affirmative action example
The University of Michigan's Office of Undergraduate Admissions had an affirmative action scheme which gave minority applicants a fixed number of points in their admissions formula. This scheme was found to be an unconstitutional violation of Equal Protection by the Supreme Court. Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003). However, the University of Michigan Law School’s affirmative action policy, which consisted of a “flexible assessment of applicants’ talents, experiences, and potential,” including race, was found to be constitutional. Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003).