10 CFR 500.2 - General definitions.
For purposes of this part and parts 501-507 term(s):
Act means Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, 42 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.
Action means a prohibition by rule or order, in accordance with sections 301(b) and (c) of FUA; any order granting or denying an exemption in accordance with sections 211, 212, 311 and 312 of FUA; a modification or rescission of any such order, or rule; an interpretation; a notice of violation; a remedial order; an interpretive ruling; or a rulemaking undertaken by DOE.
Affiliate, when used in relation to person, means another person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control, with such person.
Aggrieved, for purposes of administrative proceedings, describes and means a person (with an interest sought to be protected under FUA) who is adversely affected by an action proposed or undertaken by DOE.
Air pollution control agency means any of the following:
(1) A single State agency designated as the official State air pollution control agency;
(2) An agency established by two or more States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution;
(3) A city, county, or other local government health authority or, in the case of any city, county, or other local unit of government in which there is an agency other than the health authority charged with responsibility for enforcing ordinances or laws relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, such other agency; or
(4) An agency or two or more municipalities located in the same State or in different States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.
Alternate fuel means electricity or any fuel, other than natural gas or petroleum. The term includes, but is not limited to :
(2) Solar energy;
(3) Petroleum coke; shale oil; uranium; biomass, tar sands, oil-impregnated diatomaceous earth; municipal, industrial, or agricultural wastes; wood; and renewable and geothermal energy sources (For purposes of this paragraph (3), the term industrial does not include refineries.);
(4) Liquid, solid or gaseous waste by-products of refinery or industrial operations which are commercially unmarketable, either by reason of quality or quantity. (For purposes of this paragraph (4), the term waste by-product is defined as an unavoidable by-product of the industrial or refinery operation.) A waste by-product of a refinery or industrial operation is commercially unmarketable if it meets the criteria listed in the definition of “commercial unmarketability,” set forth below;
(5) Any fuel derived from an alternate fuel; and
(6) Waste gases from industrial operations. (For purposes of this subsection, the term industrial does not include refineries.)
Applicable environmental requirements includes:
(1) Any standard, limitation, or other requirement established by or pursuant to Federal or State law (including any final order of any Federal or State Court) applicable to emissions of environmental pollutants (including air and water pollutants) or disposal of solid waste residues resulting from the use of coal or other alternate fuels, natural gas, or petroleum as a primary energy source or from the operation of pollution control equipment in connection with such use, taking into account any variance of law granted or issued in accordance with Federal law or in accordance with State law to the extent consistent with Federal law; and
(2) Any other standard, limitation, or other requirement established by, or pursuant to, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, or the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.
Base load powerplant means a powerplant, the electrical generation of which in kilowatt hours exceeds, for any 12-calendar-month period, such powerplant's design capacity multiplied by 3,500 hours.
Boiler means a closed vessel in which water is heated electrically or by the combustion of a fuel to produce steam of one percent or more quality.
Btu means British thermal unit.
Capability to use alternate fuel, for the purposes of Title II prohibitions relating to construction of new powerplants, means the powerplant to be constructed:
(1) Has sufficient inherent design characteristics to permit the addition of equipment (including all necessary pollution devices) necessary to render such electric powerplant capable of using coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy source; and
(2) Is not physically, structurally, or technologically precluded from using coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy source.
Capability to use coal or another alternate fuel shall not be interpreted to require any such powerplant to be immediately able to use coal or another alternate fuel as its primary energy source on its initial day of operation. In addition, the owner or operator of a baseload powerplant need not have adequate on-site space for either a coal gasifier or any facilities for handling coal or related fuels.
Certification means a document, signed by an official of the owner or operator, notarized, and submitted to OFE, which declares that a new powerplant will have the “capability to use alternate fuel” (as defined herein).
Certifying powerplant means an existing powerplant whose owner or operator seeks to obtain a prohibition order against the use of natural gas or petroleum either totally or in a mixture with coal or an alternate fuel by filing a certification as to both the technical capability and financial feasibility of conversion to coal or another alternate fuel pursuant to section 301 of FUA, as amended.
Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (1970), as amended by Public Law 93-319, 88 Stat. 246, and Public Law 95-91, 91 Stat. 685.
Coal means anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, lignite, and any fuel derivative thereof.
Cogeneration facility means an electric powerplant that produces:
(1) Electric power; and
(2) Any other form of useful energy (such as steam, gas or heat) that is, or will be used, for industrial, commercial, or space heating purposes. In addition, for purposes of this definition, electricity generated by the cogeneration facility must constitute more than five (5) percent and less than ninety (90) percent of the useful energy output of the facility.
Any cogeneration facility selling or exchanging less than fifty percent (50%) of the facility's generated electricity is considered an industrial cogenerator and is exempt from the fuel use prohibitions of FUA.
Combined cycle unit means an electric power generating unit that consists of a combination of one or more combustion turbine units and one or more steam turbine units with a substantial portion of the required energy input of the steam turbine unit(s) provided by the exhaust gas from the combustion turbine unit(s).
Substantial amounts of supplemental firing for a steam turbine or waste heat boiler to improve thermal efficiency will not affect a unit's classification as a combined cycle unit.
Combustion turbine means a unit that is a rotary engine driven by a gas under pressure that is created by the combustion of any fuel.
Commercial unmarketability as used in the definitions of “alternate fuel,” “natural gas” and “petroleum” shall be determined as follows:
(1) A waste by-product of industrial or refinery operations is commercially unmarketable by reason of:
(i) Quality, where the cost of processing (limited to upgrading the waste by-product to commercial quality), storing, and distributing the waste by-product would not be covered by reasonably expected revenues from its sale;
(ii) Quantity, where the cost of aggregating the waste by-product into commercial quantities through storing and distributing the waste by-product would not be covered by reasonably expected revenues from its sale.
(2) A fuel will not be classified as “natural gas” when it is commercially unmarketable by reason of:
(i) Quality, where the cost of producing, upgrading to commercial quality, storing, and distributing the fuel would not be covered by reasonably expected revenues from its sale; or
(ii) Quantity, where the quantities of the fuel are so small that the revenues to be reasonably expected from its sale would not cover the cost of its production, distribution or storage.
(3) Costs associated with upgrading, storing, distributing, and aggregating a by-product or other fuel (to determine if such fuel is natural gas) may properly include a reasonable rate of return on any capital investment required to overcome the problems posed by the quality or quantity of a fuel because the return on investment is a normal aspect of any investment decision. A firm may account for this reasonable rate of return by using its customary discount rate for an investment of similar risk.
(4) As part of any consideration of the rate of return on investment, the cost of replacing the Btu's lost if the by-product or other fuel were upgraded and sold instead of used as a fuel may be taken into consideration. The actual expense that would result from burning a replacement fuel in lieu of the by-product or other fuel in question may therefore be considered. The costs associated with using a replacement fuel are indirect costs that result from upgrading and selling the fuel, instead of burning it. These indirect costs as well as the direct costs associated with the upgrading, storing, distributing, and aggregating of by-products or other fuel may be considered in any assessment of commercial unmarketability.
Conference means an informal meeting incident to any proceeding, between DOE and any interested person.
Construction means substantial physical activity at the unit site and includes more than clearance of a site or installation of foundation pilings.
Costs means total costs, both operating and capital, incurred over the estimated remaining useful life of an electric powerplant, discounted to the present, pursuant to rules established in parts 503 and 504 of these regulations.
Design capability defined in section 103(a)(7) of FUA, shall be determined as follows:
(1) Boiler and associated generator turbines. The design fuel heat input rate of a steam-electric generating unit (Btu/hr) shall be the product of the generator's nameplate rating, measured in kilowatts, and 3412 (Btu/kWh), divided by the overall boiler-turbine-generator unit design efficiency (decimal); or if the generator's nameplate does not have a rating measured in kilowatts, the product of the generator's kilovolt-amperes nameplate rating, and the power factor nameplate rating; and 3412 (Btu/kWh), divided by the boiler turbine-generator unit's design efficiency (decimal). (The number 3412 converts kilowatt-hours (absolute) into Btu's (mean).)
(2) Combustion turbine and associated generator. The design fuel heat input rate of a combustion turbine (Btu/hr) shall be the product of its nameplate rating, measured in kilowatts, and 3412 (Btu/kWh), divided by the combustion turbine-generator unit's design efficiency (decimal), adjusted for peaking service at an ambient temperature of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius) at the unit's elevation. (The number 3412 converts kilowatt-hours (absolute) into Btu's (mean).)
(3) Combined cycle unit. The design fuel heat input rate of a combined cycle unit (Btu/hr) shall be the summation of the product of its generator's nameplate rating, measured in kilowatts, and 3412 (Btu/kWh), divided by the overall combustion turbine-generator unit's efficiency (decimal), adjusted for peaking service at an ambient temperature of 59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius) and at the unit's evaluation, plus the product of the maximum fuel heat input to any supplemental heat recovery steam generator/boiler in gallons or pounds per hour and the fuel's heat content. If the generator's nameplate does not have a rating measured in kilowatts, the product of the generator's kilowatt-amperes nameplate rating and power factor nameplate rating must be substituted for kilowatts. (The number 3412 converts kilowatt-hours (absolute) into Btu's (mean).)
Design capacity of a powerplant pursuant to section 103(a)(18) of FUA, is determined according to 18 CFR 287.101.
DOE or the Department means the United States Department of Energy, as defined in sections 201 and 301(a) of the DEOA, including the Secretary of Energy or his designee.
Duly authorized representative means a person who is authorized to appear before DOE in connection with a proceeding on behalf of a person interested in or aggrieved by that proceeding. Such appearance may include the submission of applications, petitions, requests, statements, memoranda of law, other documents, or of a personal appearance, oral communication, or any other participation in a proceeding.
Electing powerplant means an existing powerplant, which (1) has been issued a proposed prohibition order under former section 301 (b) or (c) of FUA prior to August 13, 1981, the date of enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, Public Law 97-35 (OBRA); and (2) files an election to continue the current prohibition order proceeding under provisions of the former section 301 of FUA, rather than under amended section 301 of FUA. 1 Under the election provisions, an existing powerplant which has an order pending against it under section 2 of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 791 et seq. (ESECA), as of August 13, 1981, may also elect to continue the current proceeding under section 2 of ESECA. Electing powerplants under ESECA are not included in the FUA definition of “electing powerplant”. Relevant regulations governing ESECA proceedings are found at 10 CFR part 303 and 305.. These elections must have been filed with DOE by November 30, 1981 in the case of FUA orders and by January 14, 1982 in the case of ESECA orders.
1 The election provisions are published at 46 FR 48118 (October 1, 1981) and will not be codified in the Code of Federal Regulations.
Electric generating unit does not include:
(1) Any electric generating unit subject to the licensing jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and
(2) Any cogeneration facility from which less than 50 percent of the net annual electric power generation is sold or exchanged for resale. Excluded from ‘sold or exchanged for resale’ are sales or exchanges to or with an electric utility for resale by the utility to the cogenerating supplier, and sales or exchanges among owners of the cogeneration facility.
For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this definition, OFE will not consider any unit located at a site subject to NRC's licensing authority to be jurisdictional for purposes of FUA.
Electric powerplant means any stationary electric generating unit consisting of (a) a boiler, (b) a gas turbine, or (c) a combined cycle unit which employs a generator to produce electric power for purposes of sale or exchange and has the design capabilityf consuming any fuel (or mixture thereof) at a fuel heat input rate of 100 million Btu's per hour or greater. In accordance with section 103(a)(7)(C) of FUA, the Secretary has determined that it is appropriate to exclude from this definition any unit which has a design capability to consume any fuel (including any mixture thereof) that does not equal or exceed 100 million Btu's per hour.
Electric Region is as defined in § 500.3 of this part.
Electric utility means any person, including any affiliate, or Federal agency, which sells electric power.
Emission offset means emission reductions as defined by EPA's regulations set forth at 40 CFR part 51, appendix S.
EPA means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
ESECA means the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 791 et seq.
Existing powerplant means any powerplant other than a new powerplant.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act means the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., as amended.
FERC means the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
Firm means a parent company and the consolidated or unconsolidated entities (if any) that it directly or indirectly controls.
Fluidized bed combustion means combustion of fuel in connection with a bed of inert material, such as limestone or dolomite, that is held in a fluid-like state by the means of air or other gases being passed through such materials.
FTC means the Federal Trade Commission.
FUA means the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, 42 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.
Fuel Use Act means FUA.
Fuel use order means a directive issued by OFE pursuant to § 501.167 of these regulations.
Gas turbine means “combustion turbine”.
High-priority user, for purposes of subsection 312(j) of FUA, means any residential user of natural gas, or any commercial user whose consumption of natural gas on peak day is less than 50 MCF.
Internal combustion engine means a heat engine in which the combustion that generates the heat takes place inside the engine proper.
Interpretation means a written statement issued by the DOE General Counsel or his delegate, in response to a written request, that applies the regulations, rulings, and other precedents previously issued by the DOE to the particular facts of a prospective or completed act or transaction.
Mcf means 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas.
Mixture, when used in relation to fuels used in a unit, means a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an alternate fuel, or a combination of such fuels, used simultaneously or alternately in such unit.
Natural gas means any fuel consisting in whole or in part of natural gas, including components of natural gas such as methane and ethane; liquid petroleum gas; synthetic gas derived from petroleum or natural gas liquids; or any mixture of natural gas and synthetic gas. Natural gas does not include:
(1) Gaseous waste by-products or waste gas specifically designated as an alternate fuel in § 500.2 of these regulations;
(2) Natural gas which is commercially unmarketable, as defined in these rules;
(3) Natural gas produced by the user from a well, the maximum efficient production rate of which is less than 250 million Btu's per day. For purposes of paragraph (3) of this definition:
(i) Produced by the user means:
(A) All gas produced by the well, when such gas is delivered for use in the user's facility through a gas delivery, gathering, or transportation system which could not deliver such gas to any other user; or
(B) Only that amount which represents the user's net working (mineral) interest in the gas produced from such well, where such gas is delivered for use in the user's facility through a gas delivery, gathering, or transportation system which could deliver such gas to any other user.
(ii) Maximum efficient production rate (MEPR) means that rate at which production of natural gas may be sustained without damage to the reservoir or the rate which may be sustained without damage to the ultimate recovery of oil or gas through the well.
(4) Occluded methane in coal seams within the meaning of section 107(c)(3) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA);
(5) The following gas from wells spudded prior to January 1, 1990:
(i) Gas produced from geopressurized brine, within the meaning of section 107(c)(2) of the NGPA;
(ii) Gas produced from Devonian shale, within the meaning of section 107(c)(4) of the NGPA;
(iii) Gas produced from tight sands, as designated by the FERC in accordance with section 107(c)(5) of the NGPA; and
(iv) Other gases designated by FERC as “high-cost natural gas” in accordance with section 107(c)(5) of the NGPA, except as specifically designated as “natural gas” by OFE;
(i) Synthetic gas derived from coal or other alternate fuel, the heat content of which is less than 600 Btu's per cubic foot at 14.73 pounds per square inch (absolute) and 60 °F; and
(ii) Commingled natural gas and synthetic gas derived from coal consumed as part of the necessary process of a major fuel burning installation used in the iron and steel industry, so long as the average annual Btu heat content of the commingled stream as consumed within a major fuel burning installation does not exceed 600 Btu's per cubic foot at 14.73 pounds per square inch (absolute) and 60 °F;
(7) Mixtures of natural gas and synthetic gas derived from alternate fuels for which the person proposing to use the gas certifies to OFE that:
(i) He owns, or is entitled to receive at the point of manufacture, synthetic gas derived from alternate fuels;
(ii) He delivers, or arranges for the delivery of such synthetic gas to a pipeline which by transport or displacement is capable of delivering such synthetic gas, mixed with natural gas, to facilities owned by the user;
(iii) The total annual Btu content of the synthetic gas delivered to a pipeline is equal to or greater than the total annual Btu content of the natural gas delivered to the facilities owned by the user, plus the approximate total annual Btu content of any natural gas consumed or lost in transportation; and
(iv) All necessary permits, licenses, or approvals from appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies (including Indian tribes) have been obtained for construction and operation of the facilities for the manufacture of the synthetic gas involved, except that for purposes of the prohibition under section 201(2) of FUA against powerplants being constructed without the capability of using coal or another alternate fuel, only permits, licenses, and approvals for the construction of such synthetic gas facilities shall be required under this subparagraph, to be certified and documented; and
(8) A mixture of natural gas and an alternate fuel when such mixture is deliberately created for purposes of (i) Complying with a prohibition order issued pursuant to section 301(c) of the Act, or (ii) Qualifying for a fuel mixtures exemption under the Act, provided such exemption is granted.
NEPA means the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.
New electric powerplant means any electric powerplant: (1) That was not classified as existing under part 515 of this subchapter; (2) That was reconstructed, as defined in these rules under the definition of “reconstruction”; or (3) For which construction was begun after November 9, 1978.
NGPA means the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978, 15 U.S.C. 3301 et seq.
Nonboiler means any powerplant which is not a boiler and consists of either a combustion turbine unit or combined cycle unit.
Notice of violation means a written statement issued to a person by DOE that states one or more alleged violations of the provisions of these regulations, any order issued pursuant thereto, or the Act.
OBRA means the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, Public Law 97-35.
OFE means the Office of Fossil Energy of OFE.
Offset means “emission offset”.
Order means a final disposition, other than the issuance of a rule, issued by DOE pursuant to these regulations or the Act.
Person means any:
(1) Individual, corporation, company, partnership, association, firm, institution, society, trust, joint venture, or joint stock company;
(2) Any State; or
(3) Any Federal, State, or local agency or instrumentality (including any municipality) thereof.
Petroleum means crude oil and products derived from crude oil, other than:
(1) Petroleum products specifically designated as alternate fuels pursuant to these regulations;
(2) Synthetic gas derived from crude oil;
(3) Liquid petroleum gas;
(4) Petroleum coke or waste gases from industrial operations; and
(5) A liquid, solid, or gaseous waste by-product of refinery operations which is commercially unmarketable under the definition of “commercial unmarketability” in these rules.
For the purposes of this subparagraph, waste by-products do not include components (such as butane and propane) that can be extracted from the waste by-product by reasonable further processing of the waste by-product at the refinery, nor do they include final products that use the waste by-product as a blend stock at the refinery.
Petition means a formal request for any action including an exemption submitted to DOE under these regulations.
Powerplant means “electric powerplant.”
Product or process requirements means that product or process for which the use of an alternate fuel is not technically feasible due to the necessity to maintain satisfactory control of product quality and for which the substitution of steam is not technically feasible due to process requirements.
Primary energy source means the fuel or fuels used by any existing or new electric powerplant except:
(1) Minimum amounts of fuel required for unit ignition, startup, testing, flame stabilization, and control uses. OFE has determined that, unless need for a greater amount is demonstrated, twenty-five (25) percent of the total annual Btu heat input of a unit shall be automatically excluded under this paragraph.
(2) Minimum amounts of fuel required to alleviate or prevent:
(i) Unanticipated equipment outages as defined in § 501.191 of these regulations; and
(ii) Emergencies directly affecting the public health, safety, or welfare that would result from electric power outages as defined in § 501.191 of these regulations.
(1) Any fuel excluded under the provisions of paragraph (1) of this definition is in addition to any fuel authorized to be used in any order granting a fuel mixtures exemption under parts 503 and 504 of these rules. The exclusion of fuel under paragraph (1), together with the authority for such additive treatment, shall apply to any jurisdictional facility, regardless of whether or not it had received an order granting an exemption as of the date these rules are promulgated.
(2) If an auxiliary unit to an electric powerplant consumes fuel only for the auxiliary functions of unit ignition, startup, testing, flame stabilization, and other control uses, its use of minimum amounts of natural gas or petroleum is not prohibited by FUA. The measurement of such minimum amounts of fuel is discussed in Associated Electric Cooperative, et al., Interpretation 1980-42 [45 FR 82572, Dec. 15, 1980].
Prohibition order means:
(1) An order issued pursuant to section 301(b) of the Act that prohibits a powerplant from burning natural gas or petroleum as its primary energy source; or
(2) An order issued pursuant to section 301(c) of the Act that prohibits excessive use of natural gas or petroleum in mixtures burned by a powerplant as its primary energy source.
Rated capacity for the purpose of determining reduction in the rated capacity of an existing powerplant, means design capacity, or, at the election of the facility owner or operator, the actual maximum sustained energy output per unit of time that could be produced, measured in power output, expressed in kilowatts, per unit of time.
Reconstruction means the following:
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this definition, reconstruction shall be found to have taken place whenever the capital expenditures for refurbishment or modification of an electric powerplant on a cumulative basis for the current calendar year and preceding calendar year, are equal to or greater than fifty (50) percent of the capital costs of an equivalent replacement unit of the same capacity, capable of burning the same fuels.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this definition, reconstruction shall not be found to have taken place whenever:
(i) The capital expenditures for refurbishment or modification of an electric powerplant, on a cumulative basis for the current calendar year and preceding calendar year, are not greater than eighty (80) percent of the capital costs of an equivalent replacement unit of the same capacity, capable of burning the same fuels and the unit, as refurbished or modified, will not have a greater fuel consumption capability than the unit it replaces;
(ii) The unit being refurbished or modified was destroyed, in whole or substantial part, in a plant accident and the unit, as refurbished or modified, will not have a greater fuel consumption capability than the unit it replaces; or
(iii) Refurbishment or modification of the unit is undertaken primarily for the purpose of increasing fuel burning efficiency of the unit, and will not result in:
(A) Increased remaining useful plant life, or
(B) Increased total annual fuel consumption.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 means the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.
SIP means State Implementation Plan pursuant to section 10 of the Clean Air Act.
Site limitation means a specific physical limitation associated with a particular site that relates to the use of an alternate fuel as a primary energy source for the powerplant such as:
(1) Inaccessibility to alternate fuels;
(2) Lack of transportation facilities for alternate fuels;
(3) Lack of adequate land for facilities for the handling, use and storage of alternate fuels;
(4) Lack of adequate land or facilities for the control or disposal of wastes from such powerplant, including lack of land for pollution control equipment or devices necessary to assure compliance with applicable environmental requirements; and
(5) Lack of an adequate and reliable supply of water, including water for use in compliance with applicable environmental requirements.
Solid Waste Disposal Act means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq., as amended.
State regulatory authority means any State agency that acts as ratemaking or power supply authority with respect to the sale of electricity by any State regulated electric utility.
Synthetic fuel means any fuel derived from an alternate fuel and does not include any fuels derived from petroleum or natural gas.
Wetlands areas means, for purposes of section 103(a)(12) of the Act, those geographical areas designated as wetlands areas by State or local environmental regulatory authorities, or in the absence of any such geographic designation, those areas that are inundated by surface or ground water with frequency sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances does or would support, a prevalence of vegetation or aquatic life that requires saturated, seasonably saturated, or tidally saturated soil conditions for growth or reproduction.