International humanitarian law (law of war) is a field of international law regulating armed conflict between states, and more recently, between states and informal groups and individuals. See Jean Pictet, Development and Principles of International Humanitarian Law (1985). International humanitarian law governs both the legality of justifications for war (jus ad bellum, or when states can resort to war) and the legality of warti
- See Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law (available on GoogleBooks);
- Int'l Committee of the Red Cross, International Humanitarian Law: Answers to Your Questions (2004).
International Monetary Fund (IMF) was concieved in July 1994 in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire and entered into force on March 1, 1947. IMF was established in order to promote international monetary cooporation, facilitate expansion and balanced growth in international trade and maintain exchange arrangement among its members. The IMF established a Par Value where countries that joined agreed to keep their exchange ratein terms of U.S.
International Bank of Reconstruction and Development was established in 1944 as the original intritution of the World Bank group. Its aim is to reduce poverty in middle-income and creditworthy poorer countries by promoting sustainable development through loans, guarantees and risk management products. This is to assist in the the reconstruction and development of its member countries by facilitating the investment of capital for productive purposes.
The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) was adopted in Vienna on May 23, 1969 at the United Nations Conference on the law of treaties and entered into force on January 27, 1980.
- Sir Ian McTaggart Sinclair, The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (2nd ed., Manchester, 1984) (available on GoogleBooks).