51 U.S. Code § 70901 - Peaceful uses of space station

prev | next
No civil space station authorized under section 103(a)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–611, 104 Stat. 3190) may be used to carry or place in orbit any nuclear weapon or any other weapon of mass destruction, to install any such weapon on any celestial body, or to station any such weapon in space in any other manner. This civil space station may be used only for peaceful purposes.

Source

(Pub. L. 111–314, § 3,Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3436.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised Section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
70901
(not previously classified)
Pub. L. 101–611, title I, § 123, Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3204.

The words “the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–611, 104 Stat. 3190)” are substituted for “this Act” to clarify the reference.
References in Text

Section 103(a)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1991 (Public Law 101–611, 104 Stat. 3190), referred to in text, is not classified to the Code.
International Space Station

Pub. L. 110–69, title II, § 2006,Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 584, provided that:
“(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the International Space Station National Laboratory offers unique opportunities for educational activities and provides a unique resource for research and development in science, technology, and engineering, which can enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.
“(b) Development of Educational Projects.—The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall develop a detailed plan for implementation of 1 or more education projects that utilize the resources offered by the International Space Station. In developing any detailed plan according to this paragraph, the Administrator shall make use of the findings and recommendations of the International Space Station National Laboratory Education Concept Development Task Force.
“(c) Development of Research Plans for Competitiveness Enhancement.—The Administrator shall develop a detailed plan for identification and support of research to be conducted aboard the International Space Station, which offers the potential for enhancement of United States competitiveness in science, technology, and engineering. In developing any detailed plan pursuant to this subsection, the Administrator shall consult with agencies and entities with which cooperative agreements have been reached regarding utilization of International Space Station National Laboratory facilities.”
Pub. L. 106–391, title II, §§ 201–203, 205,Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1586–1590, as amended by Pub. L. 108–271, § 8(b),July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 109–155, title II, § 207(b), title VII, § 706(a),Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2916, 2937, provided that:
“SEC. 201. INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION CONTINGENCY PLAN.
“(a) Bimonthly Reporting on Russian Status.—Not later than the first day of the first month beginning more than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], and semiannually thereafter until December 31, 2011, the Administrator [of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] shall report to Congress whether or not the Russians have performed work expected of them and necessary to complete the International Space Station. Each such report shall also include a statement of the Administrator’s judgment concerning Russia’s ability to perform work anticipated and required to complete the International Space Station before the next report under this subsection. Each such report shall also identify each Russian entity or person to whom NASA has, since the date of the enactment of the Iran Nonproliferation Amendments Act of 2005 [Nov. 22, 2005], made a payment in cash or in-kind for work to be performed or services to be rendered under the Agreement Concerning Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station, with annex, signed at Washington January 29, 1998, and entered into force March 27, 2001, or any protocol, agreement, memorandum of understanding, or contract related thereto. Each report shall include the specific purpose of each payment made to each entity or person identified in the report.
“(b) Decision on Russian Critical Path Items.—The President shall notify Congress within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000] of the decision on whether or not to proceed with permanent replacement of any Russian elements in the critical path [as defined in section 3 ofPub. L. 106–391, 51 U.S.C. 10101 note] of the International Space Station or any Russian launch services. Such notification shall include the reasons and justifications for the decision and the costs associated with the decision. Such decision shall include a judgment of when all elements identified in Revision E assembly sequence as of June 1999 will be in orbit and operational. If the President decides to proceed with a permanent replacement for any Russian element in the critical path or any Russian launch services, the President shall notify Congress of the reasons and the justification for the decision to proceed with the permanent replacement and the costs associated with the decision.
“(c) Assurances.—The United States shall seek assurances from the Russian Government that it places a higher priority on fulfilling its commitments to the International Space Station than it places on extending the life of the Mir Space Station, including assurances that Russia will not utilize assets allocated by Russia to the International Space Station for other purposes, including extending the life of Mir.
“(d) Equitable Utilization.—In the event that any International Partner in the International Space Station Program willfully violates any of its commitments or agreements for the provision of agreed-upon Space Station-related hardware or related goods or services, the Administrator should, in a manner consistent with relevant international agreements, seek a commensurate reduction in the utilization rights of that Partner until such time as the violated commitments or agreements have been fulfilled.
“(e) Operation Costs.—The Administrator shall, in a manner consistent with relevant international agreements, seek to reduce the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s share of International Space Station common operating costs, based upon any additional capabilities provided to the International Space Station through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Russian Program Assurance activities.
“[SEC. 202. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–155, title II, § 207(b),Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2916, effective 30 days after Dec. 1, 2006.] “SEC. 203. RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION.
“(a) Study.—The Administrator [of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] shall enter into a contract with the National Research Council and the National Academy of Public Administration to jointly conduct a study of the status of life and microgravity research as it relates to the International Space Station. The study shall include—
“(1) an assessment of the United States scientific community’s readiness to use the International Space Station for life and microgravity research;
“(2) an assessment of the current and projected factors limiting the United States scientific community’s ability to maximize the research potential of the International Space Station, including, but not limited to, the past and present availability of resources in the life and microgravity research accounts within the Office of Human Spaceflight and the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications and the past, present, and projected access to space of the scientific community; and
“(3) recommendations for improving the United States scientific community’s ability to maximize the research potential of the International Space Station, including an assessment of the relative costs and benefits of—
“(A) dedicating an annual mission of the Space Shuttle to life and microgravity research during assembly of the International Space Station; and
“(B) maintaining the schedule for assembly in place at the time of the enactment [Oct. 30, 2000].
“(b) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 30, 2000], the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the study conducted under this section.
“SEC. 205. SPACE STATION RESEARCH UTILIZATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION MANAGEMENT.
“(a) Research Utilization and Commercialization Management Activities.—The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall enter into an agreement with a non-government organization to conduct research utilization and commercialization management activities of the International Space Station subsequent to substantial completion as defined in section 202(b)(3). The agreement may not take effect less than 120 days after the implementation plan for the agreement is submitted to the Congress under subsection (b).
“(b) Implementation Plan.—Not later than September 30, 2001, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives an implementation plan to incorporate the use of a non-government organization for the International Space Station. The implementation plan shall include—
“(1) a description of the respective roles and responsibilities of the Administration and the non-government organization;
“(2) a proposed structure for the non-government organization;
“(3) a statement of the resources required;
“(4) a schedule for the transition of responsibilities; and
“(5) a statement of the duration of the agreement.”
[Pub. L. 109–155, title VII, § 706(a)(2),Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2937, which directed insertion of two sentences at end of section 201 ofPub. L. 106–391, set out above, was executed by making the insertion at the end of section 201(a) ofPub. L. 106–391, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]
Permanently Manned Space Station

Pub. L. 100–147, title I, §§ 106–112,Oct. 30, 1987, 101 Stat. 863–865, as amended by Pub. L. 102–195, § 16,Dec. 9, 1991, 105 Stat. 1614; Pub. L. 105–362, title XI, § 1101(c),Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3292, provided that:
“Sec. 106. (a) The Administrator [of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration] is directed to undertake the construction of a permanently manned space station (hereinafter referred to as the ‘space station’) to become operational in 1995. The space station will be used for the following purposes—
“(1) the conduct of scientific experiments, applications experiments, and engineering experiments;
“(2) the servicing, rehabilitation, and construction of satellites and space vehicles;
“(3) the development and demonstration of commercial products and processes; and
“(4) the establishment of a space base for other civilian and commercial space activities.
“(b) The space station shall be developed and operated in a manner that supports other science and space activities.
“(c) In order to reduce the cost of operations of the space station and its ground support system, the Administrator shall undertake the development of such advanced technologies as may be appropriate within the level of funding authorized in this Act [see Tables for classification].
“(d) The Administrator shall seek to have portions of the space station constructed and operated by the private sector, where appropriate.
“(e) The Administrator shall promote international cooperation in the space station program by undertaking the development, construction, and operation of the space station in conjunction with (but not limited to) the Governments of Europe, Japan, and Canada.
“(f) The space station shall be designed, developed, and operated in a manner that enables evolutionary enhancement.
“[Sec. 107. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–362, title XI, § 1101(c),Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3292.]
“Sec. 108. In order to ensure that the development of the space station is part of a balanced civilian space program, the Administrator is instructed to establish as a goal a funding profile that limits (1) space station total annual costs under the capital development plan in section 107 to 25 percent of the total budget request for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and (2) all space station direct operations costs, except for those costs associated with the utilization of the space station, to 10 percent of the total budget request for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
“Sec. 109. (a) It is the sense of the Congress that the launching and servicing of the space station should be accomplished by the most cost-effective use of space transportation systems, including the space shuttle and expendable launch vehicles.
“(b) Not later than January 15, 1988, the Administrator shall submit a preliminary report on the cost-effective use of space transportation systems for the launch of space station elements during the development and operation of the space station. The Administrator shall consider—
“(1) the potential use of future advanced or heavy lift expendable launch vehicles for purposes of the assembly and operation of the space station;
“(2) the use of existing expendable launch vehicles of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Defense, and the Private Sector;
“(3) the requirement for space shuttle launches; and
“(4) the risk of capital losses from the use of expendable launch vehicles and the space shuttle.
“Sec. 110. (a) The Administrator shall set and collect reasonable user fees for the use and maintenance of the space station.
“(b) The Administrator shall set user fees so as to—
“(1) promote the use of the space station consistent with the policy set forth in section 106;
“(2) recover the costs of the use of the space station, including reasonable charges for any enhancement needed for such use; and
“(3) conserve and efficiently allocate the resources of the space station.
“(c) The Administrator may, on a case-by-case basis, waive or modify such user fees when in the Administrator’s judgment such waiver or modification will further the goals and purposes of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 [see 51 U.S.C. 20101 et seq.], including—
“(1) the advancement of scientific or engineering knowledge;
“(2) international cooperation; and
“(3) the commercial use of space.
“Sec. 111. No later than September 30, 1988, the Administrator shall submit a detailed plan for collecting reimbursements for the utilization of the space station under section 110, including the services to be offered, the methodology and bases by which prices will be charged, and the estimated revenues.
“Sec. 112. The Intergovernmental Agreement currently being negotiated between the United States Government and Canada, Japan, and member governments of the European Space Agency, and the Memorandum of Understanding currently being negotiated between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and its counterpart agencies in Canada, Japan, and Europe concerning the detailed design, development, construction, operation, or utilization of the space station shall be submitted to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives. No such agreement shall take effect until 30 days have passed after the receipt by such committees of the agreement.”

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.