If any registered entity is not enforcing or has not enforced its rules of government made a condition of its designation or registration as set forth in sections
of this title, or if any registered entity, or any director, officer, agent, or employee of any registered entity otherwise is violating or has violated any of the provisions of this chapter or any of the rules, regulations, or orders of the Commission thereunder, the Commission may, upon notice and hearing on the record and subject to appeal as in other cases provided for in section
of this title, make and enter an order directing that such registered entity, director, officer, agent, or employee shall cease and desist from such violation, and assess a civil penalty of not more than $500,000 for each such violation, or, in any case of manipulation or attempted manipulation in violation of section
of this title, a civil penalty of not more than $1,000,000 for each such violation. If such registered entity, director, officer, agent, or employee, after the entry of such a cease and desist order and the lapse of the period allowed for appeal of such order or after the affirmance of such order, shall fail or refuse to obey or comply with such order, such registered entity, director, officer, agent, or employee shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $500,000 or imprisoned for not less than six months nor more than one year, or both, except that if the failure or refusal to obey or comply with the order involved any offense under section
of this title, the registered entity, director, officer, agent, or employee shall be guilty of a felony and, on conviction, shall be subject to penalties under section
of this title. Each day during which such failure or refusal to obey such cease and desist order continues shall be deemed a separate offense. If the offending registered entity or other person upon whom such penalty is imposed, after the lapse of the period allowed for appeal or after the affirmance of such penalty, shall fail to pay such penalty, the Commission shall refer the matter to the Attorney General who shall recover such penalty by action in the appropriate United States district court. In determining the amount of the money penalty assessed under this section, the Commission shall consider the gravity of the offense, and in the case of a registered entity shall further consider whether the amount of the penalty will materially impair the ability of the registered entity to carry on its operations and duties.