11 CFR § 100.2 - Election (52 U.S.C. 30101(1)).
(a) Election means the process by which individuals, whether opposed or unopposed, seek nomination for election, or election, to Federal office. The specific types of elections, as set forth at 11 CFR 100.2 (b), (c), (d), (e) and (f) are included in this definition.
(2) An election which is held to fill a vacancy in a Federal office (i.e., a special election) and which is intended to result in the final selection of a single individual to the office at stake is a general election. See 11 CFR 100.2(f).
(1) An election which is held prior to a general election, as a direct result of which candidates are nominated, in accordance with applicable State law, for election to Federal office in a subsequent election is a primary election.
(4) With respect to individuals seeking federal office as independent candidates, or without nomination by a major party (as defined in 26 U.S.C. 9002(6)), the primary election is considered to occur on one of the following dates, at the choice of the candidate:
(iii) In the case of non-major parties, the date of the nomination by that party may be designated as the primary election for such candidate.
(5) With respect to any major party candidate (as defined at 26 U.S.C. 9002(6)) who is unopposed for nomination within his or her own party, and who is certified to appear as that party's nominee in the general election for the office sought, the primary election is considered to have occurred on the date on which the primary election was held by the candidate's party in that State.
(d) Runoff election. Runoff election means the election which meets either of the following conditions:
(1) The election held after a primary election, and prescribed by applicable State law as the means for deciding which candidate(s) should be certified as a nominee for the Federal office sought, is a runoff election.
(f) Special election. Special election means an election which is held to fill a vacancy in a Federal office. A special election may be a primary, general, or runoff election, as defined at 11 CFR 100.2 (b), (c) and (d).