The term “Caribbean Basin country” means a country eligible for designation as a beneficiary country under section
2702 of title
(2) Emerging market
The term “emerging market” means a country that the Secretary determines—
(A)is taking steps toward a market-oriented economy through the food, agriculture, or rural business sectors of the economy of the country; and
(B)has the potential to provide a viable and significant market for United States agricultural commodities or products of United States agricultural commodities.
(3) Middle income country
The term “middle income country” means a country that has developed economically to the point at which the country does not receive bilateral development assistance from the United States.
(4) Sub-Saharan African country
The term “sub-Saharan African country” has the meaning given the term in section
3706 of title
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to further assist developing countries, middle-income countries, emerging markets, sub-Saharan African countries, and Caribbean Basin countries to increase farm production and farmer incomes, the President may—
(1)establish and administer a program, to be known as the “John Ogonowski and Doug Bereuter Farmer-to-Farmer Program”, of farmer-to-farmer assistance between the United States and such countries to assist in—
(A)increasing food production and distribution; and
(B)improving the effectiveness of the farming and marketing operations of agricultural producers in those countries;
(2)use United States agricultural producers, agriculturalists, colleges and universities (including historically black colleges and universities, land grant colleges or universities, and foundations maintained by colleges or universities), private agribusinesses, private organizations (including grassroots organizations with an established and demonstrated capacity to carry out such a bilateral exchange program), private corporations, and nonprofit farm organizations to work in conjunction with agricultural producers and farm organizations in those countries, on a voluntary basis—
(A)to improve agricultural and agribusiness operations and agricultural systems in those countries, including improving—
(i)animal care and health;
(ii)field crop cultivation;
(iii)fruit and vegetable growing;
(v)food processing and packaging;
(ix)agricultural extension; and
(B)to strengthen cooperatives and other agricultural groups in those countries;
(3)transfer the knowledge and expertise of United States agricultural producers and businesses, on an individual basis, to those countries while enhancing the democratic process by supporting private and public agriculturally related organizations that request and support technical assistance activities through cash and in-kind services;
(4)to the maximum extent practicable, make grants to or enter into contracts or other cooperative agreements with private voluntary organizations, cooperatives, land grant universities, private agribusiness, or nonprofit farm organizations to carry out this section (except that any such contract or other agreement may obligate the United States to make outlays only to the extent that the budget authority for such outlays is available under subsection (d) of this section or has otherwise been provided in advance in appropriation Acts);
(5)coordinate programs established under this section with other foreign assistance programs and activities carried out by the United States; and
(6)to the extent that local currencies can be used to meet the costs of a program established under this section, augment funds of the United States that are available for such a program through the use, within the country in which the program is being conducted, of—
(A)foreign currencies that accrue from the sale of agricultural commodities and products under this chapter; and
(B)local currencies generated from other types of foreign assistance activities.
(c) Special emphasis on sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries
Congress finds that—
(A)agricultural producers in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries need training in agricultural techniques that are appropriate for the majority of eligible agricultural producers in those countries, including training in—
(i)standard growing practices;
(ii)insecticide and sanitation procedures; and
(iii)other agricultural methods that will produce increased yields of more nutritious and healthful crops;
(B)agricultural producers in the United States (including African-American agricultural producers) and banking and insurance professionals have agribusiness expertise that would be invaluable for agricultural producers in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries;
(C)a commitment by the United States is appropriate to support the development of a comprehensive agricultural skills training program for those agricultural producers that focuses on—
(i)improving knowledge of insecticide and sanitation procedures to prevent crop destruction;
(ii)teaching modern agricultural techniques that would facilitate a continual analysis of crop production, including—
(I)the identification and development of standard growing practices; and
(II)the establishment of systems for recordkeeping;
(iii)the use and maintenance of agricultural equipment that is appropriate for the majority of eligible agricultural producers in sub-Saharan African or Caribbean Basin countries;
(iv)the expansion of small agricultural operations into agribusiness enterprises by increasing access to credit for agricultural producers through—
(I)the development and use of village banking systems; and
(II)the use of agricultural risk insurance pilot products; and
(v)marketing crop yields to prospective purchasers (including businesses and individuals) for local needs and export; and
(D)programs that promote the exchange of agricultural knowledge and expertise through the exchange of American and foreign agricultural producers have been effective in promoting improved agricultural techniques and food security and the extension of additional resources to such farmer-to-farmer exchanges is warranted.
(2) Goals for programs carried out in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries
The goals of programs carried out under this section in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries shall be—
(A)to expand small agricultural operations in those countries into agribusiness enterprises by increasing access to credit for agricultural producers through—
(i)the development and use of village banking systems; and
(ii)the use of agricultural risk insurance pilot products;
(B)to provide training to agricultural producers in those countries that will—
(i)enhance local food security; and
(ii)help mitigate and alleviate hunger;
(C)to provide training to agricultural producers in those countries in groups to encourage participants to share and pass on to other agricultural producers in the home communities of the participants, the information and skills obtained from the training, rather than merely retaining the information and skills for the personal enrichment of the participants; and
(D)to maximize the number of beneficiaries of the programs in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries.
(d) Minimum funding
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in addition to any funds that may be specifically appropriated to carry out this section, not less than the greater of $10,000,000 or 0.5 percent of the amounts made available for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012 to carry out this chapter shall be used to carry out programs under this section, with—
(1)not less than 0.2 percent to be used for programs in developing countries; and
(2)not less than 0.1 percent to be used for programs in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries.
(e) Authorization of appropriations
(1) In general
There are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012 to carry out the programs under this section—
(A)$10,000,000 for sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries; and
(B)$5,000,000 for other developing or middle-income countries or emerging markets not described in subparagraph (A).
(2) Administrative costs
Not more than 5 percent of the funds made available for a fiscal year under paragraph (1) may be used to pay administrative costs incurred in carrying out programs in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries.
2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–246, § 3024(a), in introductory provisions, substituted “not less than the greater of $10,000,000 or” for “not less than” and “2008 through 2012” for “2002 through 2007”.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 110–246, § 3024(b), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out programs under this section in sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2002 through 2007.”
2004—Pub. L. 108–447, § 769(2), inserted “and Doug Bereuter” after “John Ogonowski” in section catchline.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–447, § 769(1), inserted “and Doug Bereuter” after “John Ogonowski” in introductory provisions.
2002—Pub. L. 107–171reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally, substituting, in subsec. (a), provisions relating to definitions for general provisions, in subsec. (b), provisions authorizing the President to administer the program for provisions relating to definitions, in subsec. (c), provisions relating to special emphasis on sub-Saharan African and Caribbean Basin countries for provisions relating to minimum funding, in subsec. (d), provisions relating to minimum funding for provisions relating to designation of program, and adding subsec. (e) relating to authorization of appropriations.
2001—Pub. L. 107–76, § 777(1), inserted “John Ogonowski” before “Farmer-to-Farmer Program” in section catchline.
1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127, § 277(c)(1)(A), substituted “emerging markets” for “emerging democracies” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 104–127, § 224(1), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: “to the extent practicable, augment the funds available for programs established under this section through the use of foreign currencies that accrue from the sale of agricultural commodities under this chapter, and local currencies generated from other types of foreign assistance activities.”
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–127, § 277(c)(1)(B), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: “The term ‘emerging democracy’ means a country that is taking steps toward—
“(A) political pluralism, based on progress toward free and fair elections and a multiparty political system;
“(B) economic reform, based on progress toward a market-oriented economy;
“(C) respect for internationally recognized human rights; and
“(D) a willingness to build a friendly relationship with the United States.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–127, § 224(2), substituted “0.4 percent of the amounts” for “0.2 percent of the amounts”, “1996 through 2002” for “1991 through 1995”, and “0.2 percent to be used” for “0.1 percent to be used”.
Section effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 ofPub. L. 101–624, set out as an Effective Date of 1990 Amendment note under section
1691 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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