Federal statute setting criminal and civil penalties for falsely billing the government, over-representing the amount of a delivered product, or under-stating an obligation to the government. The False Claims Act may be enforced either by the Justice Department or by private individuals in a qui tam proceeding.
National Security Letters are administrative orders compel their recipients to provide information to federal investigators. As authorized by the USA PATRIOT Act, the letters included gag orders that forebade recipients from discussing the letter's contents and instructions, the letters did not require a judge's authorization, and were subject to only limited judicial review. These letters were used by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and possibly other federal agencies.
Qualified immunity: an overview
“Qualified immunity balances two important interests—the need to hold public officials accountable when they exercise power irresponsibly and the need to shield officials from harassment, distraction, and liability when they perform their duties reasonably.” Pearson v. Callahan (07-751).