7 U.S. Code § 7712 - Regulation of movement of plants, plant products, biological control organisms, noxious weeds, articles, and means of conveyance

(a) In general
The Secretary may prohibit or restrict the importation, entry, exportation, or movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant product, biological control organism, noxious weed, article, or means of conveyance, if the Secretary determines that the prohibition or restriction is necessary to prevent the introduction into the United States or the dissemination of a plant pest or noxious weed within the United States.
(b) Policy
The Secretary shall ensure that processes used in developing regulations under this section governing consideration of import requests are based on sound science and are transparent and accessible.
(c) Regulations
The Secretary may issue regulations to implement subsection (a) of this section, including regulations requiring that any plant, plant product, biological control organism, noxious weed, article, or means of conveyance imported, entered, to be exported, or moved in interstate commerce—
(1) be accompanied by a permit issued by the Secretary prior to the importation, entry, exportation, or movement in interstate commerce;
(2) be accompanied by a certificate of inspection issued (in a manner and form required by the Secretary) by appropriate officials of the country or State from which the plant, plant product, biological control organism, noxious weed, article, or means of conveyance is to be moved;
(3) be subject to remedial measures the Secretary determines to be necessary to prevent the spread of plant pests or noxious weeds; and
(4) with respect to plants or biological control organisms, be grown or handled under post-entry quarantine conditions by or under the supervision of the Secretary for the purposes of determining whether the plant or biological control organism may be infested with plant pests or may be a plant pest or noxious weed.
(d) Notice
Not later than 1 year after June 20, 2000, the Secretary shall publish for public comment a notice describing the procedures and standards that govern the consideration of import requests. The notice shall—
(1) specify how public input will be sought in advance of and during the process of promulgating regulations necessitating a risk assessment in order to ensure a fully transparent and publicly accessible process; and
(2) include consideration of the following:
(A) Public announcement of import requests that will necessitate a risk assessment.
(B) A process for assigning major/nonroutine or minor/routine status to such requests based on current state of supporting scientific information.
(C) A process for assigning priority to requests.
(D) Guidelines for seeking relevant scientific and economic information in advance of initiating informal rulemaking.
(E) Guidelines for ensuring availability and transparency of assumptions and uncertainties in the risk assessment process including applicable risk mitigation measures relied upon individually or as components of a system of mitigative measures proposed consistent with the purposes of this chapter.
(e) Study and report on systems approach
(1) Study
The Secretary shall conduct a study of the role for and application of systems approaches designed to guard against the introduction of plant pathogens into the United States associated with proposals to import plants or plant products into the United States.
(2) Participation by scientists
In conducting the study the Secretary shall ensure participation by scientists from State departments of agriculture, colleges and universities, the private sector, and the Agricultural Research Service.
(3) Report
Not later than 2 years after June 20, 2000, the Secretary shall submit a report on the results of the study conducted under this section to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives.
(f) Noxious weeds
(1) Regulations
In the case of noxious weeds, the Secretary may publish, by regulation, a list of noxious weeds that are prohibited or restricted from entering the United States or that are subject to restrictions on interstate movement within the United States.
(2) Petition to add or remove plants from regulation
Any person may petition the Secretary to add a plant species to, or remove a plant species from, the regulations issued by the Secretary under this subsection.
(3) Duties of the Secretary
In the case of a petition submitted under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall act on the petition within a reasonable time and notify the petitioner of the final action the Secretary takes on the petition. The Secretary’s determination on the petition shall be based on sound science.
(g) Biological control organisms
(1) Regulations
In the case of biological control organisms, the Secretary may publish, by regulation, a list of organisms whose movement in interstate commerce is not prohibited or restricted. Any listing may take into account distinctions between organisms such as indigenous, nonindigenous, newly introduced, or commercially raised.
(2) Petition to add or remove biological control organisms from the regulations
Any person may petition the Secretary to add a biological control organism to, or remove a biological control organism from, the regulations issued by the Secretary under this subsection.
(3) Duties of the Secretary
In the case of a petition submitted under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall act on the petition within a reasonable time and notify the petitioner of the final action the Secretary takes on the petition. The Secretary’s determination on the petition shall be based on sound science.

Source

(Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, § 412,June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 441.)
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(E), was in the original “this title”, meaning title IV of Pub. L. 106–224, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 438, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7701 of this title and Tables.
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551 (d), 552 (d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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7 CFR - Agriculture

7 CFR Part 300 - INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

7 CFR Part 301 - DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES

7 CFR Part 302 - DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS

7 CFR Part 305 - PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS

7 CFR Part 318 - STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES

7 CFR Part 319 - FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES

7 CFR Part 322 - BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT

7 CFR Part 330 - FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE

7 CFR Part 340 - INTRODUCTION OF ORGANISMS AND PRODUCTS ALTERED OR PRODUCED THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING WHICH ARE PLANT PESTS OR WHICH THERE IS REASON TO BELIEVE ARE PLANT PESTS

7 CFR Part 351 - IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL

7 CFR Part 352 - PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS

7 CFR Part 353 - EXPORT CERTIFICATION

7 CFR Part 354 - OVERTIME SERVICES RELATING TO IMPORTS AND EXPORTS; AND USER FEES

7 CFR Part 360 - NOXIOUS WEED REGULATIONS

7 CFR Part 380 - RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER CERTAIN ACTS

9 CFR - Animals and Animal Products

9 CFR Part 94 - RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS

 

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