Crime against humanity refers to a category of crimes against international law which includes the most egregious violations of human dignity, especially those directed toward civilian populations. The modern understanding of crimes against humanity is codified in the founding statutes of the international criminal tribunals, including the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavie (ICTY) and the International Criminal Court (ICC). As codified in Article 7 of the ICC Statute, the following acts are punishable as crimes against humanity when perpetrated by a state actor as part of a systematic or widespread attack against a civilian population:
- deportation or forcible transfer;
- false imprisonment;
- rape, sexual slavery, or enforced sterilization;
- ethnic persecution;
- "Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health."
The intent requirement for liability is "knowledge of the attack."