(a) Election by owner of base acres calculation method
(1) Alternative calculation methods
For the purpose of making direct payments and counter-cyclical payments with respect to a farm, the Secretary shall give an owner of the farm an opportunity to elect 1 of the following as the method by which the base acres of all covered commodities on the farm are to be determined:
(A)Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), the 4-year average of the following:
(i)Acreage planted on the farm to covered commodities for harvest, grazing, haying, silage, or other similar purposes for the 1998 through 2001 crop years.
(ii)Any acreage on the farm that the producers were prevented from planting during the 1998 through 2001 crop years to covered commodities because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster, or other condition beyond the control of the producers, as determined by the Secretary.
(B)Subject to paragraph (3), the sum of the following:
(i)The contract acreage (as defined in section
7202 of this title) used by the Secretary to calculate the fiscal year 2002 payment authorized under section
7214 of this title for the covered commodities on the farm.
(ii)The 4-year average of eligible oilseed acreage on the farm for the 1998 through 2001 crop years, as determined by the Secretary under paragraph (2).
(2) Eligible oilseed acreage
For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(ii), the eligible acreage for each oilseed on a farm during each of the 1998 through 2001 crop years shall be determined in the manner provided in paragraph (1)(A), except that the total acreage for all oilseeds on the farm for a crop year may not exceed the difference between—
(i)the total acreage determined under paragraph (1)(A) for all covered commodities for that crop year; and
(ii)the total contract acreage determined under paragraph (1)(B)(i).
(B) Effect of negative number
If the subtraction performed under subparagraph (A) results in a negative number, the eligible oilseed acreage on the farm for that crop year shall be zero for purposes of determining the 4-year average.
(C) Offset of contract acreage
The owner of a farm may increase the eligible acreage for an oilseed on the farm by reducing the contract acreage determined under paragraph (1)(B)(i) for 1 or more covered commodities on an acre-for-acre basis, except that the total base acreage for each oilseed on the farm may not exceed the 4-year average of each oilseed determined under paragraph (1)(B)(ii).
(3) Inclusion of all 4 years in average
For the purpose of determining a 4-year acreage average under this subsection for a farm, the Secretary shall not exclude any crop year in which a covered commodity was not planted.
(4) Treatment of multiple planting or prevented planting
For the purpose of determining under paragraph (1)(A) the acreage on a farm that producers planted or were prevented from planting during the 1998 through 2001 crop years to covered commodities, if the acreage that was planted or prevented from being planted was devoted to another covered commodity in the same crop year (other than a covered commodity produced under an established practice of double cropping), the owner may elect the commodity to be used for that crop year in determining the 4-year average, but may not include both the initial commodity and the subsequent commodity.
(b) Single election; time for election
(1) Notice of election opportunity
As soon as practicable after May 13, 2002, the Secretary shall provide notice to owners of farms regarding their opportunity to make the election described in subsection (a) of this section. The notice shall include the following:
(A)Notice that the opportunity of an owner to make the election is being provided only once.
(B)Information regarding the manner in which the election must be made and the time periods and manner in which notice of the election must be submitted to the Secretary.
(2) Election deadline
Within the time period and in the manner prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1), the owner of a farm shall submit to the Secretary notice of the election made by the owner under subsection (a) of this section.
(c) Effect of failure to make election
If the owner of a farm fails to make the election under subsection (a) of this section or fails to timely notify the Secretary of the election made, as required by subsection (b) of this section, the owner shall be deemed to have made the election described in subsection (a)(1)(B) of this section to determine base acres for all covered commodities on the farm.
(d) Application of election to all covered commodities
The election made under subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(1) of this section, or deemed to be made under subsection (c) of this section, with respect to a farm shall apply to all of the covered commodities on the farm.
(e) Treatment of conservation reserve contract acreage
(1) In general
The Secretary shall provide for an adjustment, as appropriate, in the base acres for covered commodities for a farm whenever either of the following circumstances occurs:
(A)A conservation reserve contract entered into under section 1231 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3831) with respect to the farm expires or is voluntarily terminated.
(B)Cropland is released from coverage under a conservation reserve contract by the Secretary.
(2) Special payment rules
For the crop year in which a base acres adjustment under paragraph (1) is first made, the owner of the farm shall elect to receive either direct payments and counter-cyclical payments with respect to the acreage added to the farm under this subsection or a prorated payment under the conservation reserve contract, but not both.
(f) Payment acres
The payment acres for a covered commodity on a farm shall be equal to 85 percent of the base acres for the covered commodity.
(g) Prevention of excess base acres
(1) Required reduction
If the sum of the base acres for a farm, together with the acreage described in paragraph (2), exceeds the actual cropland acreage of the farm, the Secretary shall reduce the base acres for 1 or more covered commodities for the farm or the base acres for peanuts for the farm under subchapter III of this chapter so that the sum of the base acres and acreage described in paragraph (2) does not exceed the actual cropland acreage of the farm.
(2) Other acreage
For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include the following:
(A)Any base acres for peanuts for the farm under subchapter III of this chapter.
(B)Any acreage on the farm enrolled in the conservation reserve program or wetlands reserve program under chapter 1 of subtitle D of title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3830 et seq.).
(C)Any other acreage on the farm enrolled in a conservation program for which payments are made in exchange for not producing an agricultural commodity on the acreage.
(3) Selection of acres
The Secretary shall give the owner of the farm the opportunity to select the base acres or the base acres for peanuts for the farm under subchapter III of this chapter against which the reduction required by paragraph (1) will be made.
(4) Exception for double-cropped acreage
In applying paragraph (1), the Secretary shall make an exception in the case of double cropping, as determined by the Secretary.
(5) Coordinated application of requirements
The Secretary shall take into account section
7952(f) of this title when applying the requirements of this subsection.
(h) Permanent reduction in base acres
The owner of a farm may reduce, at any time, the base acres for any covered commodity for the farm. The reduction shall be permanent and made in the manner prescribed by the Secretary.
Subchapter III of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), (2)(A), (3), was in the original “subtitle C”, meaning subtitle C (§§ 1301–1310) of title I of Pub. L. 107–171, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 166, which is classified principally to subchapter III of this chapter. For complete classification of subtitle C to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section
7951 of this title and Tables.
The Food Security Act of 1985, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 99–198, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1354, as amended. Chapter 1 of subtitle D of title XII of the Act is classified generally to part I (§ 3830 et seq.) of subchapter
IV of chapter
58 of Title
16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1985 Amendment note set out under section
1281 of this title and Tables.
Pub. L. 108–7, div. A, title VII, § 767, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred and is set out as a note under section
9011 of this title.
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