteristics of the good as a whole make a significant contribution to the military potential of a controlled country which would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States.
(n) Security measures
The Secretary and the Commissioner of Customs, consistent with their authorities under section 12(a) of this Act [section 2411 (a) of this Appendix], and in consultation with the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, shall provide advice and technical assistance to persons engaged in the manufacture or handling of goods or technology subject to export controls under this section to develop security systems to prevent violations or evasions of those export controls.
(o) Recordkeeping
The Secretary, the Secretary of Defense, and any other department or agency consulted in connection with a license application under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix] or a revision of a list of goods or technology subject to export controls under this Act [sections 2401 to 2420 of this Appendix], shall make and keep records of their respective advice, recommendations, or decisions in connection with any such license application or revision, including the factual and analytical basis of the advice, recommendations, or decisions.
(p) National Security Control Office
To assist in carrying out the policy and other authorities and responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense under this section, there is established in the Department of Defense a National Security Control Office under the direction of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. The Secretary of Defense may delegate to that office such of those authorities and responsibilities, together with such ancillary functions, as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.
(q) Exclusion for agricultural commodities
This section does not authorize export controls on agricultural commodities, including fats, oils, and animal hides and skins.


[1]  So in original. Probably should be followed by “the”.

Source

(Pub. L. 96–72, § 5,Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §§ 105(a)–(c)(1), (d)–(j), 106, 107, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 123–129; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §§ 2413–2418(b), 2419, 2420 (a), 2421, 2422, 2446,Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1347–1358, 1369.)
Prior Provisions

A prior section 2404,Pub. L. 91–184, § 5,Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 843; Pub. L. 92–412, title I, § 105,Aug. 29, 1972, 86 Stat. 645; Pub. L. 93–500, §§ 3(c), (d), 5 (b), (c), 6,Oct. 29, 1974, 88 Stat. 1553, 1554; Pub. L. 95–52, title I, § 111,June 22, 1977, 91 Stat. 240, setting forth determinations, limitations, etc., respecting the control and monitoring of exports, expired on Sept. 30, 1979.
Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2413, inserted provision defining “affiliates” to include both governmental entities and commercial entities that are controlled in fact by controlled countries.
Subsec. (a)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2414, added pars. (4) to (6).
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2415(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: “No authority or permission to export may be required under this section before goods or technology are exported in the case of exports to a country which maintains export controls on such goods or technology cooperatively with the United States pursuant to the agreement of the group known as the Coordinating Committee, if the goods or technology is at such a level of performance characteristics that the export of the goods or technology to controlled countries requires only notification of the participating governments of the Coordinating Committee.”
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2415(b), added par. (3).
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2416(a), substituted “If the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense are unable to concur on such items, as determined by the Secretary, the Secretary of Defense may, within 20 days after receiving notification of the Secretary’s determination, refer the matter to the President for resolution. The Secretary of Defense shall notify the Secretary of any such referral. The President shall, not later than 20 days after such referral, notify the Secretary of his determination with respect to the inclusion of such items on the list. Failure of the Secretary of Defense to notify the President or the Secretary, or failure of the President to notify the Secretary, in accordance with this paragraph, shall be deemed by the Secretary to constitute concurrence in the implementation of the actions proposed by the Secretary regarding the inclusion of such items on the list.” for “If the Secretary and the Secretary of Defense are unable to concur on such items, the matter shall be referred to the President for resolution.”
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2416(b)(1), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The Secretary shall review the list established pursuant to this subsection at least once each year in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3(2)(A) of this Act and the provisions of this section, and shall promptly make such revisions of the list as may be necessary after each such review. Before beginning each annual review, the Secretary shall publish notice of that annual review in the Federal Register. The Secretary shall provide an opportunity during such review for comment and the submission of data, with or without oral presentation, by interested Government agencies and other affected or potentially affected parties. The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register any revisions in the list, with an explanation of the reasons for the revisions. The Secretary shall further assess, as part of such review, the availability from sources outside the United States of goods and technology comparable to those subject to export controls imposed under this section.”
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2416(b)(3), added par. (4).
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2416(c)(1), added par. (5).
Subsec. (c)(6), (7). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2416(c)(2), (3), added pars. (6) and (7).
Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2416(b)(2), substituted “on an ongoing basis” for “at least annually”.
Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2417, added par. (6).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2418(a), amended subsec. generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) to (10) provisions of former pars. (1) to (7).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2419, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).
Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2420(a), added cls. (D) and (E), redesignated former cl. (E) as (F), and struck out former cl. (D) which read as follows: “exports subject to multilateral controls in which the United States participates, including proposed revisions of any such multilateral controls, and”.
Subsec. (h)(6). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2418(b), inserted at end “After an agreement is reached with a country pursuant to negotiations under this paragraph to eliminate foreign availability of goods or technology, the Secretary may not require a validated license for the export of such goods or technology to that country.”
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2421, substituted “Recognizing the ineffectiveness of unilateral controls and the importance of uniform enforcement measures to the effectiveness of multilateral controls, the President” for “The President” and inserted sentence at end authorizing the President, for purposes of reviews of the International Control List, to include as advisors to the United States delegation to the Committee representatives of industry who are knowledgeable with respect to the items being reviewed.
Subsec. (i)(1) to (11). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2446, completely revised and expanded provisions enumerating the objectives of the negotiations, adding pars. (1) to (11) and striking out former pars. (1) to (9).
Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 100–418, § 2422, amended subsec. generally, substituting provision relating to goods containing controlled parts and components for provision relating to goods containing microprocessors.
1985—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(a)(1), inserted sentence providing that the authority contained in this subsection includes the authority to prohibit or curtail the transfer of goods or technology within the United States to embassies and affiliates of controlled countries.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(a)(2), struck out designation “(A)” before “Whenever the Secretary makes any revision”, and struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: “Whenever the Secretary denies any export license under this section, the Secretary shall specify in the notice to the applicant of the denial of such license that the license was denied under the authority contained in this section. The Secretary shall also include in such notice what, if any, modifications in or restrictions on the goods or technology for which the license was sought would allow such export to be compatible with controls imposed under this section, or the Secretary shall indicate in such notice which officers and employees of the Department of Commerce who are familiar with the application will be made reasonably available to the applicant for consultation with regard to such modifications or restriction, if appropriate.”
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(a)(3), struck out “Such regulations shall not be based upon the assumption that such effective safeguards can be devised.”
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(b)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and provided that the President shall establish to a list of controlled countries which may be expanded or reduced by the President based upon certain enumerated factors, and struck out provisions which had stated that the policy of the United States toward individual countries should not be determined exclusively on the basis of that country’s Communist or non-Communist status but rather on the country’s relationships to the United States and countries friendly to the United States.
Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(b)(3), substituted “set forth in this paragraph” for “specified in the preceding sentence” in last sentence.
Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(b)(2), added par. (2).
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(c)(1)(A), struck out “commodity” before “control list”.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(c)(1)(B), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The Secretary shall issue regulations providing for review of the list established pursuant to this subsection not less frequently than every 3 years in the case of controls maintained cooperatively with other countries, and annually in the case of all other controls, in order to carry out the policy set forth in section 3 (2)(A) and the provisions of this section, and for the prompt issuance of such revisions of the list as may be necessary. Such regulations shall provide interested Government agencies and other affected or potentially affected parties with an opportunity, during such review, to submit written data, views, or arguments, with or without oral presentation. Such regulations shall further provide that, as part of such review, an assessment be made of the availability from sources outside the United States, or any of its territories or possessions, of goods and technology comparable to those controlled under this section. The Secretary and any agency rendering advice with respect to export controls shall keep adequate records of all decisions made with respect to revision of the list of controlled goods and technology, including the factual and analytical basis for the decision, and, in the case of the Secretary, any dissenting recommendations received from any agency.”
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–64, § 106(a)(1), added subpar. (D) and in provisions following subpar. (D) substituted “, or available in fact from sources outside the United States to, controlled countries” for “countries to which exports are controlled under this section”.
Subsec. (d)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 99–64, § 106(a)(2), added pars. (4) to (7) and struck out former pars. (4) to (6) which read as follows:
“(4) The initial version of the list referred to in paragraph (2) shall be completed and published in an appropriate form in the Federal Register not later than October 1, 1980.
“(5) The list of militarily critical technologies developed primarily by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to paragraph (2) shall become a part of the commodity control list, subject to the provisions of subsection (c) of this section.
“(6) The Secretary of Defense shall report annually to the Congress on actions taken to carry out this subsection.”
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(d)(1), substituted “the multiple validated export licenses described in section 4(a)(2) of this Act in lieu of individual validated licenses” for “a qualified general license in lieu of a validated license”.
Subsec. (e)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(d)(2), added pars. (3) to (5) and struck out former pars. (3) and (4) which read as follows:
“(3) To the maximum extent practicable, consistent with the national security of the United States, the Secretary shall require a qualified general license, in lieu of a validated license, under this section for the export of goods or technology if the export of such goods or technology is restricted pursuant to a multilateral agreement, formal or informal, to which the United States is a party, but such export does not require the specific approval of the parties to such multilateral agreement.
“(4) Not later than July 1, 1980, the Secretary shall establish procedures for the approval of goods and technology that may be exported pursuant to a qualified general license.”
Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(a), (i), (j)(1), inserted “the Secretary of Defense and other” after “The Secretary, in consultation with”, and substituted “controlled countries” for “such destinations” and “comparable quality” for “sufficient quality”.
Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(i), substituted “comparable quality” for “sufficient quality”.
Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(b), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “With respect to export controls imposed under this section, any determination of foreign availability which is the basis of a decision to grant a license for, or to remove a control on, the export of a good or technology, shall be made in writing and shall be supported by reliable evidence, including scientific or physical examination, expert opinion based upon adequate factual information, or intelligence information. In assessing foreign availability with respect to license applications, uncorroborated representations by applicants shall not be deemed sufficient evidence of foreign availability.”
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(c), (j)(2), substituted first three sentences for “sentence providing that in any case in which, in accordance with this subsection, export controls are imposed under this section notwithstanding foreign availability, the President shall take steps to initiate negotiations with the governments of the appropriate foreign countries for the purpose of eliminating such availability”, and substituted “controlled countries” for “countries to which exports are controlled under this section”.
Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(d)(1), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “In order to further carry out the policies set forth in this Act, the Secretary shall establish, within the Office of Export Administration of the Department of Commerce, a capability to monitor and gather information with respect to the foreign availability of any goods or technology subject to export controls under this Act.”
Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(d)(2), substituted “Office of Foreign Availability” for “Office of Export Administration”.
Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(e), added par. (7).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(e), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows: “In order to ensure that requirements for validated licenses and qualified general licenses are periodically removed as goods or technology subject to such requirements become obsolete with respect to the national security of the United States, regulations issued by the Secretary may, where appropriate, provide for annual increases in the performance levels of goods or technology subject to any such licensing requirement. Any such goods or technology which no longer meet the performance levels established by the latest such increase shall be removed from the list established pursuant to subsection (c) of this section unless, under such exceptions and under such procedures as the Secretary shall prescribe, any other department or agency of the United States objects to such removal and the Secretary determines, on the basis of such objection, that the goods or technology shall not be removed from the list. The Secretary shall also consider, where appropriate, removing site visitation requirements for goods and technology which are removed from the list unless objections described in this subsection are raised.”
Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(f)(1), inserted reference to the intelligence community.
Subsec. (h)(2)(E). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(f)(2), added cl. (E).
Subsec. (h)(6). Pub. L. 99–64, § 107(f)(3), (i), (j)(2), substituted “controlled countries” for “countries to which exports are controlled under this section”, “comparable quality” for “sufficient quality”, and “the technical advisory committee shall submit that certification to the Congress at the same time the certification is made to the Secretary, together with the documentation for the certification” for “and provides adequate documentation for such certification, in accordance with the procedures established pursuant to subsection (f)(1) of this section, the Secretary shall investigate such availability, and if such availability is verified, the Secretary shall remove the requirement of a validated license for the export of the goods or technology, unless the President determines that the absence of export controls under this section would prove detrimental to the national security of the United States”, struck out provision that, in any case in which the President determined that export controls under this section had to be maintained notwithstanding foreign availability, the Secretary had to publish that determination together with a concise statement of its basis and the estimated economic impact of the decision, inserted provisions directing the Secretary to investigate certified foreign availability and, not later than 90 days after the certification is made, submit a report to the technical advisory committee and the Congress, and added subpars. (A) to (C) and concluding provision.
Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(f)(1), (2), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and substituted “agreed to by members of the Committee” for “agreed to pursuant to paragraph (3)”, and struck out former par. (3) relating to agreement to reduce the scope of the export controls imposed by agreement of the Committee to a level acceptable to and enforceable by all governments participating in the Committee.
Subsec. (i)(4) to (9). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(f)(3), added pars. (4) to (9). Former par. (4) redesignated (3).
Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(g), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “Any United States firm, enterprise, or other nongovernmental entity which, for commercial purposes, enters into any agreement with any agency of the government of a country to which exports are restricted for national security purposes, which agreement cites an intergovernmental agreement (to which the United States and such country are parties) calling for the encouragement of technical cooperation and is intended to result in the export from the United States to the other party of unpublished technical data of United States origin, shall report the agreement with such agency to the Secretary.”
Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(h), inserted “, including those countries not participating in the group known as the Coordinating Committee,” after “conducting negotiations with other countries”, and inserted provision that, in cases where such negotiations produce agreements on export restrictions comparable in practice to those maintained by the Coordinating Committee, the Secretary shall treat exports, whether by individual or multiple licenses, to countries party to such agreements in the same manner as exports to members of the Coordinating Committee are treated, including the same manner as exports are treated under subsection (b)(2) of this section and section 10(o) of this Act.
Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(i), struck out “to military use” after “Diversion” in heading, and amended text of subsec. (l), generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (l) read as follows:
“(1) Whenever there is reliable evidence that goods or technology, which were exported subject to national security controls under this section to a country to which exports are controlled for national security purposes, have been diverted to significant military use in violation of the conditions of an export license, the Secretary for as long as that diversion to significant military use continues—
“(A) shall deny all further exports to the party responsible for that diversion of any goods or technology subject to national security controls under this section which contribute to that particular military use, regardless of whether such goods or technology are available to that country from sources outside the United States; and
“(B) may take such additional steps under this Act with respect to the party referred to in subparagraph (A) as are feasible to deter the further military use of the previously exported goods or technology.
“(2) As used in this subsection, the terms ‘diversion to significant military use’ and ‘significant military use’ means the use of United States goods or technology to design or produce any item on the United States Munitions List.”
Subsecs. (m) to (q). Pub. L. 99–64, § 105(j), added subsecs. (m) to (q).
Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–64, title I, § 105(c)(2),July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 125, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1985.”
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203 (1), 551 (d), 552 (d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.
Delegation of Functions

Functions conferred upon President under this section delegated to Secretary of Commerce by Ex. Ord. No. 12214, May 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 29783, set out under section 2403 of this Appendix, with the exception of the functions conferred upon the President under subsecs. (f)(4) and (i) of this section which were delegated to the Secretary of State and the functions conferred upon the President under subsecs. (c), (f)(1), and (h)(6) of this section which were reserved to the President.
Review of Export Protections for Military Superiority Resources

Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XII, § 1211,Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1650, provided that:
“(a) Review Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a review—
“(1) to identify goods or technology (as defined in section 16 of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 App. U.S.C. 2415)) that, if obtained by a potential adversary, could significantly undermine the military superiority or qualitative military advantage of the United States over potential adversaries or otherwise contribute to the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems; and
“(2) to determine whether any of the items or technologies identified under paragraph (1) are not currently controlled for export purposes on either the Commerce Control List or the United States Munitions List.
“(b) Annual Reports.—(1) Not later than March 1, 2004, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives an unclassified report, with a classified annex as necessary, on the results of the review under subsection (a).
“(2) For each of the next two years after the submission of the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to those committees an update on that report. Such updates shall be submitted not later than March 1, 2005, and not later than March 1, 2006.”
Review of Proposed Changes to Export Thresholds for Computers

Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(2) [title III, § 314], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–123, which provided that not more than 50 days after the date of the submission of the report referred to in subsec. (d) ofsection 1211 of Pub. L. 105–85(set out below), the Comptroller General was to submit an assessment to Congress that contained an analysis of new computer performance levels proposed by the President under such section, was repealed by Pub. L. 110–161, div. H, title I, § 1502(b),Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2250.
Release of Export Information by Department of Commerce to Other Agencies for Purpose of National Security Assessment

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, § 1522,Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2179, provided that:
“(a) Release of Export Information.—The Secretary of Commerce shall, upon the written request of an official specified in subsection (c), transmit to that official any information relating to exports that is held by the Department of Commerce and is requested by that official for the purpose of assessing national security risks. The Secretary shall transmit such information within 10 business days after receiving such a request.
“(b) Nature of Information.—The information referred to in subsection (a) includes information concerning—
“(1) export licenses issued by the Department of Commerce;
“(2) exports that were carried out under an export license issued by the Department of Commerce; and
“(3) exports from the United States that were carried out without an export license.
“(c) Requesting Officials.—The officials referred to in subsection (a) are the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, and the Director of Central Intelligence. Each of those officials may delegate to any other official within their respective departments and agency the authority to request information under subsection (a).”
[Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director’s capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director’s capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) ofPub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of Title 50, War and National Defense.]
Export Controls on High Performance Computers

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XII, subtitle B, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1932, as amended by Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, § 1524,Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2180; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, § 1067(4), title XIV, § 1407(c),Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774, 801; Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title XII, § 1234(a)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–330, provided that:
“SEC. 1211. EXPORT APPROVALS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTERS.
“(a) Prior Approval of Exports and Reexports.—The President shall require that no digital computer with a composite theoretical performance level of more than 2,000 millions of theoretical operations per second (MTOPS) or with such other composite theoretical performance level as may be established subsequently by the President under subsection (d), may be exported or reexported without a license to a country specified in subsection (b) if the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of State, or the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency objects, in writing, to such export or reexport. Any person proposing to export or reexport such a digital computer shall so notify the Secretary of Commerce, who, within 24 hours after receiving the notification, shall transmit the notification to the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of State, and the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
“(b) Covered Countries.—For purposes of subsection (a), the countries specified in this subsection are the countries listed as ‘Computer Tier 3’ eligible countries in section 740.7(d) of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on June 10, 1997, subject to modification by the President under subsection (e).
“(c) Time Limit.—Written objections under subsection (a) to an export or reexport shall be raised within 10 days after the notification is received under subsection (a). If such a written objection to the export or reexport of a computer is raised, the computer may be exported or reexported only pursuant to a license issued by the Secretary of Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations of the Department of Commerce, without regard to the licensing exceptions otherwise authorized under section 740.7 of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on June 10, 1997. If no objection is raised within the 10-day period, the export or reexport is authorized.
“(d) Adjustment of Composite Theoretical Performance.—The President, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of State, and the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, may establish a new composite theoretical performance level for purposes of subsection (a). Such new level shall not take effect until 60 days after the President submits to the congressional committees designated in section 1215 a report setting forth the new composite theoretical performance level and the justification for such new level. Each report shall, at a minimum—
“(1) address the extent to which high performance computers of a composite theoretical level between the level established in subsection (a) or such level as has been previously adjusted pursuant to this section and the new level, are available from other countries;
“(2) address all potential uses of military significance to which high performance computers at the new level could be applied; and
“(3) assess the impact of such uses on the national security interests of the United States.
“(e) Adjustment of Covered Countries.—
“(1) In general.—The President, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of State, and the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, may add a country to or remove a country from the list of covered countries in subsection (b), except that a country may be removed from the list only in accordance with paragraph (2).
“(2) Deletions from list of covered countries.—The removal of a country from the list of covered countries under subsection (b) shall not take effect until 120 days after the President submits to the congressional committees designated in section 1215 a report setting forth the justification for the deletion.
“(3) Excluded countries.—A country may not be removed from the list of covered countries under subsection (b) if—
“(A) the country is a ‘nuclear-weapon state’ (as defined by Article IX of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) and the country is not a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization; or
“(B) the country is not a signatory of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the country is listed on Annex 2 to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty.
“(f) Classification.—Each report under subsections (d) and (e) shall be submitted in an unclassified form and may, if necessary, have a classified supplement.
“(g) Delegation of Objection Authority Within the Department of Defense.—For the purposes of the Department of Defense, the authority to issue an objection referred to in subsection (a) shall be executed for the Secretary of Defense by an official at the Assistant Secretary level within the office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy. In implementing subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that Department of Defense procedures maximize the ability of the Department of Defense to be able to issue an objection within the 10-day period specified in subsection (c).
“(h) Calculation of 60-Day Period.—The 60-day period referred to in subsection (d) shall be calculated by excluding the days on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of the Congress sine die.
“SEC. 1212. REPORT ON EXPORTS OF HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTERS.
“(a) Report.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1997], the President shall provide to the congressional committees specified in section 1215 a report identifying all exports of digital computers with a composite theoretical performance of more than 2,000 millions of theoretical operations per second (MTOPS) to all countries since January 25, 1996. For each export, the report shall identify—
“(1) whether an export license was applied for and whether one was granted;
“(2) the date of the transfer of the computer;
“(3) the United States manufacturer and exporter of the computer;
“(4) the MTOPS level of the computer; and
“(5) the recipient country and end user.
“(b) Additional Information on Exports to Certain Countries.—In the case of exports to countries specified in subsection (c), the report under subsection (a) shall identify the intended end use for the exported computer and the assessment by the executive branch of whether the end user is a military end user or an end user involved in activities relating to nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons or missile technology. Information provided under this subsection may be submitted in classified form if necessary.
“(c) Covered Countries.—For purposes of subsection (b), the countries specified in this subsection are—
“(1) the countries listed as ‘Computer Tier 3’ eligible countries in section 740.7(d) of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on June 10, 1997; and
“(2) the countries listed in section 740.7(e) of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on June 10, 1997.
“SEC. 1213. POST-SHIPMENT VERIFICATION OF EXPORT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTERS.
“(a) Required Post-Shipment Verification.—The Secretary of Commerce shall conduct post-shipment verification of each digital computer with a composite theoretical performance of more than 2,000 millions of theoretical operations per second (MTOPS) that is exported from the United States, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1998], to a country specified in subsection (b).
“(b) Covered Countries.—For purposes of subsection (a), the countries specified in this subsection are the countries listed as ‘Computer Tier 3’ eligible countries in section 740.7 of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on June 10, 1997, subject to modification by the President under section 1211 (e).
“(c) Annual Report.—The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the congressional committees specified in section 1215 an annual report on the results of post-shipment verifications conducted under this section during the preceding year. Each such report shall include a list of all such items exported from the United States to such countries during the previous year and, with respect to each such export, the following:
“(1) The destination country.
“(2) The date of export.
“(3) The intended end use and intended end user.
“(4) The results of the post-shipment verification.
“(d) Explanation When Verification Not Conducted.—If a post-shipment verification has not been conducted in accordance with subsection (a) with respect to any such export during the period covered by a report, the Secretary shall include in the report for that period a detailed explanation of the reasons why such a post-shipment verification was not conducted.
“(e) Adjustment of Performance Levels.—Whenever a new composite theoretical performance level is established under section 1211 (d), that level shall apply for purposes of subsection (a) of this section in lieu of the level set forth in subsection (a).
“SEC. 1214. GAO STUDY ON CERTAIN COMPUTERS; END USER INFORMATION ASSISTANCE.
“(a) In General.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the congressional committees specified in section 1215 a study of the national security risks relating to the sale of computers with a composite theoretical performance of between 2,000 and 7,000 millions of theoretical operations per second (MTOPS) to end users in countries specified in subsection (c). The study shall also analyze any foreign availability of computers described in the preceding sentence and the impact of such sales on United States exporters.
“(b) End User Information Assistance to Exporters.—The Secretary of Commerce shall establish a procedure by which exporters may seek information on questionable end users in countries specified in subsection (c) who are seeking to obtain computers described in subsection (a).
“(c) Covered Countries.—For purposes of subsections (a) and (b), the countries specified in this subsection are the countries listed as ‘Computer Tier 3’ eligible countries in section 740.7(d) of title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on June 10, 1997.
“SEC. 1215. CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES.
“For purposes of sections 1211 (d), 1212 (a), 1213 (c), and 1214 (a) the congressional committees specified in those sections are the following:
“(1) The Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate.
“(2) The Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.”
[Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [[div. A], title XII, § 1234(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–331, provided that: “The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 1211 ofPub. L. 105–85, set out above] shall apply to any new composite theoretical performance level established for purposes of section 1211(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 [Pub. L. 105–85] that is submitted by the President pursuant to section 1211(d) of that Act on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000].”]
[For abolition, transfer of functions, and treatment of references to United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, see section 6511 et seq. of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.]
Reports on Advanced Supercomputer Sales to Certain Foreign Nations

Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXI, § 3157,Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2045, as amended by Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [div. C, title XXXI, § 3134], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–456, which related to reports on advanced supercomputer sales to certain foreign nations, was repealed by Pub. L. 113–66, div. C, title XXXI, § 3132(b),Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 1068.
National Security Implications of United States Export Control Policy

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, § 1322,Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 478, provided that:
“(a) Findings.—Congress makes the following findings:
“(1) Export controls remain an important element of the national security policy of the United States.
“(2) It is in the national security interest that United States export control policy be effective in preventing the transfer, to potential adversaries or combatants of the United States, of technology that threatens the national security or defense of the United States.
“(3) It is in the national security interest that the United States monitor aggressively the export of militarily critical technology in order to prevent its diversion to potential adversaries or combatants of the United States.
“(4) The Department of Defense relies increasingly on commercial and dual-use technologies, products, and processes to support United States military capabilities and economic strength.
“(5) The maintenance of the military advantage of the United States depends on effective export controls on dual-use items and technologies that are critical to the military capabilities of the Armed Forces.
“(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that—
“(1) the Secretary of Defense should evaluate license applications for the export of militarily critical commodities the export of which is controlled for national security reasons if those commodities are to be exported to certain countries of concern;
“(2) the Secretary of Defense should identify the dual-use items and technologies that are critical to the military capabilities of the Armed Forces, including the military use made of such items and technologies;
“(3) upon identification by the Secretary of Defense of the dual-use items and technologies referred to in paragraph (2), the President should ensure effective export controls or use unilateral export controls on dual-use items and technologies that are critical to the military capabilities of the Armed Forces (regardless of the availability of such items or technologies overseas) with respect to the countries that—
“(A) pose a threat to the national security interests of the United States; and
“(B) are not members in good standing of bilateral or multilateral agreements to which the United States is a party on the use of such items and technologies; and
“(4) the President, upon recommendation of the Secretary of Defense, should ensure effective controls on the re-export by other countries of dual-use items and technologies that are critical to the military capabilities of the Armed Forces.
“(c) Annual Report.—(1) Not later than December 1 of each year through 1999, the President shall submit to the committees specified in paragraph (4) a report on the effect of the export control policy of the United States on the national security interests of the United States.
“(2) The report shall include the following:
“(A) A list setting forth each country determined by the Secretary of Defense, the intelligence community, and other appropriate agencies to be a rogue nation or potential adversary or combatant of the United States.
“(B) For each country so listed, a list of—
“(i) the categories of items that the United States currently prohibits for export to the country;
“(ii) the categories of items that may be exported from the United States with an individual license, and in such cases, any licensing conditions normally required and the policy grounds used for approvals and denials; and
“(iii) the categories of items that may be exported under a general license designated ‘G-DEST’.
“(C) For each category of items listed under subparagraph (B)—
“(i) a statement whether a prohibition, control, or licensing requirement on a category of items is imposed pursuant to an international multilateral agreement or is unilateral;
“(ii) a statement whether a prohibition, control, or licensing requirement on a category of items is imposed by the other members of an international agreement or is unilateral;
“(iii) when the answer under either clause (i) or clause (ii) is unilateral, a statement concerning the efforts being made to ensure that the prohibition, control, or licensing requirement is made multilateral; and
“(iv) a statement on what impact, if any, a unilateral prohibition is having, or would have, on preventing the rogue nation or potential adversary from attaining the items in question for military purposes.
“(D) A description of United States policy on sharing satellite imagery that has military significance and a discussion of the criteria for determining the imagery that has that significance.
“(E) A description of the relationship between United States policy on the export of space launch vehicle technology and the Missile Technology Control Regime.
“(F) An assessment of United States efforts to support the inclusion of additional countries in the Missile Technology Control Regime.
“(G) An assessment of the ongoing efforts made by potential participant countries in the Missile Technology Control Regime to meet the guidelines established by the Missile Technology Control Regime.
“(H) A discussion of the history of the space launch vehicle programs of other countries, including a discussion of the military origins and purposes of such programs and the current level of military involvement in such programs.
“(3) The President shall submit the report in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.
“(4) The committees referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:
“(A) The Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate.
“(B) The Committee on National Security [now Committee on Armed Services] and the Committee on International Relations [now Committee on Foreign Affairs] of the House of Representatives.
“(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘Missile Technology Control Regime’ means the policy statement announced on April 16, 1987, between the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Canada, and Japan to restrict sensitive missile-relevant transfers based on the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex, and any amendment thereto.”
Department of Defense Review of Export Licenses for Certain Biological Pathogens

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, § 1323,Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 480, provided that:
“(a) Department of Defense Review.—Any application to the Secretary of Commerce for a license for the export of a class 2, class 3, or class 4 biological pathogen to a country identified to the Secretary under subsection (c) as a country that is known or suspected to have a biological weapons program shall be referred to the Secretary of Defense for review. The Secretary of Defense shall notify the Secretary of Commerce within 15 days after receipt of an application under the preceding sentence whether the export of such biological pathogen pursuant to the license would be contrary to the national security interests of the United States.
“(b) Denial of License if Contrary to National Security Interest.—A license described in subsection (a) shall be denied by the Secretary of Commerce if it is determined that the export of such biological pathogen to that country would be contrary to the national security interests of the United States.
“(c) Identification of Countries Known or Suspected To Have a Program To Develop Offensive Biological Weapons.—(1) The Secretary of Defense shall determine, for the purposes of this section, those countries that are known or suspected to have a program to develop offensive biological weapons. Upon making such determination, the Secretary shall provide to the Secretary of Commerce a list of those countries.
“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall update the list under paragraph (1) on a regular basis. Whenever a country is added to or deleted from such list, the Secretary shall notify the Secretary of Commerce.
“(3) Determination under this subsection of countries that are known or suspected to have a program to develop offensive biological weapons shall be made in consultation with the Secretary of State and the intelligence community.
“(d) Definition.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘class 2, class 3, or class 4 biological pathogen’ means any biological pathogen that is characterized by the Centers for Disease Control as a class 2, class 3, or class 4 biological pathogen.”
Annual Reports on Improving Export Control Mechanisms

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, § 1324(a), (b),Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 480, 481, provided that:
“(a) Joint Reports by Secretaries of State and Commerce.—Not later than April 1 of each of 1996 and 1997, the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Commerce shall submit to Congress a joint report, prepared in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, relating to United States export-control mechanisms. Each such report shall set forth measures to be taken to strengthen United States export-control mechanisms, including—
“(1) steps being taken by each Secretary (A) to share on a regular basis the export licensing watchlist of that Secretary’s department with the other Secretary, and (B) to incorporate the export licensing watchlist data received from the other Secretary into the watchlist of that Secretary’s department;
“(2) steps being taken by each Secretary to incorporate into the watchlist of that Secretary’s department similar data from systems maintained by the Department of Defense and the United States Customs Service; and
“(3) a description of such further measures to be taken to strengthen United States export-control mechanisms as the Secretaries consider to be appropriate.
“(b) Reports by Inspectors General.—(1) Not later than April 1 of each of 1996 and 1997, the Inspector General of the Department of State and the Inspector General of the Department of Commerce shall each submit to Congress a report providing that official’s evaluation of the effectiveness during the preceding year of the export licensing watchlist screening process of that official’s department. The reports shall be submitted in both a classified and unclassified version.
“(2) Each report of an Inspector General under paragraph (1) shall (with respect to that official’s department)—
“(A) set forth the number of export licenses granted to parties on the export licensing watchlist;
“(B) set forth the number of end-use checks performed with respect to export licenses granted to parties on the export licensing watchlist the previous year;
“(C) assess the screening process used in granting an export license when an applicant is on the export licensing watchlist; and
“(D) assess the extent to which the export licensing watchlist contains all relevant information and parties required by statute or regulation.”
Study on National Security Export Controls

Section 2433 ofPub. L. 100–418directed Secretary of Commerce and Secretary of Defense, not later than 60 days after Aug. 23, 1988, to enter into appropriate arrangements with National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering to conduct a comprehensive study of adequacy of current export administration system in safeguarding United States national security while maintaining United States international competitiveness and Western technological preeminence, further directed Academies to prepare and submit to President and Congress, not later than 18 months after entering into such arrangements, a report containing a detailed statement of findings and conclusions of Academies pursuant to such study, together with their recommendations for such legislative or regulatory reforms as they considered appropriate, and further provided for an Advisory Panel to aid in such study, as well as executive branch cooperation, and appropriations for such study.
Delegation of Authority Under Section 1322(c) of Public Law 104–106

Determination of President of the United States, No. 97–39, Sept. 30, 1997, 62 F.R. 52477, provided:
By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, I hereby delegate to the Secretary of Defense the duties and responsibilities vested in the President by section 1322(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (“the Act”) (Public Law 104–106, 110 Stat. 478–479 (1996)) [set out as a note above].
The reporting requirement delegated by this memorandum may be redelegated not lower than the Under Secretary level. The Department of Defense shall obtain concurrence on the report from the following agencies: the Department of Commerce, the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, and the Director of Central Intelligence on behalf of the intelligence community prior to submission to the Congress.
Any reference in this memorandum to the provisions of any Act shall be deemed to be a reference to such Act or its provisions as may be amended from time to time.
The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.
William J. Clinton.

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50aa USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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15 CFR - Commerce and Foreign Trade

15 CFR Part 730 - GENERAL INFORMATION

15 CFR Part 732 - STEPS FOR USING THE EAR

15 CFR Part 734 - SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS

15 CFR Part 736 - GENERAL PROHIBITIONS

15 CFR Part 738 - COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART

15 CFR Part 740 - LICENSE EXCEPTIONS

15 CFR Part 742 - CONTROL POLICY—CCL BASED CONTROLS

15 CFR Part 743 - SPECIAL REPORTING

15 CFR Part 744 - CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED

15 CFR Part 746 - EMBARGOES AND OTHER SPECIAL CONTROLS

15 CFR Part 747 - SPECIAL IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION LICENSE

15 CFR Part 748 - APPLICATIONS (CLASSIFICATION, ADVISORY, AND LICENSE) AND DOCUMENTATION

15 CFR Part 750 - APPLICATION PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL

15 CFR Part 752 - SPECIAL COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE

15 CFR Part 754 - SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS

15 CFR Part 756 - APPEALS

15 CFR Part 758 - EXPORT CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS

15 CFR Part 760 - RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES OR BOYCOTTS

15 CFR Part 762 - RECORDKEEPING

15 CFR Part 764 - ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

15 CFR Part 766 - ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS

15 CFR Part 768 - FOREIGN AVAILABILITY DETERMINATION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA

15 CFR Part 770 - INTERPRETATIONS

15 CFR Part 772 - DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

15 CFR Part 774 - THE COMMERCE CONTROL LIST

37 CFR - Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights

37 CFR Part 5 - SECRECY OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS AND LICENSES TO EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

 

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