NIED, Zone of danger, and Ratio decidendi quotation

"We must now decide whether plaintiff, the niece of a woman who was killed in an accident in plaintiff's presence and with whom plaintiff shared a long and strong emotional bond, may qualify to bring suit as a bystander for the negligent infliction of emotional injuries under [this Court's] 'zone of danger' rule."

"Under the fact pattern and ratio decidendi of [the case in which we adopted the zone of danger rule], only the immediate family members of the victims were entitled to claim damages for emotional trauma."

"Although plaintiff suffered a personal tragic loss, that cannot justify the significant extension of defendants' obligation to be answerable in damages for her emotional trauma.  On firm public policy grounds, we are persuaded that we should not expand the cause of action for emotional injuries to all bystanders who may be able to demonstrate a blood relationship coupled with significant emotional attachment or the equivalent of an intimate, immediate familial bond."