commercial transactions

Valuable consideration

Definition

A benefit conferred or a detriment incurred by a party in exchange for another's promise. Valuable consideration may be non-monetary as long as it is of some value to one or both parties. Also called good and valuable consideration and legal consideration.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. Digital Equipment Corp. v. Desktop Direct, Inc., 511 U.S. 863 (1994).

 

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third-party beneficiary

Definition

A person who is neither a promisor nor promisee in a contractual agreement, but stands to benefit from the contract’s performance. A third-party beneficiary may legally enforce that contract, but only after his or her rights have already been vested (either by the contracting parties’ assent or by justifiable reliance on the promise).

According to the Restatement (First) of Contracts § 133 (1932), there are three classes of third-party beneficiaries:

 

Sherman Antitrust Act

Definition

A federal anti-monopoly and anti-trust statute, passed in 1890 as 15 U.S.C. §§ 1-7 and amended by the Clayton Act in 1914 (15 U.S.C. § 12-27), which prohibits activities that restrict interstate commerce and competition in the marketplace.

Overview

 

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