10 CFR 431.192 - Definitions.
The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart:
Autotransformer means a transformer that:
(1) Has one physical winding that consists of a series winding part and a common winding part;
(2) Has no isolation between its primary and secondary circuits; and
(3) During step-down operation, has a primary voltage that is equal to the total of the series and common winding voltages, and a secondary voltage that is equal to the common winding voltage.
Basic model means a group of models of distribution transformers manufactured by a single manufacturer, that have the same insulation type (i.e., liquid-immersed or dry-type), have the same number of phases (i.e., single or three), have the same standard kVA rating, and do not have any differentiating electrical, physical or functional features that affect energy consumption. Differences in voltage and differences in basic impulse insulation level (BIL) rating are examples of differentiating electrical features that affect energy consumption.
Distribution transformer means a transformer that -
(1) Has an input voltage of 34.5 kV or less;
(2) Has an output voltage of 600 V or less;
(3) Is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 Hz; and
(4) Has a capacity of 10 kVA to 2500 kVA for liquid-immersed units and 15 kVA to 2500 kVA for dry-type units; but
(5) The term “distribution transformer” does not include a transformer that is an -
(iii) Grounding transformer;
(vi) Rectifier transformer;
(vii) Regulating transformer;
(viii) Sealed transformer;
(x) Testing transformer;
(xi) Transformer with tap range of 20 percent or more;
(xii) Uninterruptible power supply transformer; or
(xiii) Welding transformer.
Drive (isolation) transformer means a transformer that:
(1) Isolates an electric motor from the line;
(2) Accommodates the added loads of drive-created harmonics; and
(3) Is designed to withstand the additional mechanical stresses resulting from an alternating current adjustable frequency motor drive or a direct current motor drive.
Efficiency means the ratio of the useful power output to the total power input.
Excitation current or no-load current means the current that flows in any winding used to excite the transformer when all other windings are open-circuited.
Grounding transformer means a three-phase transformer intended primarily to provide a neutral point for system-grounding purposes, either by means of:
(1) A grounded wye primary winding and a delta secondary winding; or
(2) A transformer with its primary winding in a zig-zag winding arrangement, and with no secondary winding.
Liquid-immersed distribution transformer means a distribution transformer in which the core and coil assembly is immersed in an insulating liquid.
Load loss means, for a distribution transformer, those losses incident to a specified load carried by the transformer, including losses in the windings as well as stray losses in the conducting parts of the transformer.
Low-voltage dry-type distribution transformer means a distribution transformer that -
(1) Has an input voltage of 600 volts or less;
(2) Is air-cooled; and
(3) Does not use oil as a coolant.
Machine-tool (control) transformer means a transformer that is equipped with a fuse or other over-current protection device, and is generally used for the operation of a solenoid, contactor, relay, portable tool, or localized lighting.
Medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformer means a distribution transformer in which the core and coil assembly is immersed in a gaseous or dry-compound insulating medium, and which has a rated primary voltage between 601 V and 34.5 kV.
Mining distribution transformer means a medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformer that is built only for installation in an underground mine or surface mine, inside equipment for use in an underground mine or surface mine, on-board equipment for use in an underground mine or surface mine, or for equipment used for digging, drilling, or tunneling underground or above ground, and that has a nameplate which identifies the transformer as being for this use only.
No-load loss means those losses that are incident to the excitation of the transformer.
Phase angle means the angle between two phasors, where the two phasors represent progressions of periodic waves of either:
(1) Two voltages;
(2) Two currents; or
(3) A voltage and a current of an alternating current circuit.
Phase angle correction means the adjustment (correction) of measurement data to negate the effects of phase angle error.
Phase angle error means incorrect displacement of the phase angle, introduced by the components of the test equipment.
Rectifier transformer means a transformer that operates at the fundamental frequency of an alternating-current system and that is designed to have one or more output windings connected to a rectifier.
Reference temperature means 20 °C for no-load loss, 55 °C for load loss of liquid-immersed distribution transformers at 50 percent load, and 75 °C for load loss of both low-voltage and medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers, at 35 percent load and 50 percent load, respectively. It is the temperature at which the transformer losses must be determined, and to which such losses must be corrected if testing is done at a different point. (These temperatures are specified in the test method in appendix A to this part.)
Regulating transformer means a transformer that varies the voltage, the phase angle, or both voltage and phase angle, of an output circuit and compensates for fluctuation of load and input voltage, phase angle or both voltage and phase angle.
Sealed transformer means a transformer designed to remain hermetically sealed under specified conditions of temperature and pressure.
Special-impedance transformer means any transformer built to operate at an impedance outside of the normal impedance range for that transformer's kVA rating. The normal impedance range for each kVA rating for liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers is shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.
Table 1 - Normal Impedance Ranges for Liquid-Immersed Transformers
|Single-phase transformers||Three-phase transformers|
Table 2 - Normal Impedance Ranges for Dry-Type Transformers
|Single-phase transformers||Three-phase transformers|
Temperature correction means the mathematical correction(s) of measurement data, obtained when a transformer is tested at a temperature that is different from the reference temperature, to the value(s) that would have been obtained if the transformer had been tested at the reference temperature.
Test current means the current of the electrical power supplied to the transformer under test.
Test frequency means the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the transformer under test.
Test voltage means the voltage of the electrical power supplied to the transformer under test.
Testing transformer means a transformer used in a circuit to produce a specific voltage or current for the purpose of testing electrical equipment.
Transformer means a device consisting of 2 or more coils of insulated wire that transfers alternating current by electromagnetic induction from 1 coil to another to change the original voltage or current value.
Transformer with tap range of 20 percent or more means a transformer with multiple voltage taps, the highest of which equals at least 20 percent more than the lowest, computed based on the sum of the deviations of the voltages of these taps from the transformer's nominal voltage.
Uninterruptible power supply transformer means a transformer that is used within an uninterruptible power system, which in turn supplies power to loads that are sensitive to power failure, power sags, over voltage, switching transients, line noise, and other power quality factors.
Waveform correction means the adjustment(s) (mathematical correction(s)) of measurement data obtained with a test voltage that is non-sinusoidal, to a value(s) that would have been obtained with a sinusoidal voltage.
Welding transformer means a transformer designed for use in arc welding equipment or resistance welding equipment.