courts and procedure

Absolute disparity


A calculation used to analyze a claim that a jury pool did not represent a fair cross-section of the community. Calculated by subtracting the percentage of a group in the jury pool from the percentage of that group in the general population.

Illustrative caselaw

See, e.g. Berghuis v. Smith, 130 S.Ct. 1382 (2010).


National Security Letter

National Security Letters are administrative orders compel their recipients to provide information to federal investigators.  As authorized by the USA PATRIOT Act, the letters included gag orders that forebade recipients from discussing the letter's contents and instructions, the letters did not require a judge's authorization, and were subject to only limited judicial review. These letters were used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and possibly other federal agencies.



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