wex definitions

Counterfeiting

Counterfeiting occurs when someone copies or imitates an item without having been authorized to do so and passes the copy off for the genuine or original item. While counterfeiting is most often associated with money it can also be applied to designer clothing, handbags and watches and other consumer goods.

18 U.S.C. 470-514 Counterfeiting and Forgery

See White-collar crime

 

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Complementarity

The principle of complementarity provides that a case is inadmissible before the International Criminal Court (ICC) if it is currently under investigation by a state with jurisdiction over it. The concept of complementarity, however, allows for ICC jurisdiction in situations when the state is unable or unwilling to proceed with an investigation or where the state investigation is conducted in bad faith such as when it is used to shield the person from criminal responsibility.

See International Criminal Court

 

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Government fraud

Fraud against the government may consist of fraud in connection with federal government contracting and fraud in connection with federal and/or federally-funded entitlement programs, including public housing, agricultural programs, defense procurement fraud, educational programs, and corporate frauds. As it relates to federal government contracting, investigations often involve bribery in contracts or procurement, collusion among contractors, false or double billing, false certification of the quality of parts or of test results, and substitution of bogus or otherwise inferior parts.

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Financial fraud

Financial Institution Fraud (FIF) involves fraud or embezzlement occurring within or against financial institutions that are insured or regulated by the U.S. Government. Financial institutions are threatened by a wide array of frauds, including commercial loan fraud, check fraud, counterfeit negotiable instruments, mortgage fraud, check kiting, false applications, and a variety of traditional and non-traditional FIF scams.

See White-collar crime

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Contempt of court, criminal

Criminal contempt of court is a criminal charge which is employed to punish behavior that interferes with the proceedings or orders of a court. Criminal indirect contempt of court is based on violation of a court order, whereas criminal direct contempt of court is based on conduct at court proceedings. Defendants charged with criminal contempt are afforded all the usual privileges of other criminal defendants, like the right to a trial by jury, to examine, and to call, witnesses, and to testify on one's own behalf.

See Contempt.

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