courts and procedure
A Latin term meaning literally 'from [the] stronger'. Translated into English and used in the particular context of legal writing, the term often means 'from [the] stronger [argument]'. If a particular fact is true, then one can infer that a second fact is also true.
A calculation used to analyze a claim that a jury pool did not represent a fair cross-section of the community. Calculated by subtracting the percentage of a group in the jury pool from the percentage of that group in the general population.
See, e.g. Berghuis v. Smith, 130 S.Ct. 1382 (2010).
A Latin term meaning "from the beginning." Used to indicate that some fact existed from the start of a relevant time period.
National Security Letters are administrative orders compel their recipients to provide information to federal investigators. As authorized by the USA PATRIOT Act, the letters included gag orders that forebade recipients from discussing the letter's contents and instructions, the letters did not require a judge's authorization, and were subject to only limited judicial review. These letters were used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and possibly other federal agencies.
When two or more parties are jointly and severally liable for a tortious act, each party is independently liable for the full extent of the injuries stemming from the tortious act. Thus, if a plaintiff wins a money judgment against the parties collectively, the plaintiff may collect the full value of the judgment from any one of them.
Knock-and-announce rule: an overview
Courts use mixed-motive jury instructions in many discrimination and improper retaliation cases.