8 U.S. Code § 1375a - Domestic violence information and resources for immigrants and regulation of international marriage brokers

Status message

There are 2 Updates Pending. Select the tab below to view.
(a) Information for K nonimmigrants on legal rights and resources for immigrant victims of domestic violence
(1) In general
The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, shall develop an information pamphlet, as described in paragraph (2), on legal rights and resources for immigrant victims of domestic violence and distribute and make such pamphlet available as described in paragraph (5). In preparing such materials, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall consult with nongovernmental organizations with expertise on the legal rights of immigrant victims of battery, extreme cruelty, sexual assault, and other crimes.
(2) Information pamphlet
The information pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall include information on the following:
(A) The K nonimmigrant visa application process and the marriage-based immigration process, including conditional residence and adjustment of status.
(B) The illegality of domestic violence, sexual assault, and child abuse in the United States and the dynamics of domestic violence.
(C) Domestic violence and sexual assault services in the United States, including the National Domestic Violence Hotline and the National Sexual Assault Hotline.
(D) The legal rights of immigrant victims of abuse and other crimes in immigration, criminal justice, family law, and other matters, including access to protection orders.
(E) The obligations of parents to provide child support for children.
(F) Marriage fraud under United States immigration laws and the penalties for committing such fraud.
(G) A warning concerning the potential use of K nonimmigrant visas by United States citizens who have a history of committing domestic violence, sexual assault, child abuse, or other crimes and an explanation that such acts may not have resulted in a criminal record for such a citizen.
(H) Notification of the requirement under subsection (d)(3)(A) of this section that international marriage brokers provide foreign national clients with background information gathered on United States clients from searches of the National Sex Offender Public Website and collected from United States clients regarding their marital history and domestic violence or other violent criminal history, but that such information may not be complete or accurate because the United States client may not have a criminal record or may not have truthfully reported their marital or criminal record.
(3) Summaries
The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, shall develop summaries of the pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) that shall be used by Federal officials when reviewing the pamphlet in interviews under subsection (b) of this section.
(4) Translation
(A) In general
In order to best serve the language groups having the greatest concentration of K nonimmigrant visa applicants, the information pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall, subject to subparagraph (B), be translated by the Secretary of State into foreign languages, including Russian, Spanish, Tagalog, Vietnamese, Chinese, Ukrainian, Thai, Korean, Polish, Japanese, French, Arabic, Portuguese, Hindi, and such other languages as the Secretary of State, in the Secretary’s discretion, may specify.
(B) Revision
Every 2 years, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Attorney General and the Secretary of State, shall determine at least 14 specific languages into which the information pamphlet is translated based on the languages spoken by the greatest concentrations of K nonimmigrant visa applicants.
(5) Availability and distribution
The information pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall be made available and distributed as follows:
(A) Mailings to K nonimmigrant visa applicants
(i) The pamphlet shall be mailed by the Secretary of State to each applicant for a K nonimmigrant visa at the same time that the instruction packet regarding the visa application process is mailed to such applicant. The pamphlet so mailed shall be in the primary language of the applicant or in English if no translation into the applicant’s primary language is available.
(ii) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide to the Secretary of State, for inclusion in the mailing under clause (i), a copy of the petition submitted by the petitioner for such applicant under subsection (d) or (r) ofsection 1184 of this title.
(iii) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide to the Secretary of State, for inclusion in the mailing described in clause (i), any criminal background information the Secretary of Homeland Security possesses with respect to a petitioner under subsection (d) or (r) ofsection 1184 of this title. The Secretary of State, in turn, shall share any such criminal background information that is in government records or databases with the K nonimmigrant visa applicant who is the beneficiary of the petition. The visa applicant shall be informed that such criminal background information is based on available records and may not be complete. The Secretary of State also shall provide for the disclosure of such criminal background information to the visa applicant at the consular interview in the primary language of the visa applicant.
(iv) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall conduct a background check of the National Crime Information Center’s Protection Order Database on each petitioner for a visa under subsection (d) or (r) ofsection 1184 of this title. Any appropriate information obtained from such background check—
(I) shall accompany the criminal background information provided by the Secretary of Homeland Security to the Secretary of State and shared by the Secretary of State with a beneficiary of a petition referred to in clause (iii); and
(II) shall not be used or disclosed for any other purpose unless expressly authorized by law.
(v) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall create a cover sheet or other mechanism to accompany the information required to be provided to an applicant for a visa under subsection (d) or (r) ofsection 1184 of this title by clauses (i) through (iv) of this paragraph or by clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (r)(4)(B) of such section 1184 of this title, that calls to the applicant’s attention—
(I) whether the petitioner disclosed a protection order, a restraining order, or criminal history information on the visa petition;
(II) the criminal background information and information about any protection order obtained by the Secretary of Homeland Security regarding the petitioner in the course of adjudicating the petition; and
(III) whether the information the petitioner disclosed on the visa petition regarding any previous petitions filed under subsection (d) or (r) of such section 1184 of this title is consistent with the information in the multiple visa tracking database of the Department of Homeland Security, as described in subsection (r)(4)(A) of such section 1184 of this title.
(B) Consular access
The pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall be made available to the public at all consular posts. The summaries described in paragraph (3) shall be made available to foreign service officers at all consular posts.
(C) Posting on Federal websites
The pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall be posted on the websites of the Department of State and the Department of Homeland Security, as well as on the websites of all consular posts processing applications for K nonimmigrant visas.
(D) International marriage brokers and victim advocacy organizations
The pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall be made available to any international marriage broker, government agency, or nongovernmental advocacy organization.
(6) Deadline for pamphlet development and distribution
The pamphlet developed under paragraph (1) shall be distributed and made available (including in the languages specified under paragraph (4)) not later than 120 days after January 5, 2006.
(b) Visa and adjustment interviews
(1) Fiance(e)s, spouses and their derivatives
During an interview with an applicant for a K nonimmigrant visa, a consular officers shall—
(A) provide information, in the primary language of the visa applicant, on protection orders and criminal convictions collected under subsection (a)(5)(A)(iii) of this section;
(B) provide a copy of the pamphlet developed under subsection (a)(1) of this section in English or another appropriate language and provide an oral summary, in the primary language of the visa applicant, of that pamphlet; and
(C) ask the applicant, in the primary language of the applicant, whether an international marriage broker has facilitated the relationship between the applicant and the United States petitioner, and, if so, obtain the identity of the international marriage broker from the applicant and confirm that the international marriage broker provided to the applicant the information and materials required under subsection (d)(3)(A)(iii) of this section.
(2) Family-based applicants
The pamphlet developed under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall be distributed directly to applicants for family-based immigration petitions at all consular and adjustment interviews for such visas. The Department of State or Department of Homeland Security officer conducting the interview shall review the summary of the pamphlet with the applicant orally in the applicant’s primary language, in addition to distributing the pamphlet to the applicant in English or another appropriate language.
(c) Confidentiality
In fulfilling the requirements of this section, no official of the Department of State or the Department of Homeland Security shall disclose to a nonimmigrant visa applicant the name or contact information of any person who was granted a protection order or restraining order against the petitioner or who was a victim of a crime of violence perpetrated by the petitioner, but shall disclose the relationship of the person to the petitioner.
(d) Regulation of international marriage brokers
(1) Prohibition on marketing of or to children
(A) In general
An international marriage broker shall not provide any individual or entity with the personal contact information, photograph, or general information about the background or interests of any individual under the age of 18.
(B) Compliance
To comply with the requirements of subparagraph (A), an international marriage broker shall—
(i) obtain a valid copy of each foreign national client’s birth certificate or other proof of age document issued by an appropriate government entity;
(ii) indicate on such certificate or document the date it was received by the international marriage broker;
(iii) retain the original of such certificate or document for 7 years after such date of receipt; and
(iv) produce such certificate or document upon request to an appropriate authority charged with the enforcement of this paragraph.
(2) Requirements of international marriage brokers with respect to mandatory collection of background information
(A) In general
(i) Search of sex offender public website Each international marriage broker shall search the National Sex Offender Public Website, as required under paragraph (3)(A)(i).
(ii) Collection of background information Each international marriage broker shall also collect the background information listed in subparagraph (B) about the United States client to whom the personal contact information of a foreign national client would be provided.
(B) Background information
The international marriage broker shall collect a certification signed (in written, electronic, or other form) by the United States client accompanied by documentation or an attestation of the following background information about the United States client:
(i) Any temporary or permanent civil protection order or restraining order issued against the United States client.
(ii) Any Federal, State, or local arrest or conviction of the United States client for homicide, murder, manslaughter, assault, battery, domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, abusive sexual contact, sexual exploitation, incest, child abuse or neglect, torture, trafficking, peonage, holding hostage, involuntary servitude, slave trade, kidnapping, abduction, unlawful criminal restraint, false imprisonment, stalking, or an attempt to commit any such crime.
(iii) Any Federal, State, or local arrest or conviction of the United States client for—
(I) solely, principally, or incidentally engaging in prostitution;
(II) a direct or indirect attempt to procure prostitutes or persons for the purpose of prostitution; or
(III) receiving, in whole or in part, of the proceeds of prostitution.
(iv) Any Federal, State, or local arrest or conviction of the United States client for offenses related to controlled substances or alcohol.
(v) Marital history of the United States client, including whether the client is currently married, whether the client has previously been married and how many times, how previous marriages of the client were terminated and the date of termination, and whether the client has previously sponsored an alien to whom the client was engaged or married.
(vi) The ages of any of the United States client’s children who are under the age of 18.
(vii) All States and countries in which the United States client has resided since the client was 18 years of age.
(3) Obligation of international marriage brokers with respect to informed consent
(A) Limitation on sharing information about foreign national clients
An international marriage broker shall not provide any United States client or representative with the personal contact information of any foreign national client unless and until the international marriage broker has—
(i) performed a search of the National Sex Offender Public Website for information regarding the United States client;
(ii) collected background information about the United States client required under paragraph (2);
(iii) provided to the foreign national client—
(I) in the foreign national client’s primary language, a copy of any records retrieved from the search required under paragraph (2)(A)(i) or documentation confirming that such search retrieved no records;
(II) in the foreign national client’s primary language, a copy of the signed certification and accompanying documentation or attestation regarding the background information collected under paragraph (2)(B); and
(III) in the foreign national client’s primary language (or in English or other appropriate language if there is no translation available into the client’s primary language), the pamphlet developed under subsection (a)(1) of this section; and
(iv) received from the foreign national client a signed, written consent, in the foreign national client’s primary language, to release the foreign national client’s personal contact information to the specific United States client.
(B) Confidentiality
In fulfilling the requirements of this paragraph, an international marriage broker shall disclose the relationship of the United States client to individuals who were issued a protection order or restraining order as described in clause (i) of paragraph (2)(B), or of any other victims of crimes as described in clauses (ii) through (iv) of such paragraph, but shall not disclose the name or location information of such individuals.
(4) Limitation on disclosure
An international marriage broker shall not provide the personal contact information of any foreign national client to any person or entity other than a United States client. Such information shall not be disclosed to potential United States clients or individuals who are being recruited to be United States clients or representatives.
(5) Penalties
(A) Federal civil penalty
(i) Violation An international marriage broker that violates (or attempts to violate) paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) is subject to a civil penalty of not less than $5,000 and not more than $25,000 for each such violation.
(ii) Procedures for imposition of penalty At the discretion of the Attorney General, a penalty may be imposed under clause (i) either by a Federal judge, or by the Attorney General after notice and an opportunity for an agency hearing on the record in accordance with subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 (popularly known as the Administrative Procedure Act).
(B) Federal criminal penalties
(i) Failure of international marriage brokers to comply with obligations Except as provided in clause (ii), an international marriage broker that, in circumstances in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States—
(I) except as provided in subclause (II), violates (or attempts to violate) paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both; or
(II) knowingly violates or attempts to violate paragraphs (1), (2), (3), or (4) shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
(ii) Misuse of information A person who knowingly discloses, uses, or causes to be used any information obtained by an international marriage broker as a result of a requirement under paragraph (2) or (3) for any purpose other than the disclosures required under paragraph (3) shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both.
(iii) Fraudulent failures of United States clients to make required self-disclosures A person who knowingly and with intent to defraud another person outside the United States in order to recruit, solicit, entice, or induce that other person into entering a dating or matrimonial relationship, makes false or fraudulent representations regarding the disclosures described in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subsection (d)(2)(B), including by failing to make any such disclosures, shall be fined in accordance with title 18, imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both.
(iv) Relationship to other penalties The penalties provided in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) are in addition to any other civil or criminal liability under Federal or State law to which a person may be subject for the misuse of information, including misuse to threaten, intimidate, or harass any individual.
(v) Construction Nothing in this paragraph or paragraph (3) or (4) may be construed to prevent the disclosure of information to law enforcement or pursuant to a court order.
(C) Additional remedies
The penalties and remedies under this subsection are in addition to any other penalties or remedies available under law including equitable remedies.
(6) Enforcement
(A) Authority
The Attorney General shall be responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of this section, including the prosecution of civil and criminal penalties provided for by this section.
(B) Consultation
The Attorney General shall consult with the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women of the Department of Justice to develop policies and public education designed to promote enforcement of this section.
(7) Nonpreemption
Nothing in this subsection shall preempt—
(A) any State law that provides additional protections for aliens who are utilizing the services of an international marriage broker; or
(B) any other or further right or remedy available under law to any party utilizing the services of an international marriage broker.
(8) Effective date
(A) In general
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), this subsection shall take effect on the date that is 60 days after January 5, 2006.
(B) Additional time allowed for information pamphlet
The requirement for the distribution of the pamphlet developed under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall not apply until 30 days after the date of its development and initial distribution under subsection (a)(6) of this section.
(e) Definitions
In this section:
(1) Crime of violence
The term “crime of violence” has the meaning given such term in section 16 of title 18.
(2) Domestic violence
The term “domestic violence” has the meaning given such term in section 3 of this Act. [1]
(3) Foreign national client
The term “foreign national client” means a person who is not a United States citizen or national or an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence and who utilizes the services of an international marriage broker. Such term includes an alien residing in the United States who is in the United States as a result of utilizing the services of an international marriage broker and any alien recruited by an international marriage broker or representative of such broker.
(4) International marriage broker
(A) In general
The term “international marriage broker” means a corporation, partnership, business, individual, or other legal entity, whether or not organized under any law of the United States, that charges fees for providing dating, matrimonial, matchmaking services, or social referrals between United States citizens or nationals or aliens lawfully admitted to the United States as permanent residents and foreign national clients by providing personal contact information or otherwise facilitating communication between individuals.
(B) Exceptions
Such term does not include—
(i) a traditional matchmaking organization of a cultural or religious nature that operates on a nonprofit basis and otherwise operates in compliance with the laws of the countries in which it operates, including the laws of the United States; or
(ii) an entity that provides dating services if its principal business is not to provide international dating services between United States citizens or United States residents and foreign nationals and it charges comparable rates and offers comparable services to all individuals it serves regardless of the individual’s gender or country of citizenship.
(5) K nonimmigrant visa
The term “K nonimmigrant visa” means a nonimmigrant visa under clause (i) or (ii) of section 1101 (a)(15)(K) of this title.
(6) Personal contact information
(A) In general
The term “personal contact information” means information, or a forum to obtain such information, that would permit individuals to contact each other, including—
(i) the name or residential, postal, electronic mail, or instant message address of an individual;
(ii) the telephone, pager, cellphone, or fax number, or voice message mailbox of an individual; or
(iii) the provision of an opportunity for an in-person meeting.
(B) Exception
Such term does not include a photograph or general information about the background or interests of a person.
(7) Representative
The term “representative” means, with respect to an international marriage broker, the person or entity acting on behalf of such broker. Such a representative may be a recruiter, agent, independent contractor, or other international marriage broker or other person conveying information about or to a United States client or foreign national client, whether or not the person or entity receives remuneration.
(8) State
The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
(9) United States
The term “United States”, when used in a geographic sense, includes all the States.
(10) United States client
The term “United States client” means a United States citizen or other individual who resides in the United States and who utilizes the services of an international marriage broker, if a payment is made or a debt is incurred to utilize such services.
(f) GAO studies and reports
(1) Study
The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study—
(A) on the impact of this section and section 832  [1] on the K nonimmigrant visa process, including specifically—
(i) annual numerical changes in petitions for K nonimmigrant visas;
(ii) the annual number (and percentage) of such petitions that are denied under subsection (d)(2) or (r) ofsection 1184 of this title, as amended by this Act;
(iii) the annual number of waiver applications submitted under such a subsection, the number (and percentage) of such applications granted or denied, and the reasons for such decisions;
(iv) the annual number (and percentage) of cases in which the criminal background information collected and provided to the applicant as required by subsection (a)(5)(A)(iii) of this section contains one or more convictions;
(v) the annual number and percentage of cases described in clause (iv) that were granted or were denied waivers under section 1184 (d)(2) of this title, as amended by this Act;
(vi) the annual number of fiance(e) and spousal K nonimmigrant visa petitions or family-based immigration petitions filed by petitioners or applicants who have previously filed other fiance(e) or spousal K nonimmigrant visa petitions or family-based immigration petitions;
(vii) the annual number of fiance(e) and spousal K nonimmigrant visa petitions or family-based immigration petitions filed by petitioners or applicants who have concurrently filed other fiance(e) or spousal K nonimmigrant visa petitioners or family-based immigration petitions; and
(viii) the annual and cumulative number of petitioners and applicants tracked in the multiple filings database established under paragraph (4) of section 1184 (r) of this title, as added by this Act;
(B) regarding the number of international marriage brokers doing business in the United States, the number of marriages resulting from the services provided, and the extent of compliance with the applicable requirements of this section;
(C) that assesses the accuracy and completeness of information gathered under section 832  [1] and this section from clients and petitioners by international marriage brokers, the Department of State, or the Department of Homeland Security;
(D) that examines, based on the information gathered, the extent to which persons with a history of violence are using either the K nonimmigrant visa process or the services of international marriage brokers, or both, and the extent to which such persons are providing accurate and complete information to the Department of State or the Department of Homeland Security and to international marriage brokers in accordance with subsections (a) and (d)(2)(B) of this section; and
(E) that assesses the accuracy and completeness of the criminal background check performed by the Secretary of Homeland Security at identifying past instances of domestic violence.
(2) Report
Not later than 2 years after January 5, 2006, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report setting forth the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1).
(3) Data collection
The Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State shall collect and maintain the data necessary for the Comptroller General of the United States to conduct the study required by paragraph (1).
(4) Continuing impact study and report
(A) Study
The Comptroller General shall conduct a study on the continuing impact of the implementation of this section and of section of  [2] 1184 of this title on the process for granting K nonimmigrant visas, including specifically a study of the items described in subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (1).
(B) Report
Not later than 2 years after March 7, 2013, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report setting forth the results of the study conducted under subparagraph (A).
(C) Data collection
The Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Secretary of State shall collect and maintain the data necessary for the Comptroller General to conduct the study required by paragraph (1)(A).


[1]  See References in Text note below.

[2]  So in original.

Source

(Pub. L. 109–162, title VIII, § 833,Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3068; Pub. L. 113–4, title VIII, §§ 807(b),§ 808(b)–(d), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 113–116.)
References in Text

Section 3 of this Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is section 3 ofPub. L. 109–162, which enacted sections 3796gg–2 and 13925 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amended sections 3796gg–3, 3796hh–4, 10420, 13975, and 14039 of Title 42, repealed former section 3796gg–2 of Title 42, and amended provisions set out as a note under section 3796gg–2 of Title 42.
Section 832, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(A), (C), is section 832 ofPub. L. 109–162, which amended section 1184 of this title and enacted provisions set out as notes under section 1184 of this title.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(A)(ii), (v), and (viii), is Pub. L. 109–162, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2960, known as the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 13701 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.
Codification

Section was enacted as part of the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act of 2005, and also as part of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005, and not as part of the Immigration and Nationality Act which comprises this chapter.
Section is comprised of section 833 ofPub. L. 109–162. Subsec. (g) ofsection 833 of Pub. L. 109–162repealed section 1375 of this title.
Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(2)(H). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(b), substituted “the National Sex Offender Public Website” for “Federal and State sex offender public registries”.
Subsec. (a)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 807(b)(1)(A), substituted “State, for inclusion in the mailing described in clause (i), any” for “State any” in the first sentence and struck out the last sentence which read as follows: “Nothing in this clause shall be construed to authorize the Secretary of Homeland Security to conduct any new or additional criminal background check that is not otherwise conducted in the course of adjudicating such petitions.”
Subsec. (a)(5)(A)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 113–4, § 807(b)(1)(B), added items (iv) and (v).
Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, § 807(b)(2), substituted “orders and criminal” for “orders or criminal”.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “An international marriage broker shall not provide any individual or entity with the personal contact information, photograph, or general information about the background or interests of any individual under the age of 18.”
Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(2)(A), substituted “website” for “registries” in heading and “Website,” for “Registry or State sex offender public registry,” in text.
Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(2)(B), substituted “stalking, or an attempt to commit any such crime.” for “or stalking.”
Subsec. (d)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(3)(A)(i), which directed substitution of “Website” for “Registry, or of the relevant State sex offender public registry for any State not yet participating in the National Sex Offender Public Registry, in which the United States client has resided during the previous 20 years,”, was executed by making the substitution for “Registry, or of the relevant State sex offender public registry for any State not yet participating in the National Sex Offender Public Registry in which the United States client has resided during the previous 20 years,” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (d)(3)(A)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(3)(A)(ii), substituted “signed certification and accompanying documentation or attestation regarding the background information collected under paragraph (2)(B);” for “background information collected by the international marriage broker under paragraph (2)(B);”.
Subsec. (d)(3)(C). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(3)(B), struck out subpar. (C). Text read as follows: “A person who knowingly discloses, uses, or causes to be used any information obtained by an international marriage broker as a result of the obligations imposed on it under paragraph (2) and this paragraph for any purpose other than the disclosures required under this paragraph shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both. These penalties are in addition to any other civil or criminal liability under Federal or State law which a person may be subject to for the misuse of that information, including to threaten, intimidate, or harass any individual. Nothing in this section shall prevent the disclosure of such information to law enforcement or pursuant to a court order.”
Subsec. (d)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(4)(A), substituted “At the discretion of the Attorney General, a penalty may be imposed under clause (i) either by a Federal judge, or by the Attorney General” for “A penalty may be imposed under clause (i) by the Attorney General only”.
Subsec. (d)(5)(B). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(4)(B), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “In circumstances in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, an international marriage broker that, within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, violates (or attempts to violate) paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) shall be fined in accordance with title 18 or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.”
Subsec. (d)(5)(C). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(4)(C), substituted “including equitable remedies.” for period at end.
Subsec. (d)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(c)(5), (6), added par. (6) and redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(d)(1), substituted “studies and reports” for “study and report” in heading.
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 113–4, § 808(d)(2), added par. (4).

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

8 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large
§ 1375a2013113-4 [Sec.] 808(b)-(d)127 Stat. 114-116
§ 1375a2013113-4 [Sec.] 807(b)127 Stat. 113

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.