Each district court of the United States shall have jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain any person from violating, any order or regulation made or issued by the Secretary under this chapter.
(b) Referral to Attorney General
A civil action authorized to be brought under this section shall be referred to the Attorney General for appropriate action, except that the Secretary is not required to refer to the Attorney General a violation of this chapter, or any order or regulation issued under this chapter, if the Secretary believes that the administration and enforcement of this chapter would be adequately served by administrative action under subsection (c) of this section or suitable written notice or warning to any person committing the violation.
(c) Civil penalties and orders
(1) Civil penalties
Any person who willfully violates any provision of any order or regulation issued by the Secretary under this chapter, or who fails or refuses to pay, collect, or remit any assessment or fee duly required of the person under the order or regulation, may be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not less than $500 nor more than $5,000 for each such violation. Each violation shall be a separate offense.
(2) Cease and desist orders
In addition to or in lieu of such civil penalty, the Secretary may issue an order requiring such person to cease and desist from continuing such violation.
(3) Notice and hearing
No order assessing a penalty or cease and desist order may be issued by the Secretary under this subsection unless the Secretary gives the person against whom the order is issued notice and opportunity for a hearing on the record before the Secretary with respect to such violation.
The order of the Secretary assessing a penalty or imposing a cease and desist order shall be final and conclusive unless the person against whom the order is issued files an appeal from such order with the appropriate district court of the United States, in accordance with subsection (d) of this section.
(d) Review by United States district court
(1) Commencement of action
Any person against whom a violation is found and a civil penalty assessed or cease and desist order issued under subsection (c) of this section may obtain review of the penalty or order in the district court of the United States for the district in which such person resides or does business, or the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, by—
(A)filing a notice of appeal in such court not later than 30 days after the date of such order; and
(B)simultaneously sending a copy of such notice by certified mail to the Secretary.
The Secretary shall promptly file in such court a certified copy of the record on which the Secretary found that the person had committed a violation.
(3) Standard of review
A finding of the Secretary shall be set aside only if the finding is found to be unsupported by substantial evidence.
(e) Failure to obey orders
Any person who fails to obey a cease and desist order issued by the Secretary after the order has become final and unappealable, or after the appropriate United States district court has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary, shall be subject to a civil penalty assessed by the Secretary, after opportunity for a hearing and for judicial review under the procedures specified in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, of not more than $500 for each offense. Each day during which such failure continues shall be considered a separate violation of such order.
(f) Failure to pay penalties
If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become a final and unappealable order issued by the Secretary, or after the appropriate United States district court has entered final judgment in favor of the Secretary, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Attorney General for recovery of the amount assessed in the district court of the United States in any district in which the person resides or conducts business. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of the final order imposing such civil penalty shall not be subject to review.
1991—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–237substituted “United States District Court” for “United States district court”.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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